Update: 2006-08-08 04:41 PM -0700

TIL

Myanmar Medicinal Plant Database

Family: Rhamnaceae

compiled by U Kyaw Tun, U Pe Than, and staff of TIL. Not for sale.

Contents of this page

Family: Rhamnaceae 3 entries
• Rhamnaceae family - general characters
• Ziziphus jujuba • {hsi: (zi:)} / {hsi:tau}
• Zizyphus oenoplia • {paung-pθ.} / {thi.kra:rι-sing}
• Zizyphus rugosa • {tau:hsi:} / {myauk-hsi:}
• Rhamnus spp.
• Zizyphus spp.

Main Index of DB | Top
Contents of this page

Rhamnaceae family - general characters

From: Families yielding important phytopharmaceuticals in Fundamentals of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy, by Michael Heinrich, J. Barnes, S. Gibbons, and E. Williamson, October 2003, ISBN:0443071322, pp.320 -- www.fleshandbones.com/readingroom/pdf/747.pdf

Important medicinal plants from the family
• Rhamnus purshiana DC. (American cascara) and Rhamnus frangula L. (syn. Frangula alnus, European alder, buckthorn), both used as strong purgatives.

Morphological characteristics of the family
This family mostly consists of trees with simple leaves, which are arranged spirally or opposite. The flowers are small and unisexual with an epigynous gynaecium and four or five small petals. The fruit is a drupe (fleshy exoand mesocarp with a hard endocarp).

Distribution
A relatively small cosmopolitan, mainly tropical and subtropical, family, with about 900 species.

Chemical characteristics of the family
The family is best known pharmaceutically because some taxa accumulate anthraquinones. Also alkaloids of the benzylisoquinoline type and the cyclo-peptide type are known from many taxa.

Contents of this page

Ziziphus jujuba

Family: Rhamnaceae

Syn.: Rhamnus jujuba, Ziziphus jujuba, Zizyphus mauritiana - FAO

MMPDB: {hsi: (zi:)}

Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcripts
• Agri.Dept.2000 20-0500: {hsi:}; {hsi:tau}
• Chklist: Zi, Zi-daw-thi
• LSR  : NL
• FAO 209: zee-pen; zizidaw
• KS-TMN: NL
• Nagathein : NL
• UHM : NL

 

Myanmar-Script Spelling
• Official Myanmar Dictionaries :
{hsi:} - - TravPo-M-Dict 100
{hsi:} - n. jujube tree, Zizyphus jujuba or its fruit - Myan-Engl-Dict

UKT: The word {hsi:} can be pronounced in two ways, and each pronunciation carries its own meaning. In IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet) rendition, voiceless pronunciation /siː/ means "urine" and the voiced pronunciation /ziː/ means the jujube tree or its fruit.

Chklist data :
• Ziziphus jujuba Lam. Cited as: Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. Habit: Tree. Distribution: Cultivated. Common Names: Chinese date, Eng-si, Jujube, Mahkaw, Makhkaw-hku, Zi, Zi-daw-thi

Hindi :
Sanskrit :

 

English common name used in Myanmar :
• Agri.Dept.2000 20-0500: Jujube tree
• Chklist: Zi, Zi-daw-thi
• LSR  : NL
• FAO 209: Chinese date, Eng-si, Jujube
• KS-TMN: NL
• Nagathein : NL
• UHM : NL

Common names: Indian jujube (En); putrea (Cam); widara, dara, bidara (Ins); than (Lao); bidara, jujub, epal siam (Mal); zee-pen, zizidaw (Mya); manzanitas (Phi); phutsaa, ma tan (Tha); tao, tao nhuc (Vie). -- FAO

Picture :
• Leader -- FAO

 

Plant identification characters :

• Key characteristics: Small; drooping branches; hairy zigzagging twigs with small spines; leaf hairy underneath, 3 prominent veins. Description: A bushy shrub or small tree up to 15 m high with drooping branches and hairy zigzagging twigs with small paired spines at leave bases (occasionally absent). Leaves alternate, simple, elliptic-ovate to oblong-elliptic, 2–9 cm long and 1.5–5 cm wide, entire or slightly crenate, glossy above, densely white haired below with 3 conspicuous longitudinal veins and 8–15 mm long leaf stalks. Inflorescence from leaf corners, 1–2 cm long with 7–20 yellowish 5-merous flowers, 2–3 mm across, weakly fragrant. The yellowish to reddish or blackish fruit is globose to ovoid, up to 6 Χ 4 cm when cultivated, smaller on wild trees, with glossy smooth or rough skin and white, juicy, weakly acid to sweet flesh. - FAO

 

Distribution in Myanmar :

 

Distribution elsewhere:
• Cultivated on small scale throughout the tropics and subtropics including all countries in Southeast Asia. Ecology: A hardy species tolerating extreme temperatures and dry conditions. Growing from sea level to about 1,000 m altitude where annual rainfall ranges between 125 to 2,000 mm, preferably on fairly light and deep soils, but tolerate even occasional waterlogging. - FAO

Part used and uses :

• The fruit is eaten fresh, used to make drinks, candy or syrup or preserved by drying. Young leaves are cooked as vegetables or used as fodder. The tree is also used as a host tree for rearing lac insects, harvested to prepare shellac. The reddish wood is used for turnery, household items and implements. - FAO

• Zizyphus Jujuba, Mill. Lam. (syn. Zizyphus vulgaris, Lam.) Sudan (western): fruits fermented and prepared into a confection. India (Deccan): dry fruits powdered; (Madras Presidency): ripe fruit eaten. Vernacular names - Tamil: Yellanday kai. Telugu: Reygoo. Ref. IRVINE, SHORTT, WATT. -- FAO Famine Foods

Constituents :

 

Contents of this page

Zizyphus oenoplia

Family: Rhamnaceae

Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcripts
• Agri.Dept.2000 26-0676: / {tau:hsi:nwθύ}/ {paung-pθ.}
• Chklist: Paungbet, Supauk-pin, Taw-zi-nwe
• LSR : NL
• FAO : NL
• KS-TMN: NL
• Nagathein 1-425: / {hsi:thi: (myauk)}/ {paung-pθ.}
• UHM : NL

Myanmar-Script Spelling
• Official Myanmar Dictionaries :
{paung-pθ.} -  - TravPo-M-Dict 190
{paung-pθ.} - n. creeper plant with medicinal properties. Zizyphus glabra, Z. onoplia . Also {thi.kra:rι-sing} - Myan-Engl-Dict 269
{thi.kra:rι-sing} - - TravPo-M-Dict 324

Chklist data :
• Ziziphus oenoplia Mill. Habit: Shrub, Climber. Distribution: Wide. Common Names: Mainam-nu, Mak-hkaw-hku, Njilamyin, Paungbet, Supauk-pin, Taw-zi-nwe

Hindi :
Sanskrit :

 

English common name used in Myanmar :
• Agri.Dept.2000 26-0676: NG
• Chklist: NG
• LSR : NL
• FAO : NL
• KS-TMN: NL
• Nagathein 1-425: NG
• UHM : NL

Picture :
Leaders: left - flora.sut.ac.th/thai/pt98a.html
right - http://www.gifu-u.ac.jp/~miya/DDplantshtml/plant152.htm
Photos: both - http://www.gifu-u.ac.jp/~miya/DDplantshtml/plant152.htm

Plant identification characters :

 

Distribution in Myanmar :

 

Part used and uses :

• Zizyphus oenoplia (RHAMNACEAE) - Stem bark used as mouthwash for sore throat, for dysentery and inflammation of the uterus -- http://199.33.141.23/faculty/webpages/nrajakaruna/pdfs/Antimicrobial.pdf

Constituents :

 

Contents of this page

Zizyphus rugosa

Family: Rhamnaceae

Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcripts
• Agri.Dept.2000 26-0675: / {tau:hsi:}/ {myauk-hsi:}
- Agri.Dept.2000 46-1207: {myauk-hsi:} [genus given as "Zigyphur" - sp. mistake?]
• Chklist: Myauk-zi, Taw-zi, Zi-ganauk, Zi-talaing
• LSR : NL
• FAO : NL
• KS-TMN: NL
• Nagathein 1-422: {hsi:hka.nauk}
• UHM : NL

Myanmar-Script Spelling
• Official Myanmar Dictionaries :
- TravPo-M-Dict
- Myan-Engl-Dict
- Myan-Ortho

 

Chklist data
• Ziziphus rugosa Lam. Habit: Small tree. Distribution: Wide. Common Names: Mak-kok, Myauk-zi, Sammankaw, Taw-zi, Zi-ganauk, Zi-talaing

 

Hindi :
Sanskrit :

 

English common name used in Myanmar :

 

Picture :

 

Plant identification characters :

 

Distribution in Myanmar :

 

Part used and uses :

• Zizyphus rugosa, Lam. India (Deccan): fruit eaten. Ref. WATT. -- FAO Famine Foods

Constituents :

 

Contents of this page

Rhamnus spp.

Results of search for 'Rhamnus' in the Checklist of Plants of Myanmar, U.S. National Herbarium, 8 Aug 2006.
• Rhamnus nipalensis Laws. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Kachin, Mandalay, Sagaing. Common Names: Buckthorn
• Rhamnus sargentianus Schn. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Kachin
• Rhamnus virgatus Roxb. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Kachin, Shan, Unknown

USDA-NRCS
"RHIN19","Rhamnus insula Kellogg [excluded]",">>Alchemilla lapeyrousii","Rosaceae"
"RHIN20","Rhamnus insularis Greene [excluded]",">>Alchemilla lapeyrousii","Rosaceae"

Contents of this page

Zizyphus spp.

Family: Rhamnaceae

Results of search for 'Ziziphus' in the Checklist of Plants of Myanmar, U.S. National Herbarium, 5 Aug 2006.
• Ziziphus brunoniana C.B. Clarke. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Kayin, Taninthayi, Unknown, Yangon
• Ziziphus funiculosa Buch.-Ham. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Chin, Kachin, Sagaing, Taninthayi
• Ziziphus glabra Roxb. Habit: Climber/Creeper. Distribution: Wide. Common Names: Ma jilamyin, N ji-lam-yin, Paungbet
• Ziziphus globularis Wall. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Reported from Myanmar
• Ziziphus incurva Roxb. Habit: Tree. Distribution: Chin, Kachin, Mandalay, Sagaing, Shan. Common Names: Ma jilam-yin, N jilam-yin, Paungpe, Subo, Sugauk
• Ziziphus jujuba Lam. Cited as: Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. Habit: Tree. Distribution: Cultivated. Common Names: Chinese date, Eng-si, Jujube, Mahkaw, Makhkaw-hku, Zi, Zi-daw-thi
• Ziziphus oenoplia Mill. Habit: Shrub, Climber. Distribution: Wide. Common Names: Mainam-nu, Mak-hkaw-hku, Njilamyin, Paungbet, Supauk-pin, Taw-zi-nwe
• Ziziphus rubiginosa D.G. Long & Rae. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Kachin, Unknown
• Ziziphus rugosa Lam. Habit: Small tree. Distribution: Wide. Common Names: Mak-kok, Myauk-zi, Sammankaw, Taw-zi, Zi-ganauk, Zi-talaing

USDA-NRCS
"ZIZIP","Ziziphus P. Mill.","jujube","Rhamnaceae"
"ZICE","Ziziphus celata Judd & Hall","Florida jujube","Rhamnaceae"
"ZILO","Ziziphus lotus (L.) Lam.","lotus jujube","Rhamnaceae"
"ZIMA","Ziziphus mauritiana Lam.","Indian jujube","Rhamnaceae"
"ZIJU2","Ziziphus jujuba (L.) Lam., non P. Mill.",">>Ziziphus mauritiana","Rhamnaceae"
"ZINU2","Ziziphus nummularia (Burman f.) Wight & Arn.","jujube","Rhamnaceae"
"ZIOB","Ziziphus obtusifolia (Hook. ex Torr. & Gray) Gray","lotebush","Rhamnaceae"
"ZIOBC","Ziziphus obtusifolia (Hook. ex Torr. & Gray) Gray var. canescens (Gray) M.C. Johnston","lotebush","Rhamnaceae"
"COLYC","Condalia lycioides (Gray) Weberb. var. canescens (Gray) Trel.",">>Ziziphus obtusifolia var. canescens","Rhamnaceae"
"COLYC2","Condaliopsis lycioides (Gray) Suess. var. canescens (Gray) Suess.",">>Ziziphus obtusifolia var. canescens","Rhamnaceae"
"ZIOBO","Ziziphus obtusifolia (Hook. ex Torr. & Gray) Gray var. obtusifolia","lotebush","Rhamnaceae"
"COLY2","Condalia lycioides (Gray) Weberb.",">>Ziziphus obtusifolia var. obtusifolia","Rhamnaceae"
"COOB6","Condalia obtusifolia (Hook. ex Torr. & Gray) Weberb.",">>Ziziphus obtusifolia var. obtusifolia","Rhamnaceae"
"COLY3","Condaliopsis lycioides (Gray) Suess.",">>Ziziphus obtusifolia var. obtusifolia","Rhamnaceae"
"ZIPA","Ziziphus parryi Torr.","Parry's jujube","Rhamnaceae"
"COPA27","Condalia parryi (Torr.) Weberb.",">>Ziziphus parryi","Rhamnaceae"
"COPA21","Condaliopsis parryi (Torr.) Suess.",">>Ziziphus parryi","Rhamnaceae"
"ZIPAP3","Ziziphus parryi Torr. var. parryi Torr. [superfluous autonym]",">>Ziziphus parryi","Rhamnaceae"
"ZIRE","Ziziphus reticulata (Vahl) DC.","cacao rojo","Rhamnaceae"
"SARE14","Sarcomphalus reticulatus (Vahl) Urban",">>Ziziphus reticulata","Rhamnaceae"
"ZIRI","Ziziphus rignonii Delponte","soana","Rhamnaceae"
"SADO9","Sarcomphalus domingensis (Spreng.) Krug & Urban",">>Ziziphus rignonii","Rhamnaceae"
"ZITA","Ziziphus taylorii (Britt.) M.C. Johnston","Taylor's jujube","Rhamnaceae"
"SATA3","Sarcomphalus taylorii Britt.",">>Ziziphus taylorii","Rhamnaceae"
"ZIZI","Ziziphus zizyphus (L.) Karst.","common jujube","Rhamnaceae"
"ZIJU","Ziziphus jujuba P. Mill.",">>Ziziphus zizyphus","Rhamnaceae"

Agri.Dept.2000
Rhamaceae -- Zigyphus oenoplia -- {paung-mθ.thi:} 38-0993
Rhamnaceae -- Ventilago madraspatna -- {thwι:tak} 62-1663
Rhamnaceae -- Ventilago madroaspatana -- {wa-hso-nwθύ} 55-1452
Rhamnaceae -- Zigyphur rugosa -- {myauk-hsi:} 46-1207 - [UKT: sp. mistake?]
Rhamnaceae -- Zizyphus incurva -- {hsu:hpo} 20-0510
Rhamnaceae -- Zizyphus mauritiana -- {hsi:} {hsi:tau} 20-0500
Rhanmaceae -- Zizphus oenoplia -- {tau:hsi:nwθύ} {paung-pθ.} 26-0676
Rhanmaceae -- Zizyphus rugosa -- {tau:hsi:} {myauk-hsi:} 26-0675

Contents of this page

Entry format: Botanical name / Family / Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcripts (• Agri.Dept.2000 : • Chklist: • LSR : • FAO : • KS-TMN: • Nagathein : • UHM :/ Myanmar-Script Spelling (• Official Myanmar Dictionaries : - TravPo-M-Dict - Myan-Engl-Dict - Myan-Ortho / Chklist data / Hindi / Sanskrit / English common name used in Myanmar / Picture / Plant identification characters / Distribution in Myanmar / Part used and uses / Constituents /
End of TIL file