- Update: 2006-08-06 01:57 PM -0700


Myanmar Medicinal Plant Database

Family: Myristicaceae

compiled by U Kyaw Tun, U Pe Than, and staff of TIL. Not for sale.

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Family: Myristicaceae 1 entry
• Myristica fragrans  • {za-teip~hpo}  

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Myristica fragrans  .

Family: Myristicaceae.

Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
• Agri.Dept.2000 23-0577: {za-teip~hpol}
• FAO 163: zadeik-po
• Lè-seik-shin :
• KS-TMN 165: Zadeik-hpo
• Nagathein 1-509: {za-teip~hpol}
• UHM 34: Zadeik-hpos


Myanmar-Script Spelling
• Official Myanmar Dictionaries :
{za-teip~hpol} - --TravPo-M-Dict111 
{za-teip~hpol} - n. nutmed, Myristica fragrans -- Myan-Engl-Dict 150


English common name used in Myanmar :
• Agri.Dept.2000 23-0577: Nutmeg
• FAO 163: Nutmeg
• Lè-seik-shin :
• KS-TMN 165: Nutmeg, True Nutmeg, Common Nutmeg, False Aril, Fragrant Nut-tree, Mace Tree
• Nagathein 1-509: {za-teip~hpol}
• UHM 34: Nutmeg, Round Nutmeg

• Leader: drawing from Nagathein; photo from FAO
• Photos: left -- habit with flowers; right -- habit with fruits. Click on the pictures to enlarge. -- KS-TMN


Plant identification characters

• Key characteristics: Small; branchlets slender; leaves elliptic or oblong-lanceolate, 8–11 pairs of lateral veins, aromatic; Male and female flowers mostly on seperate trees, pale yellow; fruit broad pyriform drupe splitting into two halves, seed dark brown, aril red. Description: An evergreen tree up to 5–13 m tall, reaching sometimes 20 m, with slender branches and superficial roots. Crown conical if free standing. Alternate leaves on about 1 cm long leaf stalks, elliptic or oblong-lanceolate, acute base and pointed tip, dark shiny green above and paler beneath, 5–15 cm long and 2–7 cm wide with 8–11 pairs of lateral veins and aromatic smell when crushed. Male and female flowers mostly on separate trees in similar looking umbels arising from leaf corners, 1–10 flowers, about 5–7 mm long, in male cymes and 1–3, about 1 cm long flowers in female, on 1–1.5 cm long stalks. Waxy, fleshy flowers fragrant, pale yellow and glabrous with bell-shaped calyx and no petals. Fruit a smooth, fleshy, yellow drupe, 6–9 cm long with longitudinal ridge, splitting in two when ripe, exposing purplish-brown shiny seed in a red aril. -- FAO

• A lofty evergreen tree. Leaves alternate, simple; exstipulate; petiolate; laminae elliptic-lanceolate or elliptic-oblong, sometimes oblanceolate, the bases obtuse to rounded, the margins entire, the tips acute to acuminate, unicostate, reticulate, the surfaces glabrous, the lower glaucous, coriaceous. Inflorescences in fasciculate cymes, axillary or supra-axillary, dioecious. Flowers bracteolate, pedicellate, unisexual, actinomorphic, trimerous, hypogyous. Perianth synphyllous, 3-lobed, sepaloid, coriaceous, glabrous, deciduous. Staminate flowers: Androecium monadelphous, stamens 9-12, the filaments united to form a solid cylindric stipitate staminal column, the anthers dithecous, ovoid, sessie, adnate dorsally to the apex of the staminal column, extrorse, dehiscence longitudinal. Pistillode absent. Pistillate flowers: Perianth similar to the staminate flower. Staminodes absent. Pistil 1, ovary superior, 1-carpelled, 1-loculed, the enclosed in a fleshy brightly coloured aromatic aril, endosperm copious, ruminate. Flowering period: February. Fruiting period: April  -- KS-TMN

• An evergreen tree, 25-50 feet, leaves coriaceous, darkgreen, entire, oblong-ovate to ovate-lanceolate with acute apex, and base, pistillate flowers small, yellow and axillary, fruit ovoid, subglobose or pyriform, 1 1/2-2 in. long.-- UHM


Distribution in Myanmar:

• Cultivated at Moatamaa and all throughout Taninthayi in moist and hot places. -- KS-TMN

• Mergui -- UHM

Distribution elsewhere:
• In its native Molucca nutmegs are grown on rich volcanic soils up to 500 m altitude in a non-seasonal climate of 2,200–3,600 mm annual rain and temperatures from 24 to 33°C. Prefers some shade when young and does not tolerate waterlogging or excessive soil drying. Very rarely found growing wild. -- FAO

Part used and used as:

• Two spices can be produced from M. fragrans: nutmeg from the dried seed and mace from the dried aril. Essential oils can be extracted from the seeds. -- FAO

• Fruit -- Seeds (kernel). Fruit wall, Aril (Mace), Inner portion of the bark -- Appetizer; Loss of appetite; Carmiantive; Expectorant; Cough; Infection; Emesis; Oedema; Cold; Heart disease; Laryngitis; Diarrhoea; heal carbuncles; Chronic diarrhoea; Indigestion; Colic; Gas distention; Inflammation of gums. Fruit wall -- Carminative; Cough; Asthma; Appetizer; To allay thirst; Infection; Antidote for poisons; Expectorant; Gains weight; Purexia; Aphrodisiac; Aphrodisiac, Hepatitis; Pneumonitis; Ascites; Arthritis; Paralysis agitans; Increase bile secretion; Controls spermatogenesis. Friut -- Cholera; Diarrhoea: Indigestion; Emesis; Diabetes; Anaemia; To allay thirst; Heals carbuncles; Dysentery; Asthma; Cough; Loss of a appetites; Sinusitis; Expectorant; Carminative; Haemorrhoids; Cardiomyopathies. Aril (Mace) -- Appetizer; Cough; Expectorant; Emesis; Asthma; To allay thirst;  Cleanse oral cavity. -- KS-TMN

• The dried ripe seed, deprived of its seed coat and arillode and with or without a thin coating of lime. Used as Stimulant and Carminative. -- UHM


Ethnobotany (Worldwide use):



• 1. Up to 40 % of fixed oil containing trimyristin, olliec acid, linolenic acid etc. 2. About 10 % of volatile oil containing myristicin C11H12O3. 3. A narcotic principle - 4 %. 4. Pinene and Camphene - 80 %. 5. Dipetine - 8 %. 6. Safrol - 0.6 %. 7. Alcohols - 6 %. 8. Traces of Eugenol, Isoegenol, starch and protein. (7) -- UHM

Contents of this page

Entry format: Botanical name / Family / Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcripts (• Agri.Dept.2000 : • FAO : • Lè-seik-shin : • KS-TMN: • Nagathein : • UHM :/ Myanmar-Script Spelling Official Myanmar Dictionaries : - TravPo-M-Dict - Myan-Engl-Dict - Myan-Ortho / Hindi / Sanskrit / English common name used in Myanmar / Picture / Plant identification characters / Distribution in Myanmar / Part used and uses / Constituents /
End of TIL file