Update: 2012-12-17 05:53 AM +0630

TIL

A List of Burmese Medicinal Plants 1

by U Hla Maw, B.Sc., Research Officer, Pharmaceuticals Section, Applied Chemistry,  Research Department, Union of Burma Applied Research Institute, 1959.

Copied from the original (typewriter copy) by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) in 1985 August.  HTML version by UKT, and staff of TIL for staff and students of TIL. Edited by UKT for incorporating into Myanmar Medicinal Plant Database. Not for sale.

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Contents of this page:

75 Papaver somniferum
76 Piper betle
77 Piper nigrum
78 Plumbago rosea
79 Plumbago zeylanica
80 Premna integrifolia
81 Psoralea corylifolia
82 Punica granatum

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75. Papaver somniferum

Synonyms: The White Opium Poppy, Succus Thebaicus, Gum Opium, Thaicum, Meconium.

Vernacular Name: Bein.

Botanical origin: Papaver somniferum, Linn.

Family: Papaveraceae.

Part Used: The air-dried milky exudation (latex) obtained by incising the unripe fruit (capsules)

Distribution: Cultivated in the Northern & Southern Shan States, Shwe Minbon 10 miles from Kalaw.

Plant: An annual herb with thick branching, yellow root systems, the tap root of which gives rise to a smooth, glaucous branched stem bearing alternate, dull-green, ovate clasping leaves that are irregularly toothed, buds nodding, flowers large, white, purple or scarlet, capsule 1 in. diameter, stalked, dehiscing by terminal pores.

Constituents:
1. Alkaloids: Morphine, codeine, narcotine, narceine, papaverine, thebaine, protopine laudanine, codamine-cryptopine, gnoscopie lanthopine, Laudanidine, deutreopine meconine, meconidine, pseudomorphine etc. (7)

Uses:
  Opium and morphine:-somnifacient, analgesic, calminative.
  Codeine:-sedative in coughs, relief of acute colds.
  Papaverine:-to relax spasm of smooth muscles.

Preparation: Opium Pulveratum, Pulvis Cretae Aromaticus cum Opio, Tabellae Ipecacuanlrae et Opii, Tinctura Opii, Tinctura, Opii Camphorata (I.P.) (B.P) (U.S.P.)

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76. Piper betle

Synonyms: The Betle Vine.

Vernacular Name: Kun.

Botanical origin: Piper betle, Linn. syn. Chavica betle, Miq.

Family: Piperaceae.

Part Used: Fresh and dried leaves.

Distribution: Twante, Shansu, Nyaungthaga, Konwetchaung.

Plant: A stout glabrous climber, stem terete, sparingly rooting, much thickened at the nodes, leaves coriaceous, 10-18 by 5-12.5 cm., broadly ovate, acuminate, glabrous, 5-9 nerved base rounded, male spikes 3-6 in. female long peduncled, fruiting stout 1-5 in. pendulous.

Constituents:
1. Essential oil up to 4.2 percent, has a strong aromatic odour and sharp burning taste.
2. Starch, sugars, tannin and diastases (4)

Uses: The essential oil present gives rise to a sensation of warmth and well-being in the mouth and stomach. It also produces a primary stimulation of the central nervous system followed by a part in starch digestion.

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77. Piper nigrum

Synonym: Black Pepper, Pepper Corn.

Vernacular Name: Nga-yok-kaung.

Botanical origin: Piper nigrum, Linn.

Family: Piperaceae.

Part used: Dried unripe fruit.

Distribution: Hot damp parts of Burma.

Plant: A perennial climbing or trailing woody vine, leaves coriaceous, grayish green, petiolate, broadly ovate to suborbicular with 3 prominent middle nerves, flowers whitish perfect, elongated spikes, fruit a globular red drupe (when ripe).

Constituents:
1. A crystalline feebly basic principle-piperine - hydrolysis-colourless liquid alkaloid alkaloid piperidine and piperic acid.
2. Yellowish aromatic volatile oil.
3. A very pungent isomeride of piperine termed chavicine.
4. Starch, resin. and proteins. (7)

Uses: Aromatic, stomachic, carminative.

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78. Plumbago rosea

Synonyms:

Vernacular Name: Kan-gyok-ni.

Botanical origin: Plumbago rosea, Linn.

Family: Plumbaginaceae.

Part Used: Root.

Distribution: Very abundantly found in the Kawkareik Division, Reserved Forest, Taungyin Division, Forest Reserved Mongnai, Meikpan (S. S. S) Wild sources in Kyain Forests and Kawhnat (Mn.)

Plant: A perennial herb with elliptic leaves tapering to the short petiole, rachis of the spike glabrous, corolla red base of style hairy.

Constituents:
1. Plumbagin (32)
2. Plumbagin, sitosterol glucoside (33)

Uses: Vesicant, stimulatn, Powerful sialogogue, remedy for secondary syphilis and leprosy.

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79. Plumbago zeylanica

Synonyms: White-flowered Leadwort, Radix plumbago.

Vernacular name: Kan-gyok-phyu.

Botanical origin: Plumbago zeylanica, Linn.

Family: Plumbaginaceae.

Part Used: Roots.

Distribution: Upper Burma. An occasional plant in hedges and scrub jungle.

Plant: A perennial herb sometimes in shady places, subscandent, stems somewhat woody, spreading terete, striate, glabrous, leaves thin, ovate suddenly narrowed into the petiole, acute glabrous or pubescent, flowers in elongated spikes.

Constituents:
1. Active principle, Plumbagin -0.91 percent maximum. (3)

Uses:
Small doses: stimulates the central nervous system.
Large doses: Paralysis and ultimate death.
It also reduces the blood pressure slightly, chronic skin diseases, leucoderma, abortificient.

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80. Premna integrifolia

Synonym:

Vernacular Name: Taung-tan-gyi

Botanical origin: Premna integrifolia, Linn.

Family: Verbenaceae.

Part Used: Roots and stem bark.

Distribution: Pyinmana, Toungoo, Shwebo.

Plant: A small deciduous tree with yellow lenticellate bark, leaves opposite, broadly elliptic, obtuse, very shortly acuminate, glabrous, entire, upper part dentate, base round subacute, main nerves 4-5 pairs, corymbs 2-4 in. diam., short penduncled, minutely cinerous- pubescent often with some fulvous deciduous hair, flower small, greenish-white, throat hairy, fruit a drupe 1/3 in. diam. globose, 3-4 seeded.

Constituents:
1. Stembark contains 3 alkaloids:-
  a. Premnine.
  b. ganiarine.
  c. ganikarine. and some saturated aromatic hydrocarbons. (3)
2. Ganiarine and Premnine have a sympathonimetic action.

Uses: Laxative, carminative, and stomachic. Decoction of the whole plant for fevers, rheumatism and neuralgia.

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81. Psoralea corylifolia

Synonyms:

Vernacular name: Ne-hle.

Botanical origin: Psoralea corylifolia, Linn.

Family: Papilionaceae.

Part Used: Seeds.

Distribution: Mandalay, wild along road sides. A common weed of cultivated and fallow land.

Plant: An erect annual -1-3feet high, branches firm, conspicuously gland dotted, Leaves distinctly petioled, rounded, 1-3" long, inciso-repand, firm in texture, both sides conspicously dotted with black dots, nearly glabrescent, flowers small in long-purple, pod 0.3" long obliquely ovoiddor subreniform.

Constituents:
1. Seeds yield essential oil and psoralen (34)

Uses: Anthelmintic, diuretic, diaphoretic and a remedy against skin diseases, leprosy and leucoderma.

Preparation: Applicatio Psoraleae (I.P) Linimentum Psoraleae (I.P.C.)

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82. Punica granatum

Synonyms: The Pomegranate, Carthaginian Apple, Grenadier.

Vernacular Name: Thale.

Botanical origin: Punica granatum, Linn.

Family: Punicaceae.

Part Used: The dried bark of the stem and root. Kalaw, Taunggyi, Hopong, Central Range, Mongnai Range (S.S.S)

Plant: A large shrub or small tree with oblong or obovate shining leaves, orange ned showy flowers and many seeded pome like berry fruit, the seeds of which are surrounded by a succulent red edible flesh.

Constituents:
1. Liquid alkaloids:
  a. Pelletierine.
  b.Methylpelletierine.
  c. Methyl-isopelletierine.
  d. Isopelletierine.
2. Solid crystalline alkaloids.
  a. Pseudopelletierine.
3. About 22 percent of tannin, calcium oxalate and a yellow colouring substance. (7)

Uses: Bark is used as a taeniafuge usually in the form of a decoction and for the preparation of Pelletierine Tannate.

Preparation: Decoctum Granati Fructus Corticis (I.P.C)

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