Update: 2006-08-05 06:10 AM -0700


Myanmar Medicinal Plant Database

Family: Papaveraceae

compiled by U Kyaw Tun, U Pe Than, and staff of TIL. Not for sale.

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Family: Papaveraceae 2 entries
• Papaveraceae family - general characters
• Argemone mexicana • {hka.ra (koan:)}
• Papaver somniferum • {Bein:}
• Argemone spp.

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Papaveraceae family - general characters

From: Families yielding important phytopharmaceuticals in Fundamentals of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy, by Michael Heinrich, J. Barnes, S. Gibbons, and E. Williamson, October 2003, ISBN:0443071322, pp.320 -- www.fleshandbones.com/readingroom/pdf/747.pdf

This rather small family has yielded a multitude of pharmaceutically or toxicologically important genera (e.g. Chelidonium, Eschholzia, Glaucium, Papaver) and natural products from two of its representatives are particularly widely used.

Important medicinal plants from the family
• Chelidonium majus L. (greater celandine), which yields the alkaloid chelidonine, sometimes employed as a cholagogue.
• Papaver somniferum L. [(opium) poppy], which yields a multitude of pharmacologically active alkaloids and is a well-known and dangerous narcotic.

Morphological characteristics of the family
(Fig. 4.11)
This family of (generally) herbs or sub-shrubs typically has spirally arranged leaves which are entire or lobed or dissected. The generally large flowers are bisexual, have an inferior gynaecium, a reduced number of sepals (two to occasionally four), often four petals and numerous stamens. The fruit is a capsule (e.g. Papaver somniferum, which is lanced to obtain opium), with valves or pores for seed dispersal.

This small family with about 200 species is mostly confined to the northern temperate regions of the world.

Chemical characteristics of the family
The laticifers (or latex vessels) are rich in isoquinoline alkaloids, including morphine (Fig. 4.12), papaverine, codeine, thebaine and noscapine. Some of these alkaloids are typical benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (papaverine, noscapine); others are chemically modified and have two additional ring systems (morphinane-type skeleton).

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Argemone mexicana

Family: Papaveraceae

Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcripts
• Agri.Dept.2000 11-0275:  {hka.ra (koan:)} 
• Chklist: Khaya
• LSR : NL
• FAO : NL
• KS-TMN 181 : Kha-yar, Kone-kha-yar
• Nagathein 1-239:  {hka.ra (koan:)}
• UHM : NL

Nagathein also listed another as {hka.ra (ré)}, Acanthus ilicifolius fam: Acanthaceae.

Myanmar-Script Spelling
• Official Myanmar Dictionaries :
{hka.ra}- -- TravPo-M-Dict 040
{hka.ra}- n.  prickly poppy, Agemone mexicana -- Myan-Engl-Dict 052

Chklist data:
• Argemone mexicana L. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Kachin, Mandalay, Sagaing. Common Names: Khaya, Mexican prickly poppy

Hindi :
Sanskrit :


English common name used in Myanmar :
• Agri.Dept.2000 11-0275:  {hka.ra (koan:)} 
• Chklist: Khaya
• LSR : NL
• FAO : NL
• KS-TMN 181 : Mexican Poppy, Prickly Poppy, Yellow Mexican Poppy
• Nagathein 1-239:  Prickly poppy
• UHM : NL


Picture :
• Leader from Nagathein
• Photo: left - flowers and fruits; right -- habit with flowers and fruits. Click on the pictures to enlarge. -- KS-TMN


Plant identification characters :

• An annual herb, erect and prickly, latex yellow. Leaves alternate, simple; exstipulate; sessile; laminae oblong, pinnati-partite, the bases amplexicaul, the margins spinoso-dentate, sinuate, the tips spinescent, the surfaces spinulose on the veins. Inflorescences solitary cymose, terminal on short leafy branches. Flowers ebracteolate, pedicellate, bisexual, actinomorphic, trimerous, hypogynous. Calyx aposepalous, sepals 3, ovate, prickly. Corolla apopetalous, petals 6, in 2 whorls, ovate or elliptic, yellow. Androecium polyandrous, stamens numerous, in many whorls, the filaments filiform, inserted, the anthers dithecous, basifixed, introrse, dehiscence longitudinal. Pistil 1, ovary ellipsoid, 5-carpelled, syncarpous, 1-loculed, the placentation parietal, the ovules numerous on each parietal placentae, the style very short, the stigma 5-lobed. Fruit a capsule, ellipsoid, prickly, dehiscing at the top by short valves; seeds many, globose, endosperm copious. Flowering period: April-June. Fruiting period : June-September -- KS-TMN


Distribution in Myanmar :

• Naturalized throughout Myanmar up to 4000ft. Grows in open waste land and a long roadsides. -- KS-TMN


Part used and uses :

• Expectorant; Biliousness; Infections; Pruritis; Antidote for poisons; Gastric distention; Haematemesis; Leprosy; Dyuria; Lithiasis; Oedema. Seed oil -- Colic; Chest pain; Asthma; Jaundice -- KS-TMN


Constituents /


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Papaver somniferum

Family: Papaveraceae

Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
• Agri.Dept.2000 42-1119: {Bein:}
• Chklist:
• LSR : NL
• FAO : NL
• Nagathein 2-358: {Bein:}
• UHM 36: Bein


Myanmar-Script Spelling
• Official Myanmar Dictionaries:
{Bein:} -   -- TravPo-M-Dict 225
{Bein:} - n. 1. opium. 2. opium poppy. Papaver somniferum .  - Myan-Engl-Dict 327

Chklist data:


English common name used in Myanmar:
• Agri.Dept.2000 42-1119: Opium poppy
• FAO : NL
• Lè-seik-shin : NL
• Nagathein 2-358: NG
• UHM 36: The White Opium Poppy, Succus Thebaicus, Gum Opium, Thaicum, Meconium -- UHM


Picture :
• Leader - Nagathein


Plant identification characters :

• An annual herb with thick branching, yellow root systems, the tap root of which gives rise to a smooth, glaucous branched stem bearing alternate, dull-green, ovate clasping leaves that are irregularly toothed, buds nodding, flowers large, white, purple or scarlet, capsule 1 in. diameter, stalked, dehiscing by terminal pores. -- UHM


Distribution in Myanmar:

• Cultivated in the Northern & Southern Shan States, Shwe Minbon 10 miles from Kalaw. -- UHM


Part used and uses  :

• The air-dried milky exudation (latex) obtained by incising the unripe fruit (capsules). Used as Opium and morphine:-somnifacient, analgesic, calminative. Codeine: -sedative in coughs, relief of acute colds. Papaverine:-- to relax spasm of smooth muscles. -- UHM


Constituents :

• 1. Alkaloids: Morphine, codeine, narcotine, narceine, papaverine, thebaine, protopine laudanine, codamine-cryptopine, gnoscopie lanthopine, Laudanidine, deutreopine meconine, meconidine, pseudomorphine etc. (7) -- UHM

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Argemone spp.

Family: Papaveraceae

Results of search for 'Argemone' in the Checklist of Plants of Myanmar, U.S. National Herbarium, 4 Aug 2006.
• Argemone mexicana L. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Kachin, Mandalay, Sagaing. Common Names: Khaya, Mexican prickly poppy


"ARGEM","Argemone L.","pricklypoppy","Papaveraceae"
"ARAE","Argemone aenea G.B. Ownbey","golden pricklypoppy","Papaveraceae"
"ARAL3","Argemone albiflora Hornem.","bluestem pricklypoppy","Papaveraceae"
"ARALA2","Argemone albiflora Hornem. ssp. albiflora","bluestem pricklypoppy","Papaveraceae"
"ARAL9","Argemone alba Lestib. f.",">>Argemone albiflora ssp. albiflora","Papaveraceae"
"ARALT","Argemone albiflora Hornem. ssp. texana G.B. Ownbey","bluestem pricklypoppy","Papaveraceae"
"ARALT4","Argemone albiflora Hornem. var. texana (G.B. Ownbey) Shinners",">>Argemone albiflora ssp. texana","Papaveraceae"
"ARAR4","Argemone arizonica G.B. Ownbey","Arizona pricklypoppy","Papaveraceae"
"ARAU2","Argemone aurantiaca G.B. Ownbey","Texas pricklypoppy","Papaveraceae"
"ARCH2","Argemone chisosensis G.B. Ownbey","Chisos Mountain pricklypoppy","Papaveraceae"
"ARCO6","Argemone corymbosa Greene","Mojave pricklypoppy","Papaveraceae"
"ARCOA","Argemone corymbosa Greene ssp. arenicola G.B. Ownbey","Mojave pricklypoppy","Papaveraceae"
"ARCOA2","Argemone corymbosa Greene var. arenicola (G.B. Ownbey) Shinners",">>Argemone corymbosa ssp. arenicola","Papaveraceae"
"ARCOC6","Argemone corymbosa Greene ssp. corymbosa","Mojave pricklypoppy","Papaveraceae"
"ARGL10","Argemone glauca (Nutt. ex Prain) Pope","smooth pricklypoppy","Papaveraceae"
"ARGLD","Argemone glauca (Nutt. ex Prain) Pope var. decipiens G.B. Ownbey","smooth pricklypoppy","Papaveraceae"
"ARGLG5","Argemone glauca (Nutt. ex Prain) Pope var. glauca","smooth pricklypoppy","Papaveraceae"
"ARGLI","Argemone glauca (Nutt. ex Prain) Pope var. inermis O.& I. Deg.",">>Argemone glauca var. glauca","Papaveraceae"
"ARGR3","Argemone gracilenta Greene","Sonoran pricklypoppy","Papaveraceae"
"ARHI4","Argemone hispida Gray","rough pricklypoppy","Papaveraceae"
"ARBI8","Argemone bipinnatifida Greene",">>Argemone hispida","Papaveraceae"
"ARPLH3","Argemone platyceras Link & Otto var. hispida (Gray) Prain",">>Argemone hispida","Papaveraceae"
"ARME4","Argemone mexicana L.","Mexican pricklypoppy","Papaveraceae"
"ARLE4","Argemone leiocarpa Greene",">>Argemone mexicana","Papaveraceae"
"ARMU","Argemone munita Dur. & Hilg.","flatbud pricklypoppy","Papaveraceae"
"ARMUA","Argemone munita Dur. & Hilg. ssp. argentea G.B. Ownbey","flatbud pricklypoppy","Papaveraceae"
"ARMUA2","Argemone munita Dur. & Hilg. var. argentea (G.B. Ownbey) Shinners",">>Argemone munita ssp. argentea","Papaveraceae"
"ARMUM","Argemone munita Dur. & Hilg. ssp. munita","flatbud pricklypoppy","Papaveraceae"
"ARMUR2","Argemone munita Dur. & Hilg. ssp. robusta G.B. Ownbey","flatbud pricklypoppy","Papaveraceae"
"ARMUR3","Argemone munita Dur. & Hilg. var. robusta (G.B. Ownbey) Shinners",">>Argemone munita ssp. robusta","Papaveraceae"
"ARMUR","Argemone munita Dur. & Hilg. ssp. rotundata (Rydb.) G.B. Ownbey","flatbud pricklypoppy","Papaveraceae"
"ARMUR4","Argemone munita Dur. & Hilg. var. rotundata (Rydb.) Shinners",">>Argemone munita ssp. rotundata","Papaveraceae"
"ARRO5","Argemone rotundata Rydb.",">>Argemone munita ssp. rotundata","Papaveraceae"
"AROC2","Argemone ochroleuca Sweet","pale Mexican pricklypoppy","Papaveraceae"
"ARMEO","Argemone mexicana L. var. ochroleuca (Sweet) Lindl.",">>Argemone ochroleuca","Papaveraceae"
"AROCS","Argemone ochroleuca Sweet var. stenophylla (Prain) Shinners",">>Argemone ochroleuca","Papaveraceae"
"ARPL3","Argemone pleiacantha Greene","southwestern pricklypoppy","Papaveraceae"
"ARPLA","Argemone pleiacantha Greene ssp. ambigua G.B. Ownbey","southwestern pricklypoppy","Papaveraceae"
"ARPLA2","Argemone pleiacantha Greene var. ambigua (G.B. Ownbey) Shinners",">>Argemone pleiacantha ssp. ambigua","Papaveraceae"
"ARPLP","Argemone pleiacantha Greene ssp. pinnatisecta G.B. Ownbey","southwestern pricklypoppy","Papaveraceae"
"ARPLP4","Argemone pleiacantha Greene var. pinnatisecta (G.B. Ownbey) Shinners",">>Argemone pleiacantha ssp. pinnatisecta","Papaveraceae"
"ARPLP3","Argemone pleiacantha Greene ssp. pleiacantha","southwestern pricklypoppy","Papaveraceae"
"ARPO2","Argemone polyanthemos (Fedde) G.B. Ownbey","crested pricklypoppy","Papaveraceae"
"ARIN7","Argemone intermedia auct. non Sweet [misapplied]",">>Argemone polyanthemos","Papaveraceae"
"ARINP2","Argemone intermedia Sweet var. polyanthemos Fedde",">>Argemone polyanthemos","Papaveraceae"
"ARPL2","Argemone platyceras auct. non Link & Otto [misapplied]",">>Argemone polyanthemos","Papaveraceae"
"ARSA4","Argemone sanguinea Greene","red pricklypoppy","Papaveraceae"
"ARPLR","Argemone platyceras Link & Otto var. rosea Coult.",">>Argemone sanguinea","Papaveraceae"
"ARSQ","Argemone squarrosa Greene","hedgehog pricklypoppy","Papaveraceae"
"ARSQG","Argemone squarrosa Greene ssp. glabrata G.B. Ownbey","hedgehog pricklypoppy","Papaveraceae"
"ARSQG2","Argemone squarrosa Greene var. glabrata (G.B. Ownbey) Shinners",">>Argemone squarrosa ssp. glabrata","Papaveraceae"
"ARSQS","Argemone squarrosa Greene ssp. squarrosa","hedgehog pricklypoppy","Papaveraceae"

Contents of this page

Entry format: Botanical name / Family / Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcripts • Agri.Dept.2000 : • Chklist: • LSR : • FAO : • KS-TMN: • Nagathein : • UHM :/ Myanmar-Script Spelling ( • Official Myanmar Dictionaries : - TravPo-M-Dict - Myan-Engl-Dict - Myan-Ortho / Chklist data / Hindi / Sanskrit / English common name used in Myanmar / Picture / Plant identification characters / Distribution in Myanmar / Part used and uses / Constituents /
End of TIL file