Update: 2006-08-10 03:09 AM -0700

TIL

Medicinal Plants of Myanmar

Zingiberaceae

compiled by U Kyaw Tun, U Pe Than, and staff of TIL. Not for sale.

Contents of this page

Family: Zingiberaceae 8 entries
• Zingiberaceae family - general characters ('Monocotyledoneae)
• Alpinia galanga • {pa.tθ-kau:kri:}
• Alpinia officinarum • {pa.tθ:kau:lι:}
• Curcuma longa • {na.nwing:} / {hsa.nwing:}
• Elettaria cardamomum • {hpa-la} / {hpa-la-hpru}
• Hedychium spicatum • {ngwι-pan:ping} 
• Kaempferia galanga • {kwam:sa:ga.moan:}
• Zingiber cassumunar • {maith~tha.ling}
• Zingiber officinale • {hkying: (gying:)} ()
• Alpinea spp
• Hedychium spp.
• Kaempferia spp.
• Zingiber spp.

Main Index of DB | Top
Contents of this page

Zingiberaceae family - general characters ('Monocotyledoneae)

From: Families yielding important phytopharmaceuticals in Fundamentals of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy, by Michael Heinrich, J. Barnes, S. Gibbons, and E. Williamson, October 2003, ISBN:0443071322, pp.320 -- www.fleshandbones.com/readingroom/pdf/747.pdf

In terms of pharmaceutical usage, this family is the most important of the former class Monocotyledoneae (which includes the Liliaceae, Palmaceae and Poaceae). Many members of this family are native to the Indo-Malayan region and are thus particularly important in Asian medical systems.

Important medicinal plants from the family

• Curcuma zanthorrhiza Roxburgh (Temu lawak, Javanese turmeric).
• Curcuma longa L. (syn. C. domestica, turmeric), a commonly used spice and popular remedy used, for example, for inflammatory and liver diseases, and in most Asian medical systems for a large variety of illnesses.
• Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton (cardamom), which is mostly used as a spice but also as a medicine.
• Zingiber officinale Roscoe (ginger), used for a large variety of illnesses, including travel sickness, respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders.

Morphological characteristics of the family
Generally, the species of this family are aromatic herbs with very prominent thickened rhizomes. The latter are often rich in essential oil, stored in typical secretory cells.
   The leaves are arranged spirally or are distichous with a sheath around the stem (similar to the grasses). However, these sheaths are arranged in such a way that they form a stem-like structure, which supports the real, rather weak, stem. The zygomorphic and bisexual flowers are often very large and prominent and are pollinated by large, often nocturnal, insects, birds or bats.

Distribution
The family is distributed throughout the tropics, but many species are native to Asia (Indo-Malayan region).

Chemical characteristics of the family
This family is one of the few families of the former Monocotyledons which is rich in essential oil with terpenes such as borneol, camphor and cineole (all oxygen-containing monoterpenes), camphene, pinene (monoterpenes) and zingiberene (a sesquiterpene), as well as phenylpropanoids (cinnamic acid derivatives) (Fig. 4.17). Typically, these compounds accumulate in oil cells, an important microscopical characteristic of the rhizomes of the Zingiberaceae.

Contents of this page

Alpinia galanga

syn. A. conchigera

Family: Zingiberaceae

Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
• Agri.Dept.2000 34-0896: {pa.tθ:kau: kri:}
• Chklist:
• LSR 257 : {pa.tθ:kau: kri:}
• FAO : NL
• KS-TMN 222 : Pade-gaw-gyi
• Nagathein 2-183: {pa.tθ:kau: kri:}
• UHM : NL

Myanmar-Script Spelling :
• Official Myanmar Dictionaries
{pa.tθ:kau:} - -- TravPo-M-Dict 179
{pa.tθ:kau:} - n. an aromatic herb of the ginger family, Hedychium gracile -- Myan-Engl-Dict 250
{pa.tθ:kau kri:} - n. greater galingale, Alpinia conchigera -- Myan-Engl-Dict 250 
{pa.tθ:kau: ping} - Myan-Ortho - 140 

Chklist data:
 

Hindi
Sanskrit:

 

English common name used in Myanmar:
• Agri.Dept.2000 34-0896: Greater galangal
• Chklist:
• LSR 257 : Greater galangal
• FAO : NL
• KS-TMN 222 : Greater Galangal
• Nagathein 2-183: NG
• UHM : NL

Picture
• Leader
• Photos: left -- close up of flowers, right -- close up of fruits. Click on the pictures to enlarge. -- KS-TMN

 

Plant identification characters

• A perennial herb; rhizomes horizontal, tuberous, thick, fleshy, aromatic; aerial stems elongate, leafy; roots adventitious, arise from rhizomes. Leaves cauline, alternate, distichous; petioles short; ligules triangular; blades lanceolate to elliptical, the bases usually cuneate, sometimes obtuse, the margins entire, undulate, the tips acute to acuminate, venation closely parallel-pinnate, the upper surfaces glabrous, the lower pubescent. Inflorescences terminal paniculate cymes; bracts small, ovate, scarious. Flowers pedicellate, bisexual, zygomorphic, trimerous, epigynous. Calyx synsepalous, 3-lobed, the lobes minute, triangular, the tubes tubular, short. Corolla synpetalous, 3-lobed, the tubes cylindrical, the lobes equal, elliptic-oblong, cucullate, the upper lobe broaderthan the laterals, greenish white. Androecium polyandrous, the fertile stamen 1, stout arcuate, the filament flattened, epipetalous at mouth of corolla tube, yellow above, reddish below, the anthers dithecous, the lobes ellipsoid, divergent apically, yellow the spur and crest absent, the lateral staminodes absent, the lip or labellum orbicular, retuse, the margins incurved, cream coloured, with red streaks on either side, the 2 basal auricles small, tooth-like, basifixed, introrse, dehiscence longitudinal. Pistil 1, ovary globose, 3-lobed, 3-carpelled, syncarpous, 3-loculed, the ovules numerous, the placentation axile with one row of ovules in each locule, the style filiform, inserted within the grooved filament of the fertile stamen, the stigma infundibuliform. Fruit a loculicidal capsule, globose; seeds numerous, small, angled, arillate, aromatic, endospermc. Flowering period: October-December, Fruiting period: January-March -- KS-TMN

 

Distribution in Myanmar

• Grows wild or cultivated throughout Myanmar. -- KS-TMN

 

Part used and uses

• Rhizomes -- Expectorant; Cough; Sore throat; Carminative; Indigestion; Purexia; Heart disease Oral infection; Dysuria. -- KS-TMN

 

Constituents

 

Contents of this page

Alpinia officinarum

Family: Zingiberaceae

Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
• Agri.Dept.2000 34-0895: {pa.tθ:kau: ka.lι:}
• Chklist:
• LSR 261 : {pa.tθ:kau: lι:}
• FAO : NL
• KS-TMN  : NL
• Nagathein 2-185: {pa.tθ:kau: (ngθύ)}
• UHM 04: Padegaw-gale

UKT: Three species of galangal (genus Alpinia, family Zingiberaceae) were listed by Agri.Dept.2000 p. 34
• 34-0895: A. officinarum -- {pa.tθ:kau: ka.lι:} -- Lesser galangal
• 34-0896: A. galanga -- {pa.tθ:kau: kri:} -- Greater galangal
• 34-0897: A. nutans -- {pa.tθ:kau: lat} -- Nutral galangal

Myanmar-Script Spelling :
• Official Myanmar Dictionaries
{pa.tθ:kau:} - -- TravPo-M-Dict 179
{pa.tθ:kau:} - n. an aromatic herb of the ginger family, Hedychium gracile -- Myan-Engl-Dict 250
{pa.tθ:kau kri:} - n. greater galingale, Alpinia conchigera -- Myan-Engl-Dict 250 
{pa.tθ:kau: ping} - Myan-Ortho - 140

Chklist data:
 

Hindi:
Sanskrit:

English common name used in Myanmar:
• Agri.Dept.2000 34-0895: Lesser galangal
• Chklist:
• LSR 261 : Lesser galangal
• FAO : NL
• KS-TMN  : NL
• Nagathein 2-185: NG
• UHM 04: Lesser Galangal, Chinese Ginger, China Root, East Indian Root, Rhizome Galangae -- UHM

 

Picture:
• Leader -  www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/g/galang01.html
• Inflorescence  -- King's American Dispensatory.  Harvey Wickes Felter, M.D., and John Uri Lloyd, Phr. M., Ph. D., 1898 www.ibiblio.org/herbmed/eclectic/kings/alpinia-offi.html 

 

Plant identification characters

• A perennial herb bearing stems about 1 m. in height which are covered by the leaf sheaths of narrow lanceolate leaves. The inflorescence is a short raceme of white flowers that are shaded and veined with dull red. -- UHM

• The stem is from 2 to 4 feet high, erect, and bears a close resemblance to the common cultivated canna, or shot plant. The parallel-veined leaf blades are about a foot long, 2 to 4 inches wide, smooth, entire, and sharply acuminate. They are attached at the base to a scarious, margined sheath, which clasps the stem. The flowers are borne in a terminal dense spike; they consist of a short, tubular, superior calyx, a white corolla, with 3 lobes, a large ovate labellum marked with red veins, a single anther-bearing stamen, and a pistil with an inferior ovary and a slender style (Bentley and Trimen, Med. Plants). -- King's American Dispensatory.  Harvey Wickes Felter, M.D., and John Uri Lloyd, Phr. M., Ph. D., 1898 www.ibiblio.org/herbmed/eclectic/kings/alpinia-offi.html

 

Distribution in Myanmar:

• Insein, Hanthawaddy, Hsi-seng, Yawnghwe, Heho, Kalaw, Hsu-ga (Southern Shan State) -- UHM

 

Part used and uses:

• Rhizome used as  aromatic stimulant, condiment, carminative. -- UHM

• Galangal is a stimulating aromatic, and has been successfully employed to aid the digestive process, preventing fermentation and removing flatus. It will be found especially useful in some forms of dyspepsia, preventing vomiting or sickness of the stomach, and facilitating digestion. It may be used in all cases in which a stimulating aromatic is indicated. It has some reputation as a remedy for perineal relaxation with hemorrhoids, and for a lax and pendulous abdomen. Its best form of administration is in tincture, the dose of which is from 1/2 to 1 fluid drachm. The powder may be given in doses of 15 to 20 grains; from 30 to 60 grains may be given in infusion. It is rarely prescribed at the present day.-- King's American Dispensatory.  Harvey Wickes Felter, M.D., and John Uri Lloyd, Phr. M., Ph. D., 1898 www.ibiblio.org/herbmed/eclectic/kings/alpinia-offi.html

 

Constituents:

• 1. 0.5 to 1.0 % of a cineol containing volatile oil 2. Soft acrid resin containing a pungent principle, galangol 3. Three yellowish crystalline principles: Alpinin, Galangin and Kaemferid.  (1) -- UHM
• The constituents of galangal are similar to those of ginger. A volatile oil is obtained by distilling the root with water, which possesses a camphoraceous smell resembling that of cajeput oil. This is due, according to Schimmel & Co. (1890), to the presence of appreciable amounts of cineol. It is soluble in alcohol, and is lighter than water. A soft resin, having a pungent taste, is extracted by ether, and also a peculiar, crystalline substance, named by Brandes (1839), kaempferid. Jahns (1881) differentiated the kaempferid of Brandes into three compounds, all forming yellow crystals, viz., kaempferid (C16H12O6, fusing at 222° C. (431.6° F.), almost insoluble in water, and soluble with difficulty in alcohol; galangin (C15H10O5, fusing at 214° C. (417.2° F.), soluble in 34 parts of absolute and 68 parts of 90 per cent alcohol; and alpinin (C17H12O6), fusing at 173° C. (343.4° F.).   Kaempferid, by oxidation with nitric acid, forms anisic acid (C6H4[OCH3]COOH), oxalic acid and other products. Galangin similarly yields benzoic and oxalic acids (Amer. Jour. Pharm. , 1882, p. 288). Kostanecki and Harry M. Gordin (Dissert., 1897), showed kaempferid to be a flavonol derivative and established its exact graphic formula. Probably galangin is similarly constituted. Thresh (Pharm. Jour. Trans., Vol. XV., 1884, p. 234), announced the presence of a pungent principle, which he designated galangol, and gave the tabulated results of a complete analysis of the root, which shows as much as 23.7 per cent of starch. -- King's American Dispensatory.   Harvey Wickes Felter, M.D., and John Uri Lloyd, Phr. M., Ph. D., 1898 www.ibiblio.org/herbmed/eclectic/kings/alpinia-offi.html

Contents of this page

Curcuma longa

syn C. domestica

Family: Zingiberaceae

UKT: Popularly known and sometimes spelled as {hsa.nwing:}

Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
• Agri.Dept.2000 32-0840: {na.nwing:}
• Chklist:
• LSR 227: {na.nwing:}
• FAO : NL
• KS-TMN: NL
• Nagathein 2-101: {na.nwing:} or {hsa.nwing:}
• UHM 19: Hsa-nwin

Myanmar-Script Spelling
• Official Myanmar Dictionaries :
{hsa.nwing:} -- see {na.nwing:} --TravPo-M-Dict 099
{na.nwing:} - --TravPo-M-Dict 159
{na.nwing:} - n. tumeric. Curcuma longa  - Myan-Engl-Dict 220

Chklist data:
 

Hindi:
Sanskrit:

English common name used in Myanmar :
• Agri.Dept.2000 32-0840: Turmeric
• FAO : NL
• Lθ-seik-shin 227: turmeric
• KS-TMN: NL
• Nagathein 2-101: NG
• UHM 19: Tumeric rhizome, Yellow Root, Saffron

• Curcuma, turmeric --  Tropical Plant Database www.rain-tree.com/tumeric.htm

Picture :
• Leader -  www.rain-tree.com/plantimages.htm
• Photo: www.rain-tree.com/plantimages.htm

 

Plant identification characters :

• A perennial herb whose underground portion consists of an erect, ovate or pyriform fleshy rhizome which gives rise to less fleshy elongated branches (secondary rhizomes) roots and leaves. -- UHM

 

Distribution in Myanmar:

• Dry Zone, Chin Hills -- UHM

 

Part used and uses :

• Prepared rhizome. Used as Stimulant, condiment -- UHM

• Root, Rhizome. Anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant, Anti-mutagenic, Anti-cancerous, Cholagogueue, Depurative, Diuretic, Fumitory, Hemostatic, Hepatoprotective, Lactagogue, Stomachic, Tonic, Vulnerary. See Medline Abstracts on Internet from National Library of Medicine, 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894  -- Tropical Plant Database www.rain-tree.com/tumeric.htm

 

Ethnobotany (Worldwide use):

• Brazil -- Bite (Leech), Bruise, Catarrh, Cholagogueue, Colic, Congestion, Dysentery, Gonorrhea, Smallpox, Wound. China -- Amenorrhea, Antibilious, Balsamic, Cholagogueue, Colic, Congestion, Hemostat, Stomachic. Java -- Abscess, Cold, Conjunctivitis, Cosmetic, Gravel, Jaundice, Lactagogue, Parturition, Pyuria, Scabies, Wound. Malaya -- Amenorrhea, Diarrhea, Diuretic, Dysentery, Gonorrhea, Hepatosis, Sore, Swelling, Tonic, Urogenital. Nepal -- Depurative, Dermatosis. Elsewhere -- Bite (Leech), Bruise, Catarrh, Chickenpox, Cold, Escharotic, Fumitory, Smallpox, Wound -- Tropical Plant Database www.rain-tree.com/tumeric.htm

 

Constituents:

• 1. About 5 % volatile oil. 2. 0.3 % Curcumin, a yellow crystalline substance which dissolves in alcohol forming a deep yellow solution. 3. Starch - 30 to 40 %. 4. Resin (7) -- UHM

• 1. Yellow colouring matter (curcumin); 2.  p,p-dihydroxydicinnaoylmethane; 3. p-hydroxycinnamoylferuloylmethane; 4. p,α-dimethylbenzyl alcohol; 5. 1-methyl-4-acetyl-1-cyclohexene; 6. turmerone; 7. α-phellandrene; 8. sabinene; 9. zingiberene; 10. cineol; 11. borneol; 12. caprylic acid -- Merck Index, p.1749

• Plant chemicals include: 1,8-cineole, 2-bornanol, 2-hydroxy-methyl-anthraquinone, 4-hydroxy-cinnamoyl-(Feruloyl)-methane, Alpha-atlantone, Alpha-pinene, Alpha-terpineol, Ar-turmerone, Arabinose, Ascorbic-acid, Ash, Azulene, Beta-carotene, Beta-pinene, Beta-sesquiphellandrene, Bis-(Para-hydroxy-cinnamoyl)-methane, Bis-desmethoxycurcumin, Bisabolene, Borneol, Boron, Caffeic-acid, Calcium, Caprylic-acid, Caryophyllene, Chromium, Cineole, Cinnamic-acid, Cobalt, Copper, Cuminyl-alcohol, Curcumene, Curcumenol, Curcumin, Curdione, Curlone, Curzerenone, Curzerenone-c, Cyclo-isoprenemyrcene, D-alpha-phellandrene, D-camphene, D-camphor, D-sabinene, Dehydroturmerone, Desmethoxycurcumin, Di-p-coumaroyl-methane, Dicinnamoylmethane, Didesmethoxycurcumin, Diferuloyl-methane, Dihydrocurcumin, EO, Eugenol, Feruloyl-p-coumaroyl-methane, Gamma-atlantone, Guaiacol, Isoborneol, L-alpha-curcumene, L-beta-curcumene, Limonene, Manganese, Monodesmethoxycurcumin, Niacin, Nickel, O-coumaric-acid, P-coumaric-acid, P-cymene, P-methoxycinnamic-acid, P-tolymethylcarbinol, Phosphorus, Protocatechuic-acid, Resin, Riboflavin, Syringic-acid, Terpinene, Terpineol, Thiamin, Turmerone, Ukonan-a, Ukonan-b, Ukonan-c, Ukonan-d, Vanillic-acid, Zingiberene -- Tropical Plant Database www.rain-tree.com/tumeric.htm

Contents of this page

Elettaria cardamomum

Family: Zingiberaceae (ginger family)

Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
• Agri.Dept.2000 40-1056: {hpa-la}/ {hpa-la-hpru}
• Chklist:
• LSR 309: {hpa-la-hpru}
• FAO : NL
• KS-TMN: NL
• Nagathein 2-304: {hpa-la}
• UHM 23: Hpala

Myanmar-Script Spelling
• Official Myanmar Dictionaries:
{hpa-la} -  -- TravPo-M-Dict 207
{hpa-la} - n. cardamom plant, Elettaria cardamomum -- Myan-Engl-Dict 297

Chklist data:
 

Hindi:
Sanskrit:

 

English common name used in Myanmar :
• Agri.Dept.2000 40-1056: Lesser cardamon
• Chklist:
• LSR 309: {hpa-la-hpru}
• FAO : NL
• KS-TMN: NL
• Nagathein 2-304: {hpa-la}
• UHM 23: Cardomom seed

 

Picture :
• Leaders: left - colour drawing - www.indianspices.com/html/spfarm_sc.htm; right - photo clump - www.floridata.com/ref/E/elet_car.cfm
• Photo: left - leaves - www.ibiblio.org/herbmed/pictures/p05/pages/elettaria-cardamomum.htm ; right - flower and fruit -- www.pioneerherbs.com/ellataria_cardamomum.htm

 

Plant identification characters :

• A perennial herb attaining a height of 6-12" leaves lanceolate and borne on long sheathing stems, flowers borne on horizontal racemes that arise from the rhizome horizontally along the ground, fruit an ovoid, loculicidally dehiscent capsule,  seeds covered by an aril. -- UHM

• Cardamom is a rather typical looking ginger plant except that it is huge, standing as much as 12 ft ( 3.7 m) tall. Thick, fleshy rhizomes give rise to erect shoots that bear two rows of linear-lance-shaped leaves each about 2 ft (0.6 m) long. The leaves are smooth and dark green above, silky and paler beneath. They taper to an acute point. The inflorescences develop on separate, horizontal stems that spread along the ground. They are loose panicles about 2 ft (0.6 m) long, consisting of many small blossoms that have white or yellowish petals with lilac veins and pink or yellow margins. The fruits are thin-walled, smooth-skinned, oblong, greenish capsules about 3/4 in (1.9 cm) long. Each contains 15-20 aromatic reddish brown seeds.    Cardamom grows wild in the Ghat Mountains on the Malabar Coast of SW India, in an area known as the Cardamom Hills. It occurs in the understory of tropical rain forests at elevations of 2500 - 5000 ft (762-1524 m), where it rains about 150 in (381 cm) per year. It also grows in similar habitats in Sri Lanka. Cardamom is cultivated commercially in India, Sri Lanka, Guatemala and Tanzania.   Moisture: Cardamom grows with its roots continually wet. It needs constant moisture. It does okay if the rain stops for a short period, once in a while! Hardiness: USDA Zones 10 - 12. A constant temperature around 72ΊF (22ΊC) is best. Cardamom suffers at temperatures below 50ΊF (10ΊC).   Cardamom usually is propagated by division of rhizomes. -- www.floridata.com/ref/E/elet_car.cfm

 

Distribution in Myanmar:

• Tenasserim, Mergui, Tavoy, Thaton, Ataran, Kado, Kawkareik, Pa-an, Mobyai, Pelong (Southern Shan State) -- UHM

 

Part used and uses:

• Dried ripe seed recently removed from the capsules. Used as carminative, aromatic and condiment. -- UHM

• Ancient Indians, more than 1000 years before Christ, used cardamom medicinally to treat various maladies. Cardamom, like cinnamon and ginger, is a stimulant, and is said to relieve indigestion, flatulence and headaches. The Greeks and Romans used it as a culinary spice.    False cardamom, from other kinds of gingers in the genera Amomum and Aframomum, is produced in Thailand and Cambodia, and sold as a substitute for (or counterfeit of) the real thing. -- www.floridata.com/ref/E/elet_car.cfm

 

Constituents:

• 1. 3-7 percent of volatile cardamom oil containing terpineol, terpinyl acetate, cineol, borneol and probably sabinene. 2. Fixed oil. 3. Protein, Calcium oxalate and silica (7) -- UHM

Contents of this page

Hedychium spicatum

MMPDB: {ngwι-pan:ping}

Family : Zingiberaceae

Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcripts
• Agri.Dept.2000 15-0390: {ngwι-pan:}
• FAO : NL
• Lθ-seik-shin : NL
• KS-TMN: NL
• Nagathein 1-209: {kwam:sa:ga.moan: (kri:)}
• UHM : NL

UKT: Nagathein 1-209 refutes the identification of Hedychium spicatum as {ngwι-pan:} citing "{wa.nau-tha.Di. san~dau-da.ya.} volume 2  introduction to {kap~pu-ra.ka-kya-ri}. [UKT: {kap~pu-ra.} refers to "camphor".] 

Myanmar-Script Spelling
• Official Myanmar Dictionaries :
{ngwι-pan:} - - TravPo-M-Dict 075
{ngwι-pan:} - n. plant of the ginger family white waxy flowers. Hedychium spicatum  - Myan-Engl-Dict 098
{rhwι-pan:} - n. 1. yellow ginger lily. Hedychium coronarium . 2. male genitals  - Myan-Engl-Dict 422

Chklist data:
 

Hindi :
Sanskrit :

 

English common name used in Myanmar :
• Agri.Dept.2000 15-0390: Garland flower
• Chklist:
• LSR : NL
• FAO : N
• KS-TMN: NL
• Nagathein 1-209: NG
• UHM : NL

UKT: See USDA-NRCS for "Garland flower". Only "White Garland lily" is listed. Are the two the same? Notice there are two species given by USDA-NRCS :
   Hedychium coronarium Koenig -- white garland-lily fam. Zingiberaceae
   Hedychium flavescens Carey ex Roscoe -- cream garland-lily fam. Zingiberaceae
Are "white garland-lily" {ngwι-pan:} (literally - "silver flower") and "cream garland-lily" {shwι-pan:} (literally "gold flower") ?

Picture :

 

Plant identification characters :

 

Distribution in Myanmar :

 

Part used and uses :

 

Constituents :

 

Contents of this page

Kaempferia galanga

Family : Zingiberaceae

Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcripts
• Agri.Dept.2000 10-0242: {kwam:sa:ga.moan:}
• Chklist:
• Lθ-seik-shin : NL
• FAO : NL
• KS-TMN: NL
• Nagathein 1-210: {kwam:sa:ga.moan: (a.ngθύ)}
• UHM : NL

 

Myanmar-Script Spelling
• Official Myanmar Dictionaries : {kwam:sa:ga.moan:} is not listed.
{ga.moan:} - - TravPo-M-Dict 064
{ga.moan:} - n. generic term for some herbs with aromatic tubers (these are most likely kaempferia from ginger family but also include a few from the orchid and lily families. - Myan-Engl-Dict 084

Chklist data:
 

Hindi : {kyan-dra.mul} -- Nagathein
   (UKT: Nagathein is giving the transcription in Burmese-Myanmar. However, the onset of the first syllable is  {sa.} and the name in Pali-Myanmar is most likely {san~da.mu-la.}. If so, it is most likely related to {san~da.ku:} from which the word 'camphor' is derived. -- point to be checked with my peers.)

Sanskrit :

 

English common name used in Myanmar :
• Agri.Dept.2000 10-0242: NG
• Chklist:
• LSR : NL
• FAO :NL
• KS-TMN: NL
• Nagathein 1-210:NG
• UHM : NL

 

Picture :

 

Plant identification characters :

There are two kinds: the large and the small. The small one grows close to the ground -- a short plant. It has no above-ground stem. What is known in Myanmar country as {kwam:sa: ga.moan°:} is the small one. [UKT: sic. Kaempferia galanga] The large kind has an upright stem, and is known as {kwam:sa: ga.moan°: ping-htaung}. [UKT: Hedychium spicatum - Nagathein 1-209]. It is similar to {hpa-la ping} [UKT: Amomum  subulatum ?] and {ngwι-pan: ping} -- which leads some [UKT: such as Agri.Dept.2000 15-0390?] to call it erroneously as {ngwι-pan:}. Both the large and the small {kwam:sa: ga.moan°:} is used in medicine. In India, the large is grown extensively because it is of greater use. In Myanmar, since the larger one is imported from India, it is sometimes called the "Indian-{kwam:sa: ga.moan°:}" and is used in "blood" and anti-pyretic tonics. -- Nagathein, free translation by UKT.

Note: According to Nagathein 1-209,  Hedychium spicatum - is the large-{kwam:sa: ga.moan°:}, and not {ngwι-pan: ping}. He does not mention what {ngwι-pan: ping} is. (to be checked again.).

 

Distribution in Myanmar :

 

Part used and uses :

 

Constituents :

 

Contents of this page

Zingiber cassumunar

Family : Zingiberaceae

Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcripts
• Agri.Dept.2000 45-1189: {maith~tha.ling}
  -- Zingiber barbatum (not listed in USDA-NRCS)
• Chklist:
• LSR 359 : {maith~tha.ling}
  -- Zingiber consumunar  (wrong spelling?)
• FAO : NL
• KS-TMN 225: Meik-thalin -- Zingiber cassumunar
• Nagathein 2-453: {maith~tha.ling}
  -- Zingiber consumunar  (wrong spelling?)
• UHM : NL

Romabama note: See compound vowels for transliteration:
• {maith~tha.ling}
• {meith~tha.ling} (non-existent word)

UKT: Because of the uncertainty in the spellings given by Agri.Dept.2000, LSR, and Nagathein, I checked with USDA-NRCS (Chklist online was not accessible in 2006 June because of Myanmar ISPs' failure) and found:
- Zingiber barbatum (not listed in USDA-NRCS)
- Zingiber consumunar  (wrong spelling): correct spelling is Zingiber cassumunar

Myanmar-Script Spelling
• Official Myanmar Dictionaries :
{maith~tha.ling} - - TravPo-M-Dict 245
{maith~tha.ling} - n. ginger-like herb, the rhizome of which smells like camphor, has a hot taste, and is used medicinally. Zingiber barbatum. - Myan-Engl-Dict 359

 

Hindi :
   • {gyin-ga.li. a.drak} -- Nagathein
Sanskrit :

 

English common name used in Myanmar:
• Agri.Dept.2000 45-1189: wild ginger
• Chklist:
• LSR 359 : wild ginger
• FAO : NL
• KS-TMN 225: NG
• Nagathein 2-453: NG
• UHM : NL

 

Picture :
• Leader - Nagathein
• Photo: Photos: left -- habit with pedunculate spikes; right -- cultivated plants. Click on the pictures to enlarge. -- KS-TMN

 

Plant identification characters :

• A perennial herb; rhizomes horizontal creeping, tuberous, cylindrical to ovoid, irregular, palmately and profusely branched, laterally compressed, strongly aromatic; aerial stems leafy, cylindrical, erect, annual. Leaves alternate, distichous, simple, subsessile or shortly petiolate; leaf sheaths oblong, with membranous margins; ligules ovate, membranous. Inflorescences radical, spikes cylindrical, fusiform or cone-like, borne on a peduncle produced from rootstock; bracts outer and inner, spirally arranged, very dense, persistent, reddish white, the outer broadly ovate to sub-orbicular, cucullate, the inner ovate, glabrous. Flowers ebracteolate, bisexual, zygomorphic, trimerous, epigynous. Calyx synsepalous, cylindrical, 3-toothed, the tubes split half way down, whitish, deciduous. Corolla synpetalous, unequally 3-lobed, the posterior lobe elliptic-lanceolate, erect and concave, the laterals lanceolate, deflexed, yellowish white, deciduous. Androecium of 1 fertile stamen, epipetalous at the mouth of corolla tube, inserted, the filaments very short, deeply grooved, yellowish white, with purplish mottlings at the dorsals of bases, the anthers dithecous, oblongoid, appendix or beak curved, introrse, dehiscence longitudinal; lip or labellum 3-lobed, as long as the corolla lobes, attached at the mouth of corolla tube, opposite the fertile stamen, the middle lobe orbicular, emarginate, the 2 laterals or the basal auricles large, ovate or oblong-obtuse, crisped, yellowish white with reddish purple mottlings. Pistil 1, ovary triangular or 3-lobed, tomentose, 3-carpelled, syncarpous, 3-loculed, the placentation axile, the ovules many, superposed, the style filiform, passing through the channel of two anther lobes and appendix of connectives, the filiform processes 2, acicular, at anterior side of style bases, the stigma cupuliform, ciliate. Fruit a dehiscing capsule, globose or globosely oblongoid; seeds large, globosely oblongoid, arillate. Flowering period: April-July. Fruiting period: June-August. -- KS-TMN

 

Distribution in Myanmar :

• Grows wild especially in lower Myanmar. Commonly cultivated. -- KS-TMN

 

Part used and uses :

• Rhizome -- Amenorrhoea; Gastrointestinal colic; Dysentery; Haemorrhoid; Skin disease; Antidote for snake venom; Indigestion. -- KS-TMN

 

Constituents :

 

Contents of this page

Zingiber officinale

Family: Zingiberaceae

Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
• Agri.Dept.2000 13-0317:  () {hkying: (gying:)}/
  () {hkying:seim: (gying: seim:)}
• Chklist:
• LSR 117: () {hkying: (gying:)}
• FAO : NL
• KS-TMN: NL
• Nagathein 1-290: {hkying:seim:}
• UHM 44: Gyin

Romabama note by UKT: The official spelling of the name of the plant is . It is a monosyllabic word, and the onset of the syllable in IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet) is /ʧ/ pronounced similar to English [ch] in <church> /ʧɜːʧ/. In Burmese-Myanmar /ʧ/ is spelled with r1c2 {hka.} which is conjoined with r6c1 {ya.} resulting in the conjunct {hkya.}. The syllable is thus generically spelled in Romabama (a one-to-one transliteration) as {hkying:}. However, it is commonly transcribed as "chin". Please note that I am engaged in MMPDB because of my interest in the Myanmar akshara (which is based on phonetic principles), and I am following the Romabama rules of transliteration. The Burmese-Myanmar names are thus given according to the Burmese-Myanmar spellings.

Myanmar-Script Spelling :
• Official Myanmar Dictionaries: 
{hkying:} -  -- TravPo-M-Dict 053
{hkying:}- n. ginger - Myan-Engl-Dict 071
{hkying:seim:} - n. ginger - Myan-Engl-Dict 071
{hkying:thoap} - n. ginger salad- Myan-Engl-Dict 071
UKT: No matter what the Burmese-Myanmar spelling is the pronunciation according to the Official Myanmar Dictionary is {gying:}.

Hindi :
• Hindi adrak [अदरख] (fresh and green), sonth [सोंठ] (dried), Pali singivera [सिंगिवेर]; the corresponding Sanskrit form is shringavera [शृंगवेर]. These Indic names used to be explained to mean “shaped like a deer's antler (horn)”
-- www.uni-graz.at/~katzer/engl/generic_frame.html?Zing_off.html
Sanskrit : shringavera [शृंगवेर]

English common name used in Myanmar :
• Agri.Dept.2000 13-0317:  Ginger
• Chklist:
• LSR 117: Ginger
• FAO : NL
• KS-TMN: NL
• Nagathein 1-290: Ginger
• UHM 44: Ginger Rhizome

Picture
• Leader - www.uni-graz.at/~katzer/engl/generic_frame.html?Zing_off.html
• Photo: left - inflorescence; right - tuber; right-lower - stem and tubers
-- www.uni-graz.at/~katzer/engl/generic_frame.html?Zing_off.html

 

Plant identification characters :

• A perennial herb with a subterranean, digitately branched rhizome that sends up stems that are covered by leaf sheaths, leaves alternate, smooth, pale green and lanceolate, flowers orange-yellow forming an ovate-oblong spike. -- UHM

 

Distribution in Myanmar:

• Nyaung-don, Danu-phyu. etc. -- UHM

Part used and uses:

• The dried rhizome with outer cortical layers either partially or completely removed. -- UHM

• The large, fleshy rhizome (“gingerroot”, although it is not a root). In the fresh state, it has a characteristic staghorn-like appearance; dried ginger is usually sold in form of a off-white to very light brown powder. Ginger leaves are occasionally used for flavouring in ginger producing countries. -- www.uni-graz.at/~katzer/engl/generic_frame.html?Zing_off.html

 

Constituents :

• 1. 1-3 percent of volatile oil, consisting for the most part terpenes, phellandrine and dextro-camphene and the sesquiterpine zingiberene. 2. Zingerone - extremely pungent crystaline substance chemically related to capsaicin, which gives its hot pungent taste. 3. Resins and starch. (7) -- UHM

• The essential oil (1 to 3% of the fresh rhizome) contains mostly sesquiterpenes, e.g., (-)-zingiberene (up to 70%), (+)-ar-curcumene, β-sesquiphellandrene, bisabolene and farnesene. Monoterpenoids occur in traces (β-phelladrene, cineol, citral).
   The pungency of ginger is caused by a non-volatile resin containing the same type of hydroxyaryl compounds that are also found in other spices of the ginger family: Zingerone, gingeroles and shoagoles. The pungent gingeroles degrade to the milder shoagoles during storage; high gingerole content and good pungency thus indicate freshness and quality. See also grains of paradise. -- www.uni-graz.at/~katzer/engl/generic_frame.html?Zing_off.html

Chemics experience: Hydro-distillation of freshly diced fresh rhizome yielded an essential oil or refractive index 1.475 - 1.477 (30°C.).; yield: 1 ml/kg of fresh rhizomes. The distillation residue or spent-residual ginger was considered to be almost deplete of its essential oil and when air-dried was referred to "dried ginger". Yield of dried ginger: -- kg per kg of fresh rhizomes. Dried ginger when extracted with ethanol yielded a reddish brown tincture. Partial evaporation of ethanol yielded a thick yellowish syrup.
Yield: Based on 1 kg of fresh rhizomes:
• Essential oil: 1.5 ml (av. of 9 runs)
• Dried ginger: 0.41 kg. (av. of 5 runs)

 

Contents of this page

Alpinia spp.

Agri.Dept.2000 lists 3 species of {pa.tθ:kau:}
• 34-0895: A. officinarum - {pa.tθ:kau:ka.lι:} - literal meaning: "small" {pa.tθ:kau:}
  - Lesser galangal
• 34-0896: A. galanga - {pa.tθ:kau:kri:} -  literal meaning: "large" {pa.tθ:kau:}
  - Greater galangal
• 34-0897: A. nutans  - {pa.tθ:kau:lat} - literal meaning: "medium" {pa.tθ:kau:}
  - Nutral galangal

Chklist online is not available to Myanmar internet ISP servers' failure in 2006 June

USDA-NRCS

"ALPIN","Alpinia Roxb.","alpinia","Zingiberaceae"
"ALGA2","Alpinia galanga (L.) Sw.","greater galangal"," Zingiberaceae"
"LAGA5","Languas galanga (L.) Stuntz","& gt;&gt;Alpinia galanga","Zingiberaceae"
"ALMU2"," Alpinia mutica Roxb.","small shell ginger","Zingiberaceae"
"ALOF4","Alpinia officinarum Hance","lesser galangal"," Zingiberaceae"
"LAOF","Languas officinarum (Hance) Farw."," &gt;&gt;Alpinia officinarum","Zingiberaceae"
"ALPU4","Alpinia purpurata (Vieill.) K. Schum."," red ginger","Zingiberaceae"
"ALZE","Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.) Burtt &amp; R.M. Sm.","shellplant","Zingiberaceae"
"ALNU3","Alpinia nutans (L.) Roscoe","&gt;&gt;Alpinia zerumbet", "Zingiberaceae"
"ALSP","Alpinia speciosa (Wendl.) K. Schum."," &gt;&gt;Alpinia zerumbet","Zingiberaceae"
"CASP15","Catimbium speciosum (Wendl.) Holttum", "&gt;&gt;Alpinia zerumbet","Zingiberaceae"
"LASP7","Languas speciosa (Wendl.) Merr.","&gt;&gt;Alpinia zerumbet","Zingiberaceae"

Contents of this page

Hedychium spp.

Family : Zingiberaceae

 

Chklist online is not available to Myanmar internet ISP servers' failure in 2006 June

USDA-NRCS

"HEDYC","Hedychium Koenig","garland-lily","Zingiberaceae"
"HECO11","Hedychium coronarium Koenig","white garland-lily","Zingiberaceae"
"HEFL5","Hedychium flavescens Carey ex Roscoe","cream garland-lily","Zingiberaceae"
"HEFL12","Hedychium flavum auct. non Roxb. [misapplied]","&gt;&gt;Hedychium flavescens","Zingiberaceae"
"HEGA","Hedychium gardnerianum Shepard ex Ker-Gawl.","Kahila garland-lily","Zingiberaceae"

Contents of this page

Kaempferia spp.

Family : Zingiberaceae

 

Chklist online is not available to Myanmar internet ISP servers' failure in 2006 June

USDA-NRCS

"KAPA3","Kaempferia pandurata Roxb.","&gt;&gt;Boesenbergia rotunda","Zingiberaceae"
"KAEMP2","Kaempferia L.","kaempferia","Zingiberaceae"
"KAGA2","Kaempferia galanga L.","galanga","Zingiberaceae"
"KARO2","Kaempferia rotunda L.","kaempferia","Zingiberaceae"
"KARO3","Kaempferia rotundata L. [orthographic error]","&gt;&gt;Kaempferia rotunda","Zingiberaceae"

Contents of this page

Zingiber spp.

UKT: The family Zingiberaceae is of interest to me because most of the members are aromatic. During my chemical research days in Myanmar, because of the lack of suitable detectors I had to rely mostly on my own nose to identify the essential oils, and this family had been important to me. You will find below the very extensive list of the species of the family many of which can be expected to be found in the Shan State (I was posted at Taunggyi College -- now Taunggyi University) the capital of which is Taunggyi.

Results of search for 'Amomum' in the Checklist of Plants of Myanmar, U.S. National Herbarium, 15 Jul 2006.
• Aframomum angustifolium K. Schum. Cited as: Amomum angustifolium Sonn. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Cultivated. Common Names: Bengal cardamon
• Amomum aculeatum Roxb. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Taninthayi
• Amomum aromaticum Roxb. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Cultivated. Common Names: Bengal cardamon
• Amomum corynostachyum Wall. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Bago, Kayin, Mon. Common Names: Gonmin
• Amomum dealbatum Roxb. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Sagaing
• Amomum gramineum Wall. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Taninthayi
• Amomum koenigii Baker. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Mandalay, Taninthayi. Common Names: Tough ginger
• Amomum robertsonii Craib. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Shan
• Amomum sericeum Roxb. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Sagaing. Common Names: Hpala
• Amomum subulatum Roxb. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Cultivated. Common Names: Greater cardamon, Hpala-gyi
• Amomum villosum Lour. Cited as: Amomum xanthioides Wall. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Taninthayi. Common Names: Xanthoid cardamon
• Etlingera araneosa (Baker) R.M. Sm. Cited as: Amomum araneosum Baker, Hornstedtia araneosa (Baker) K. Schum. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Taninthayi
• Etlingera littoralis (Koenig) Giseke. Cited as: Amomum littorale Koenig, Amomum megalocheilos Baker, Hornstedtia megalocheilos (Baker) Ridley. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Taninthayi, Taninthayi
• Etlingera sulphurea (R. Parker) R.M. Sm. Cited as: Amomum sulphurea R. Parker, Hornstedtia sulfurea R. Parker. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Bago, Kachin, Mandalay, Taninthayi

USDA-NRCS

"AFRAM","Aframomum Schumann","aframomum","Zingiberaceae"
"AFME","Aframomum melegueta Schumann","melegueta pepper","Zingiberaceae"
"ALPIN","Alpinia Roxb.","alpinia","Zingiberaceae"
"ALGA2","Alpinia galanga (L.) Sw.","greater galangal","Zingiberaceae"
"LAGA5","Languas galanga (L.) Stuntz","&gt;&gt;Alpinia galanga","Zingiberaceae"
"ALMU2","Alpinia mutica Roxb.","small shell ginger","Zingiberaceae"
"ALOF4","Alpinia officinarum Hance","lesser galangal","Zingiberaceae"
"LAOF","Languas officinarum (Hance) Farw.","&gt;&gt;Alpinia officinarum","Zingiberaceae"
"ALPU4","Alpinia purpurata (Vieill.) K. Schum.","red ginger","Zingiberaceae"
"ALZE","Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.) Burtt &amp; R.M. Sm.","shellplant","Zingiberaceae"
"ALNU3","Alpinia nutans (L.) Roscoe","&gt;&gt;Alpinia zerumbet","Zingiberaceae"
"ALSP","Alpinia speciosa (Wendl.) K. Schum.","&gt;&gt;Alpinia zerumbet","Zingiberaceae"
"CASP15","Catimbium speciosum (Wendl.) Holttum","&gt;&gt;Alpinia zerumbet","Zingiberaceae"
"LASP7","Languas speciosa (Wendl.) Merr.","&gt;&gt;Alpinia zerumbet","Zingiberaceae"
"AMOMU","Amomum Roxb.","cardamom","Zingiberaceae"
"AMCO12","Amomum compactum Sol. ex Maton","round cardamom","Zingiberaceae"
"AMKE2","Amomum kepulaga Sprague &amp; Burkill","&gt;&gt;Amomum compactum","Zingiberaceae"
"AMGR9","Amomum gracile Blume","serkkom","Zingiberaceae"
"BOESE","Boesenbergia Kuntze","boesenbergia","Zingiberaceae"
"BORO4","Boesenbergia rotunda (L.) Mansf.","rotund boesenbergia","Zingiberaceae"
"KAPA3","Kaempferia pandurata Roxb.","&gt;&gt;Boesenbergia rotunda","Zingiberaceae"
"CURCU","Curcuma L.","curcuma","Zingiberaceae"
"CUAM4","Curcuma amada Roxb.","mango ginger","Zingiberaceae"
"CUAN2","Curcuma angustifolia Roxb.","east indian arrowroot","Zingiberaceae"
"CUAR3","Curcuma aromatica Salisb.","curcuma","Zingiberaceae"
"CUAU2","Curcuma australasica Hook. f.","","Zingiberaceae"
"CULO","Curcuma longa L.","common turmeric","Zingiberaceae"
"CUDO2","Curcuma domestica Val.","&gt;&gt;Curcuma longa","Zingiberaceae"
"CUZE","Curcuma zedoaria (Christm.) Roscoe","zedoary","Zingiberaceae"
"AMZE3","Amomum zedoaria Christm.","&gt;&gt;Curcuma zedoaria","Zingiberaceae"
"ELETT","Elettaria Maton","elettaria","Zingiberaceae"
"ELCA19","Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton","cardamom","Zingiberaceae"
"AMCA11","Amomum cardamomum L.","&gt;&gt;Elettaria cardamomum","Zingiberaceae"
"ETLIN","Etlingera Giseke","waxflower","Zingiberaceae"
"ETCE","Etlingera cevuga (Seem.) R.M. Sm.","waxflower","Zingiberaceae"
"ETEL","Etlingera elatior (Jack) R.M. Sm.","torch-ginger","Zingiberaceae"
"NIEL","Nicolaia elatior (Jack) Horan.","&gt;&gt;Etlingera elatior","Zingiberaceae"
"PHMA27","Phaeomeria magnifica (Roscoe) K. Schum.","&gt;&gt;Etlingera elatior","Zingiberaceae"
"HEDYC","Hedychium Koenig","garland-lily","Zingiberaceae"
"HECO11","Hedychium coronarium Koenig","white garland-lily","Zingiberaceae"
"HEFL5","Hedychium flavescens Carey ex Roscoe","cream garland-lily","Zingiberaceae"
"HEFL12","Hedychium flavum auct. non Roxb. [misapplied]","&gt;&gt;Hedychium flavescens","Zingiberaceae"
"HEGA","Hedychium gardnerianum Shepard ex Ker-Gawl.","Kahila garland-lily","Zingiberaceae"
"HITCH","Hitchenia Wallich","hitchenia","Zingiberaceae"
"HICA11","Hitchenia caulina (J. Graham) Baker","chavar","Zingiberaceae"
"KAEMP2","Kaempferia L.","kaempferia","Zingiberaceae"
"KAGA2","Kaempferia galanga L.","galanga","Zingiberaceae"
"KARO2","Kaempferia rotunda L.","kaempferia","Zingiberaceae"
"KARO3","Kaempferia rotundata L. [orthographic error]","&gt;&gt;Kaempferia rotunda","Zingiberaceae"
"RENEA","Renealmia L. f.","renealmia","Zingiberaceae"
"REAL2","Renealmia alpinia (Rottb.) Maas","jenjibre-de-jardin","Zingiberaceae"
"ALEX2","Alpinia exaltata (L. f.) Roemer &amp; J.A. Schultes","&gt;&gt;Renealmia alpinia","Zingiberaceae"
"AMAL6","Amomum alpinia Rottb.","&gt;&gt;Renealmia alpinia","Zingiberaceae"
"REEX","Renealmia exaltata L. f.","&gt;&gt;Renealmia alpinia","Zingiberaceae"
"REJA","Renealmia jamaicensis (Gaertn.) Horan.","narciso colorado","Zingiberaceae"
"REJAP","Renealmia jamaicensis (Gaertn.) Horan. var. puberula (Gagnepain) Maas","narciso colorado","Zingiberaceae"
"ALAN4","Alpinia antillarua auct. non Roemer &amp; J.A. Schultes [misapplied]","&gt;&gt;Renealmia jamaicensis var. puberula","Zingiberaceae"
"ALJA2","Alpinia jamaicensis Gaertn. p.p.","&gt;&gt;Renealmia jamaicensis var. puberula","Zingiberaceae"
"REAN","Renealmia antillarua auct. non (Roemer &amp; J.A. Schultes) Gagnepain [misapplied]","&gt;&gt;Renealmia jamaicensis var. puberula","Zingiberaceae"
"REOC","Renealmia occidentalis (Sw.) Sweet","bijao","Zingiberaceae"
"ALAR3","Alpinia aromatica Aubl.","&gt;&gt;Renealmia occidentalis","Zingiberaceae"
"ALOC4","Alpinia occidentalis Sw.","&gt;&gt;Renealmia occidentalis","Zingiberaceae"
"REAR2","Renealmia aromatica (Aubl.) Griseb.","&gt;&gt;Renealmia occidentalis","Zingiberaceae"
"ZINGI","Zingiber P. Mill.","ginger","Zingiberaceae"
"ZIMI4","Zingiber mioga (Thunb.) Roscoe","Mioga ginger","Zingiberaceae"
"ZIMO2","Zingiber montanum (Koenig) Theilade","Cassumunar ginger","Zingiberaceae"
"ZICA","Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.","&gt;&gt;Zingiber montanum","Zingiberaceae"
"ZIPU2","Zingiber purpureum Roscoe","&gt;&gt;Zingiber montanum","Zingiberaceae"
"ZIOF","Zingiber officinale Roscoe","garden ginger","Zingiberaceae"
"AMZI","Amomum zingiber L.","&gt;&gt;Zingiber officinale","Zingiberaceae"
"ZIZI2","Zingiber zingiber (L.) Karst.","&gt;&gt;Zingiber officinale","Zingiberaceae"
"ZIZE","Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Sm.","bitter ginger","Zingiberaceae"
"AMZE","Amomum zerumbet L.","&gt;&gt;Zingiber zerumbet","Zingiberaceae"

Contents of this page

Entry format: Botanical name / Family / Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcripts (• Agri.Dept.2000 : • Chklist: • LSR : • FAO : • KS-TMN: • Nagathein : • UHM :/ Myanmar-Script Spelling (• Official Myanmar Dictionaries : - TravPo-M-Dict - Myan-Engl-Dict - Myan-Ortho / Chklist data / Hindi / Sanskrit / English common name used in Myanmar / Picture / Plant identification characters / Distribution in Myanmar / Part used and uses / Constituents /
End of TIL file