Update: 2006-08-06 02:22 PM -0700

TIL

Myanmar Medicinal Plant Database

Family: Verbenaceae

compiled by U Kyaw Tun, U Pe Than, and staff of TIL. Not for sale.

Contents of this page

Family: Verbenaceae 6 entries
Clerodendron infortunatum {hka.aung:kri:}
Clerodendrum serratum {ring:pra:}
Clerodendrum siphonanthus {nga.ran.pa.tu}
Gmelina arborea {ya.ma.n}
Premna integrifolia {taung-tan-kri:}
Vitex trifolia {kraung-pan:}
Clerodendrum spp. / {ying:pra:} - {ring:pra:} question

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Clerodendron infortunatum

Family: Verbenaceae

Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
Agri.Dept.2000 11-0287:  {hka.aung:kri:}
FAO : NL
L-seik-shin : NL
KS-TMN : NL
Nagathein: NL
UHM 16: Ka-aung-gyi

 

Myanmar-Script Spelling
Official Myanmar Dictionaries :
{hka.aung:} - -- TravPo-M-Dict 042
{hka.aung:} - n. kind of fig tree. Ficus hispida - Myan-Engl-Dict 054

Hindi:
Sanskrit:

Clerodendron infortunatum
Sinhala: Gas-pinna; Tamil: Perugilai; Properties and uses: The juice of the leaves is believed to possess anthelminitic properties-  www.lankachronicle.com/health_medicine.html 

English common name used in Myanmar :
Agri.Dept.2000 11-0287:  NG
FAO : NL
L-seik-shin : NL
KS-TMN : NL
Nagathein: NL
UHM 16: NG

Picture :
Leader - www.lankachronicle.com/health_medicine.html 

Plant identification characters :

A gregarious shrub forming a dense vegetation with branches bluntly quadrangular and covered with silky hairs. -- UHM

Distribution in Myanmar:

Insein, Tharawaddy, Lower Burma. -- UHM

Part used and uses:

Dried leaves. Used as Tonic and antipyretic, anthelmintic, bitter effident febrifuge. -- UHM

Constituents :

1.Bitter principle Clerodin C13H18O3 2.Resinous matters. 3.Tannin. 4.Fixed oil (4) -- UHM

UKT: U Hla Maw notes that {hka.aung:kri:} is a "Substitute for Chiretta". From: The British Pharmaceutical Codex, Published by direction of the Council of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain, 1911, http://www.ibiblio.org/herbmed/eclectic/bpc1911/swertia.html .
   "Chiretta, or chirayta, consists of the dried plant, Swertia Chirata, Buch.-Ham. (N.O. Gentianeae), an erect annual herb, indigenous to the mountainous districts of Northern India. The drug is also official in the U.S.P. When the flowering is well advanced the entire plant is collected, dried, and packed into bundles, which are sometimes compressed before exportation. The drug consists chiefly of the stem, which is of a dark purplish-brown colour, quite glabrous, and contains a large continuous pith. In the upper part it branches freely, bearing numerous fruits and flowers, together with a few opposite leaves with prominent curving lateral veins. The fruits are bicarpellary but unilocular, and contain numerous minute brownish seeds. The root is short, stout, and oblique. All parts of the drug have an intensely bitter taste. Various other species of Swertia (e.g., S. angustifolia, Buch.-Ham. (more); S. alata, Royle (more); S. trichotoma, Wall. (more) have been found mixed with or substituted for chiretta. From these the genuine drug may be distinguished by its dark colour, intensely bitter taste, and continuous pith. Andrographis Paniculata, Nees (more), which has been offered as chiretta, has dark green stems with numerous slender erect opposite branches, few lanceolate green leaves, and a fibrous root. The roots of Rubia cordifolia, Linn. (more), are also occasionally mixed with chiretta; they are readily distinguished by their purple colour.
   "Constituents. The plant contains the two bitter principles, ophelic acid and chiratin. The latter occurs in the larger proportion, and yields, by boiling with hydrochloric acid, chiratogenin and ophelic acid, but no sugar. Neither ophelic acid nor chiratin has been obtained in crystals.
   "Action and Uses. Chiretta owes its action to its bitterness; it is used in dyspepsia to improve the appetite. At one time it was believed to exert a specific action upon the liver, but there is no evidence to confirm this. It is usually administered in the form of infusion. The preparations of chiretta are without tannin, and may, therefore, be prescribed with iron. Chiretta and kreat (Andrographis) are active ingredients of many advertised bitters. Chiratin has been used in powder form, diluted with milk sugar, but the liquid preparations of chiretta are usually preferred.
   "Dose. 1/2 to 2 grammes (5 to 30 grains). "

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Clerodendrum serratum

Family: Verbanaceae

UKT: Because of an obvious mix-up of the plant(s) with the name {ring:pra:} or {ying:pra:}, the reader is advised to read both Dichroa febriguga fam. Saxifragacea and Clerodendrum serratum fam. Verbenaceae.
  
U Hla Maw's "Ying-byar" (Dichroa febrifuga fam. Saxifragacea) and Nagathein's {ying:pra:} ( Clerodendrum serratum fam. Verbenaceae) are treated as  separate species in MMPDB2006.

Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
Agri.Dept.2000 51-1349: {ring:pra:nak}/ {ring:pra:ni}
  FAO : NL
L-seik-shin 367 : {ying:pra: ni}
KS-TMN : NL
Nagathein -- all 3 below listed as Clerodendrum serratum
   3-057 : {ying:bya: hpru (ta.pa.hs:ng)}
   3-058 (illustration): {ying:pra:)
   3-059: {ying:pra: ni}.
UHM : NL

 

Myanmar-Script Spelling
Official Myanmar Dictionaries :
{ring:pra:} - -- TravPo-M-Dict 273
{ring:pra:} - n. kind of medicinal plant. Dichroa febrifuga - Myan-Engl-Dict 406
{ring:pra:ping} - - Myan-Ortho 226

Hindi:
Sanskrit:

UKT:  In Nagathein, {hpru} means "white", and {ni} means "red". Both were listed with the same botanical name Clerodendrum serratum, but with different Hindi names:
-- {ying:bya: hpru} as बासक {ba-tha.ka.}, and
-- {ying:bya: ni} as भारंगी {Ba-ran-gi}
Caveat -- I admit I know no Hindi, but using my knowledge of the rules of Akshara-writings I have re-transliterated from Burmese-Myanmar to Hindi-Devanagari. Those who know Hindi might see an error in बासक {ba-tha.ka.} where the middle character स is {tha.}. In Burmese-Myanmar it is pronounced as {tha.}, but it is pronounced as {sa.} in Hindi. I will still have check with my Hindi-speaking peers.

English common name used in Myanmar:
Agri.Dept.2000 51-1349: Prang-gadawn
FAO : NL
L-seik-shin 367 : NG
KS-TMN : NL
Nagathein 3-057 to 059: NG
UHM : NL

Picture :
Leaders: left, Nagathein 3-058 - {ba-thak}; right, Nagathein 3-060 {Ba-ran-gi}.

 

Plant identification characters:

-- {ying:pra:ni} (Family: Verbanaceae)  Small plant with a pliable stem. 3-6 feet high. Leaves opposing, 4-5 in. long x 2 1/2 in. wide. Pointed at tip. Serrated margin. Flowers in cymes. Pale blue in color. Fruits in clusters about the size of a {sa:tau-p:}, i.e. about 1/4 in. Red when immature turning black on ripening. Root a bulb (UKT -- a tuber?) similar to the shape of a sparrow.  -- L-seik-shin 367, free translation by UKT

Nagathein 3-57 to 63 under {ying:pra:} -- "the white", "the red", and "the male". In the following he gave the description of "the red" {ying:pra: ni} (Hindi: {Ba-rangi} , Family: not given).

-- {ying:pra:ni} Nagathein 3-059. A shrub 3 to 6 ft. high. Leaf 4 to 5 in. long, and about 2 1/2 in. wide. Leaf base broad and tip wide. Leaf margin dentate. Flower purplish. Fruit about the size of a pea in dense cluster. Fruit colour red when immature and turned black on ripening. Three main roots resembling the head of a sparrow, and the plant is also appropriately call "sparrow brain". 
   Nagathein continued giving the differences between the "red" variety and the "white" variety, and mentions another plant,  the "big-bird feature plant" {ngak-kri:taung-ping}.

-- The root of "the white" is roundish and long.. The "white" and "red" are different in fruit, branch and root. The branch (the cross section) of "white" is square, but that of "red" is round. Some people would call the "red" as "the big-bird feather plant" {ngak-kri:taung-ping}. That is not correct. [UKT: Unfortunately, Nagathein did not give anything more on {ngak-kri:taung-ping}.] The "big-bird feather plant is a separate species which grows in the coastal areas attaining a height of 3 feet. The leaf is about 9 inches long, and narrow. It can be eaten, and is sweet but a bit "slimy" [UKT: like okra]. On peeling off the epidermis, pits can be seen on the stem. The wood is "pithy" and light. It is used to cure pimples and other eruptions. -- Nagathein 3-059, free translation by UKT.

 

Distribution in Myanmar:

 

Part used and used as :

 

Constituents :

 

Contents of this page

{ying:pra:} - {ring:pra:} question

by UKT

The Official Myanmar Dictionaries do not list {ying:pra:}. However, they list {ring:pra:} (pronounced the same as {ying:pra:}). TravPo-M-Dict describes {ring:pra:} as a medicinal plant of low height with circular, opposing leaves .

Myanmar-Script Spelling
Official Myanmar Dictionaries :
{ring:pra:} - -- TravPo-M-Dict 273
{ring:pra:} - n. kind of medicinal plant. Dichroa febrifuga - Myan-Engl-Dict 406
{ring:pra:ping} -- Myan-Ortho 226

The Myanmar authors from the Agricultural department (authors of Agri.Dept.2000 and {l-seik-shing:}) have used the names:

Agri.Dept.2000 on pg 51 listed three species:
51-1347 {ring:pra:} Dichroa febrifuga of family Saxiferagacea
51-1348 {ring:pra:hpru} Premna amplectens of family Verbanaceae
51-1349 {ring:pra:nak}, {ring:pra:ni} Clerodendrum serratum of family Verbenaceae with "English name" Prang-gadawn" (which I suppose was derived from a Kachin name).

{l-seik-shing:} lists only one:
p.367 {ying:pra:ni} Clerodendrum serratum of family Verbenaceae with Kachin name " Prang-gadawn" .

It should be noted that the Agricultural department has toed the official line and has changed the spelling {ying:pra:} to {ring:pra:}. However, since there has been no revisions of Nagathein, we still find the spelling {ying:pra:ni} Clerodendron serratum on 3-059.

The authors of Agri.Dept.2000 (former name {l-seik-shing:}), were not clear. {l-seik-shing:} on pg 367 described {ying:pra:ni} (literal meaning "red" {ying:pra:}) as Clerodendron serratum Spreng of family Verbanaceae. It described the plant as 3 to 6 feet high, bearing pale blue flowers, and red berries which turned black on ripening. The plant had opposing leaves.

Nagathein lists on 3-057 {ying:bya: hpru (ta.pa.hs:ng)} (Clerodendron serratum ), and on 3-059 {ying:bya: ni} (Clerodendron serratum ). He further lists 3-061 {ying:pra: a.hpo (hkw:hkaung:ta.zwut)} (literal meaning "male {ying:pra:}") (Premna herbacea). Though Nagathein has given the same botanical name to both {ying:bya: hpru (ta.pa.hs:ng) and {ying:bya: ni}, he seemed to have taken the two as separate species with different Hindi names. As usual, he does not give the family. He describes 3-061 {ying:pra: a.hpo (hkw:hkaung:ta.zwut)} as Premna herbacea.

To add to the confusion, some Myanmar authors do not give the Burmese-Myanmar spelling but only their rendition of the transcription in English. Thus U Hla Maw (UHM) on p.22, listed Yinbya as Dichroa febriguga Lour of family Saxifragaceae.

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Clerodendrum siphonanthus

Family: Verbenaceae

Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
Agri.Dept.2000 15-0378:   {nga.ran.pa.tu}
FAO : NL
L-seik-shin 131: {nga.ran.pa.tu}
KS-TMN 218: Ngayant-padu
Nagathein 343: {nga.ran.pa.tu}
UHM : NL

 

Myanmar-Script Spelling
Official Myanmar Dictionaries :
{nga.ran.pa.tu} -   - TravPo-M-Dict 069
{nga.ran.pa.tu} - n. the nodding clerodendron, Clerodendron siphonanthus. - Myan-Engl-Dict 090

Hindi :
Sanskrit :

 

English common name used in Myanmar ::

Agri.Dept.2000 15-0378: NG
FAO : NL
L-seik-shin 131: NG
KS-TMN 218: Ngayant-padu
Nagathein 343: NG
UHM : NL

 

Picture :
Leader:
Photos: left -- habit with flowers; right -- habit with fruits. Click on the pictures to enlarge. -- KS-TMN

 

Plant identification characters :

An evergreen shrub, tall, erect; stems woody, cylindrical. Leaves in whorls of 3-4, simple; exstipulate; subsessile; laminae oblong or oblong or narrowly lanceolate, the bases cuneate, the margins entire or sinuate, the tips shortly acuminate, unicostate, reticulate, the surfaces glabrous. Inflorescences in terminal and axillary dichasial cymes, the cymules 3-flowered, very lax; bracts linear. Flowers bracteolate, pedicellate, bisexual, zygomorphic, pentamerous, hypogynous. Calyx synsepalous, 5-partite, campanulate, the lobes oblong or ovate, acute, peristent. Corolla synpetalous, 5-lobed, salverform, the lobes ovate-oblong, spreading, the tubes tubular, very slender, curved, white. Androecium polyandrous, stamens 4, didynamous, epipetalous, much exserted, the anthers dithecous, dorsifixed, introrse, dehiscence longitudinal. Pistil 1, 2-carpelled, imperfectly 4-loculed, due to false septation, the placentaiton axile, the ovule solitary in each locule, the style filicorm, the stigma shortly 2-fid. Fruit a drupe, globose, persistent calyx; seeds 1-4, ellipsoid, non-endospermic. Flowering period: October-December. Fruiting period: November-January -- KS-TMN

 

Distribution in Myanmar :

Grows wild throughout Myanmar -- KS-TMN

 

Part used and uses :

Root -- Lung disease; Fatigue. Root, leaf, flower, fruit and seed -- Reduce inflammation due to induration. Root -- Pleural effusion; Cough; Leucoderma; Leucoderma; Leprosy; Gouty arthritis; Analgesic for muscle aches and pains ;Muscle relaxant; Regulates the urinary system and bowel habits; Fatigue due to overwork; Menstrual disorders. Leaf and root -- Dynamic effect on blood circulatory system; Carminative; Bronchial asthma; Cough; Suppurative lung infection; Fatigue -- KS-TMN

 

Constituents :

 

Contents of this page

Clerodendrum spp.

UKT: Chklist online was not available due to Myanmar internet servers' failure in 2006 June.

USDA-NRCS

"CLERO2","Clerodendrum L.","glorybower","Verbenaceae"
"CLAC2","Clerodendrum aculeatum (L.) Schlecht.","haggarbush","Verbenaceae"
"VOAC","Volkameria aculeata L.",">>Clerodendrum aculeatum","Verbenaceae"
"CLBU3","Clerodendrum buchananii (Roxb.) Walp.","","Verbenaceae"
"CLBUF","Clerodendrum buchananii (Roxb.) Walp. var. fallax (Lindl.) Bakh.","","Verbenaceae"
"CLBU","Clerodendrum bungei Steud.","rose glorybower","Verbenaceae"
"CLFO3","Clerodendrum foetidum Bunge",">>Clerodendrum bungei","Verbenaceae"
"CLCH4","Clerodendrum chinense (Osb.) Mabberley","stickbush","Verbenaceae"
"CLFR4","Clerodendrum fragrans (Vent.) Willd.",">>Clerodendrum chinense","Verbenaceae"
"CLFRM","Clerodendrum fragrans (Vent.) Willd. var. multiplex (Sweet) Moldenke",">>Clerodendrum chinense","Verbenaceae"
"CLPH","Clerodendrum philippinum Schauer",">>Clerodendrum chinense","Verbenaceae"
"CLGL2","Clerodendrum glabrum E. Mey.","Natal glorybower","Verbenaceae"
"CLIN","Clerodendrum indicum (L.) Kuntze","turk's turbin","Verbenaceae"
"SIIN18","Siphonanthus indicus L.",">>Clerodendrum indicum","Verbenaceae"
"CLIN2","Clerodendrum inerme (L.) Gaertn.","embrert","Verbenaceae"
"VOIN","Volkameria inermis L.",">>Clerodendrum inerme","Verbenaceae"
"CLJA3","Clerodendrum japonicum (Thunb.) Sweet","Japanese glorybower","Verbenaceae"
"CLSQ3","Clerodendrum squamatum Vahl",">>Clerodendrum japonicum","Verbenaceae"
"CLJAP","Clerodendrum japonicum (Thunb.) Sweet var. pleniflorum (Schauer) Maheshwari [excluded]","","Verbenaceae"
"CLKA2","Clerodendrum kaempferi (Jacq.) Sieb.","Kaempfer's glorybower","Verbenaceae"
"CLLI6","Clerodendrum lindleyi Dcne.","Lindley's clerodendrum","Verbenaceae"
"CLLIP","Clerodendrum lindleyi Dcne. var. paniculatum Moldenke","Lindley's clerodendrum","Verbenaceae"
"CLMA24","Clerodendrum macrostegium Schauer","velvetleaf glorybower","Verbenaceae"
"CLQU2","Clerodendrum quadriloculare (Blanco) Merr.","","Verbenaceae"
"CLSP7","Clerodendrum speciosissimum Van Geert ex Morr.","Javanese glorybower","Verbenaceae"
"CLSP13","Clerodendrum speciosum Dombrain [splendens thompsoniae]","","Verbenaceae"
"CLTH","Clerodendrum thompsoniae Balf. f.","bagflower","Verbenaceae"
"CLTR","Clerodendrum trichotomum Thunb.","harlequin glorybower","Verbenaceae"
"CLTRF","Clerodendrum trichotomum Thunb. var. ferrugineum Nakai","ferruginous clerodendrum","Verbenaceae"
"CLUM5","Clerodendrum umbellatum Poir.","umbel clerodendrum","Verbenaceae"
"CLWA3","Clerodendrum wallichii Merr.","Wallich's glorybower","Verbenaceae"

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Gmelina arborea

Family: Verbanaceae

Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
Agri.Dept.2000 49-1292: {ya.ma.n}
FAO 129: yemani, mai saw 
L-seik-shin : NL
KS-TMN : NL
Nagathein 3-049: {ya.ma.n}
UHM 28: Ya-ma-nay

 

Myanmar-Script Spelling
Official Myanmar Dictionaries :
{ya.ma.n} - -- TravPo-M-Dict 259
{ya.ma.n} - n. timber-tree yielding smooth grained wood. Gmelina arborea - Myan-Engl-Dict 382

Hindi:
Sanskrit:

English common name used in Myanmar:
Agri.Dept.2000 49-1292: NG
FAO 129: malay beech wood  
L-seik-shin : NL
KS-TMN : NL
Nagathein 3-049: NG
UHM 28: Radix Gmelina, Gmelina Root

Picture :
Leaders: left - Nagathein; right - FAO

 

Plant identification characters :

Key characteristics: Medium sized tree; thin gray bark; heart shaped, entire, opposite leaves, 1020 cm long and 713 cm wide with waxy bloom below; trumpet shaped yellow to brown flowers. Description: A medium sized tree up to 40 m tall and 140 cm in diameter, but usually smaller than this. Bark is thin and grey. Leaves are opposite, more or less heart-shaped, 1025 cm 518 cm, smooth or velvety beneath. The yellow or brown flowers are arranged in panicled cymes, 1530 cm long, and appears after leaf-fall. The trumpet-shaped flowers are 4 cm long, nodding, hairy and short stalked. The fruits are ovate or pyriform, 22.5 cm long and contain 14 seeds. -- FAO

An unarmed tree, sometimes attaining 60 feet, deciduous, flowering with the appearing of young leaves, leaves 9 by 6 in. more or less acuminate, entire mature glabrate above, stellately hairy beneath, petiole 3", top glandular, flowers, numerous, brown-yellow, in panicles, fruit 3\4", ovoid, usually 2-1 seeded drupe. -- UHM

 

Distribution in Myanmar:

Mongnai range (Southern Shan State) Halpaw Range, Hamtu Range (Northern Shan State) Occurs in the moister forests up to 3,500 feet throughout Burma, usually with bamboos. -- UHM

Distribution elsewhere:

Ecology: Found in rain forests as well as dry deciduous forests. Tolerates a wide range of conditions from sea level to 1,200 m altitude and annual rainfall from 750 5,000 mm. Prefers temperatures between 2128C and moist fertile soils. Distribution: Originates in an area from Pakistan and Sri Lanka to Myanmar, but is now widely planted in S.E. Asian countries, including Myanmar [UKT: Really? Where's the evidence? Fossil records?], Thailand, southern China, Vietnam, Indonesia and the Philippines. -- FAO

 

Part used and uses :

The wood is used for light construction and pulp as well as fuelwood and charcoal, and the leaves are good cattle fodder. A number of plant parts have medicinal value. -- FAO

Roots. Tonic, stomachic, laxative, useful in fever and digestion. -- UHM

 

Constituents :
1. Yellow viscid oil. 2. Some resin. 3. Traces of an alkaloid. (3) -- UHM

 

Contents of this page

Premna integrifolia

Family: Verbenaceae

Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
Agri.Dept.2000 29-0744: {taung-tan-kri:}
FAO : NL
L-seik-shin : NL
KS-TMN: NL
Nagathein 2-046: {taung-tan-kri:}
UHM 39: Taung-tan-gyi

Myanmar-Script Spelling 
Official Myanmar Dictionaries :
{taung-tan-kri:} - -- TravPo-M-Dict 131
{taung-tan-kri:} - NL in Myan-Engl-Dict
{taung-tan-kri:} - Myan-Ortho 104

Hindi:
Sanskrit:

English common name used in Myanmar :
Agri.Dept.2000 29-0744: NG
FAO : NL
L-seik-shin : NL
KS-TMN: NL
Nagathein 2-046: NG
UHM 39: NG

 

Picture:

 

Plant identification characters /

A small deciduous tree with yellow lenticellate bark, leaves opposite, broadly elliptic, obtuse, very shortly acuminate, glabrous, entire, upper part dentate, base round subacute, main nerves 4-5 pairs, corymbs 2-4 in. diam., short penduncled, minutely cinerous- pubescent often with some fulvous deciduous hair, flower small, greenish-white, throat hairy, fruit a drupe 1/3 in. diam. globose, 3-4 seeded. -- UHM

 

Distribution of Myanmar

Pyinmana, Toungoo, Shwebo. -- UHM

 

Part used and used as:

Roots and stem bark. Used as Laxative, carminative, and stomachic. Decoction of the whole plant for fevers, rheumatism and neuralgia. -- UHM

 

Constituents:

1. Stem bark contains 3 alkaloids:- a. Premnine. b. ganiarine. c. ganikarine. and some saturated aromatic hydrocarbons.(3)j 2. Ganiarine and Premnine have a sympathonimetic action. -- UHM

Contents of this page

Vitex trifolia

Family : Verbenaceae

Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
Agri.Dept.2000 09-0216:  {kraung-pan:}
FAO : NL
L-seik-shing 075 : {kraung-pan:} ( {kraung-pan:ng})
KS-TMN 221: Kyaung-ban
Nagathein 1-187: {kraung-pan:}
UHM 44: Kyaung-pan

 

Myanmar-Script Spelling
Official Myanmar Dictionaries :
{kraung-pan:} -   -- TravPo-M-Dict 033
{kraung-pan:} - n.  the chaste tree. Vitex trifolia. Myan-Engl-Dict 043

Hindi:
Sanskrit:

English common name used in Myanmar :
Agri.Dept.2000 09-0216:  Indian wild pepper
FAO : NL
L-seik-shing 075 : Indian wild pepper
KS-TMN 221: NG
Nagathein 1-187: Indian wild pepper
UHM 44: NG

Picture:
Leader from L-seik-shin
Photos: left --habit with flowers; right -- habit with fruits. Click on the pictures to enlarge. -- KS-TMN

 

Plant identification characters :

A shrub or small tree; bark grey, younger stems tomentose. Leaves opposite, some simple, some palmately 3-foliolate; exstipulate; petiolate; leaflets elliptic, obovate or obovate-oblong, the bases obtuse, the margins entire, the tips acute to obtuse, the upper surfaces glabrous, the lower tomentose, sessile, rarely very shortly petiolulate, Inflorescences paniculate cymes, usually terminal; bracts minute. Flower ebracteolate, pedicellate, bisexual, zygomorphic, pentamerous, hypogynous. Calyx synsepalous, 5-toothed, campanulate, peristent, slightly accrescent in fruit. Corolla synpetalous, tubular, 5-lobed, bilabiate, the lower lip 3-lobed, the middle lobe largest, tomentose, purplish blue. Androecium polyandrous, divaricate, introrse, dehiscence longitudinal. Pistil 1, ovary globose, 2-carpelled, syncarpous, 4-loculed, due to false septation, the placentation axile, the ovule 1 in each locule, the style filiform, the stigma 2-fid. Fruit a drupe, globose, embraced by the persistent and slightly accrescent calyx, more than half its length, endocarp bony; seeds obovid or oblongoid, non-endospermic. Flowering and fruiting periods: Throughout the year -- KS-TMN

A shrub or small tree, leaflets 1-3" subobtuse, tomentum beneath of matted scarcely stellate hairs, trifoliate, flowers small, lavender to blue, usually in terminal or axillary cymes, forming panicles or corymbs, drupe, globose or obovoid. -- UHM

 

Distribution in Myanmar:

Throughout Myanmar, usually found in both tropical and temperate regions. -- KS-TMN

Aungban, Yawnghwe, Helon (Southern Shan State) an occasional shrub in hedges and scrub jungle. -- UHM

 

Part used and uses:

Roots, barks, leaves, flowers -- Leprosy; Carminative; Aches; Heal sores, boils and pustules; Antipyretic; Antiseptic; Cough; Expectorant; Diuretic; Regulates menstrual cycle; Promotes bone marrow function; Give energy; Antidote for snake and scorpion venoms. Leaf -- Neuropathy; Otorrhea; Otalgia; Oedema; Heals boils and pustules; Skin disease; Leucorrhea; Diptheria; Puerperal pyrexia; Malaria; Hepatitis. -- KS-TMN

Leaves. Intermittent fevers, external application to rheumatism. -- UHM

 

Constituents:

1. An essential oil. 2. An alkaloid. (40) -- UHM

Contents of this page

{ying:pra:} - {ring:pra:} question

by UKT

The Official Myanmar Dictionaries do not list {ying:pra:}. However, they list {ring:pra:} (pronounced the same as {ying:pra:}). TravPo-M-Dict describes {ring:pra:} as a medicinal plant with circular, opposing leaves of low height.

Myanmar-Script Spelling
Official Myanmar Dictionaries :
{ring:pra:} - -- TravPo-M-Dict 273
{ring:pra:} - n. kind of medicinal plant. Dichroa febrifuga - Myan-Engl-Dict 406
{ring:pra:ping} -- Myan-Ortho 226

The Myanmar authors from the Agricultural department (authors of Agri.Dept.2000 and {l-seik-shing:}) have used the names:

Agri.Dept.2000 on pg 51 listed three species:
51-1347 {ring:pra:} Dichroa febrifuga of family Saxiferagacea
51-1348 {ring:pra:hpru} Premna amplectens of family Verbanaceae
51-1349 {ring:pra:nak}, {ring:pra:ni} Clerodendrum serratum of family Verbenaceae with "English name" Prang-gadawn" (which I suppose was derived from a Kachin name).

{l-seik-shing:} lists only one:
p.367 {ying:pra:ni} Clerodendrum serratum of family Verbenaceae with Kachin name " Prang-gadawn" .

It should be noted that the Agricultural department has toed the official line and has changed the spelling {ying:pra:} to {ring:pra:}. However, since there has been no revisions of Nagathein, we still find the spelling {ying:pra:ni} Clerodendron serratum on 3-059.

The authors of Agri.Dept.2000 (former name {l-seik-shing:}), were not clear. {l-seik-shing:} on pg 367 described {ying:pra:ni} (literal meaning "red" {ying:pra:}) as Clerodendron serratum Spreng of family Verbanaceae. It described the plant as 3 to 6 feet high, bearing pale blue flowers, and red berries which turned black on ripening. The plant had opposing leaves.

Nagathein lists on 3-057 {ying:bya: hpru (ta.pa.hs:ng)} (Clerodendron serratum ), and on 3-059 {ying:bya: ni} (Clerodendron serratum ). He further lists 3-061 {ying:pra: a.hpo (hkw:hkaung:ta.zwut)} (literal meaning "male {ying:pra:}") (Premna herbacea). Though Nagathein has given the same botanical name to both {ying:bya: hpru (ta.pa.hs:ng) and {ying:bya: ni}, he seemed to have taken the two as separate species with different Hindi names. As usual, he does not give the family. He describes 3-061 {ying:pra: a.hpo (hkw:hkaung:ta.zwut)} as Premna herbacea.

To add to the confusion, some Myanmar authors do not give the Burmese-Myanmar spelling but only their rendition of the transcription in English. Thus U Hla Maw (UHM) on p.22, listed Yinbya as Dichroa febriguga Lour of family Saxifragaceae.

Contents of this page

Entry format: Botanical name / Family / Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcripts ( Agri.Dept.2000 : FAO : L-seik-shin : KS-TMN: Nagathein : UHM :/ Myanmar-Script Spelling ( Official Myanmar Dictionaries : - TravPo-M-Dict - Myan-Engl-Dict - Myan-Ortho / Hindi / Sanskrit / English common name used in Myanmar / Picture / Plant identification characters / Distribution in Myanmar / Part used and uses / Constituents /
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