Update: 2006-08-06 01:56 PM -0700

TIL

Myanmar Medicinal Plant Database

Family: Musaceae

compiled by U Kyaw Tun, U Pe Than, and staff of TIL. Not for sale.

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Family: Musaceae 4 entries
• Ensete glaucum • {nat nghak-pyau:}
• Musa glauca • {nat nghak-pyau:}   
• Musa sapientum • {ra.hkeing nghak-pyau:}
• Musa textilis • {ma.ni-la lhyau-ping}
• Ensete spp.
• Musa spp .

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Ensete glaucum

Syn:  Musa glauca  

Family: Musaceae

UKT: E. glaucum is synonymous with M. gluaca. See Musa glauca  . See also Ensete spp. and Musa spp.

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Ensete spp.

Results of search for 'Ensete' in the Checklist of Plants of Myanmar, U.S. National Herbarium, 22 May 2006.
• Ensete glaucum (Roxb.) E.E. Cheesm. Cited as: Musa glauca Roxb. Habit: Herb.
  Distribution: Bago, Unknown. Common Names: Nat-nget-pyaw, Shew-kyin-hnget-pyaw
• Ensete superbum (Roxb.) E.E. Cheesm. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Mandalay, Shan
• Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) E.E. Cheesm. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Cultivated.
  Common Names: Ensete, Shwe-nget-pyaw

USDA-NRCS

"ENSET","Ensete Horan.","ensete","Musaceae"
"ENVE2","Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheeseman","Abyssinian banana","Musaceae"
"ENED","Ensete edule Bruce ex Horan.",">>Ensete ventricosum","Musaceae"
"MUEN","Musa ensete Gmelin",">>Ensete ventricosum","Musaceae"

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Musa glauca

Syn: Ensete glaucum (Roxb.)

Family: Musaceae

Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
• Agri.Dept.2000 16-0396:  {nghak-pyau: (nat)}
• FAO : NL specifically, but listed generically 045. See Musa spp.
• Lθ-seik-shin : NL
• KS-TMNs: NL
• Nagathein:  NL
• UHM: NL

Myanmar-Script Spelling
• Official Myanmar Dictionaries :
  on {nat} does not list {nat nghak-pyau:} -- TravPo-M-Dict 169. However, there is a possibility that   {hpi:kram: nghat--pyau:} is M. glauca .
{hpi:kram:} - -- TravPo-M-Dict 207
{hpi:kram:} - n. plantain producing an angular fruit of coarse texture. -- Myan-Engl-Dict 298

UKT: The following are what I have found on the Internet:

Musa glauca Musa glauca W. Roxburgh, Hort. Beng. 19 (1814) (nomen), Corom. Pl. t. 300, 96-98 (1819-1820), Flora Indica 2: 490 (1824) (descr.); ibid. ed. 2, 1: 669 (1832).
or Ensete glaucum (W. Roxburgh, Hort. Beng. 19 (1814) (nomen), Corom. Pl. t. 300, 96-98 (1819-1820), Flora Indica 2: 490 (1824) (descr.); ibid ed. 2, 1: 669 (1832)) E. E. Cheesman, Kew Bulletin 2 (2): 101 (1947). -- www.users.globalnet.co.uk/~drc/mglauca.htm

The type of Ensete glaucum, Musa glauca was first collected  by Roxburgh  in Burma when it was part of India sensu lato (Latin: in the broad sense).  Despite its appearance in modern floras of India and of Nepal Ensete glaucum almost certainly does not occur in these countries as a wild plant.  (Possibly it just creeps into Mizoram, Hore et al 1992).  It is however cultivated in north eastern India e.g. in Kalimpong and some commercial seed originates there. -- www.users.globalnet.co.uk/~drc/eglaucum.htm

Ensete glaucum (Snow Banana)
This exciting but little-known banana relative is also known as Musa nepalensis and Ensete giganteum, hinting at the plants giant size and is synonymous with the legendary “Snow Banana” Ensete wilsonii. It grows in China (Yunnan 800-2700m a.s.l., 2600-8800ft !!!), Nepal, India, Burma, Thailand and possibly also in Tibet, Indonesia, Malaysia and Papua New Guinea. It has a thick, waxy and blue, solitary trunk, huge blueish leaves up to 10ft/3m long, and a huge nodding banana-producing inflorescence. It is extremely fast growing and so requires a good supply of fertilizer and water and is best planted in rich soil. In cold climates it could be hardy enough to survive winters outdoors with some protection. -- www.rarepalmseeds.com/pix/EnsGla.shtml

Ensete glaucum (W. Roxburgh) E. E. Cheesman -- http://florawww.eeb.uconn.edu/acc_num/200000113.html

Musa glauca W. Roxburgh, Hort. Beng. 19 (1814) (nomen), Corom. Pl. t. 300, 96-98 (1819-1820), Flora Indica 2: 490 (1824) (descr.); ibid. ed. 2, 1: 669 (1832). Accepted name:  Ensete glaucum (W. Roxburgh) E. E. Cheesman, Kew Bulletin 2 (2): 101 (1947). -- www.users.globalnet.co.uk/~drc/mglauca.htm

Hindi:
Sanskrit:

English common name used in Myanmar :
• Agri.Dept.2000 16-0396: banana 
• FAO : NL specifically, but listed generically 045 as "banana". See Musa spp.
• Lθ-seik-shin : NL
• KS-TMNs: NL
• Nagathein:  NL
• UHM: NL

Picture:
• Leader www.rarepalmseeds.com/pix/EnsGla.shtml

Plant :

Distribution in Myanmar:

Part used and used as

Constituents  :

 

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Musa sapientum

Family: Musaceae

Musaceae. (Liliopsida: Zingiberidae: Zingiberales:
Musaceae -- http://ecocrop.fao.org/GPPIS.exe$ShowHost?Host=1503

Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
• Agri.Dept.2000 16-0397:  {nghak-pyau: (ra.hkeing)}
• FAO : NL specifically, but listed generically 045. See Musa spp.
• Lθ-seik-shin : NL
• KS-TMN: NL
• Nagathein 1-357:  {nghak-pyau:}
• UHM: NL

 

Myanmar-Script Spelling
• Official Myanmar Dictionaries 269:  or
{rι-thi-lan°} -- {ra.hkeing nghak-pyau:} --TravPo-M-Dict 269
{rι-thi-lan°} -- n. same as {ra.hkeing} -- Myan-Engl-Dict 398
{nghak-pyau:} --TravPo-M-Dict 076
{nghak-pyau:} -- n. plantain; banana -- Myan-Engl-Dict 100

UKT: The information from http://ecocrop.fao.org/GPPIS.exe$ShowHost?Host=1503 indicated that M. sapientum has seeds, from which I concluded that this is probably {ra.hkeing nghak-pyau:} , because this species of banana, unless cultivated, becomes seeded when we say that the plant has "gone back to the forest or became wild". Wild banana is known as {tau: nghak-pyau:}. However, Agri.Dept.2000 16-0394 identified {tau: nghak-pyau:} as M. bakert . However, Chklist does not list M. bakert. See Musa spp.
   There are those who prefer the name {rι-thi-lan°}, because the word {ra.hkeing} is the name of Myanmars on the western coast of Myanmar-country who speak Burmese as a distinct dialect.

Hindi:
Sanskrit:

  English common name used in Myanmar :
• Agri.Dept.2000 16-0397:  banana
• FAO : NL specifically, but listed generically 045 as "banana". See Musa spp.
• Lθ-seik-shin : NL
• KS-TMN: NL
• Nagathein 1-357:  plantain
• UHM: NL

UKT: Note on "Plantain"
   Shin Nagathein, vol 1 pg 357, referred to {nghak-pyau:} as "plantain" following a commonly held belief in Myanmar that the proper English name for "banana" is "plantain". This is to be avoided since in North America "plantain" is a weed and definitely not {nghak-pyau:}. (I learned this from a personal experience when I was laughed at.). "Plantain" means Plantago lanceolata  or P. major, which also goes by the common names "Broadleaf plantain", "Lanceleaf plantain", "ribwort" -- http://www.vitacost.com/science/hn/Herb/Plantain.htm  This plant though considered to be a weed is a hardy little plant known in Myanmar as {a.krau:ta.htaung} or more properly as {a.krau:ta.htaung-pin}, the smaller variety of which is also known as {hpa:krau:pin}.

Picture:
• Leader drawing: http://ecocrop.fao.org/GPPIS.exe$ShowHost?Host=1503
• Photo: left - fruit; right - red tip of bunch: http://ecocrop.fao.org/GPPIS.exe$ShowHost?Host=1503

Plant:

Distribution in Myanmar:

Part used and uses :

Constituents :

 

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Musa spp

Family: Musaceae

UKT: Several species of the genus Musa were listed under {nghak-pyau:} with or without affixes, and also under other names.
Note: In Burmese the adjective usually follows the noun. Because, the qualifier {ra.hkeing} is used as an adjective, it becomes a prefix: {ra.hkeing nghak-pyau:}. In the following Burmese-Myanmar transcript names, I have changed suffix to prefix to be in conformity with colloquial names.

Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
Agri.Dept.2000
- 16-0394 : • M. bakert  •  {tau: nghak-pyau:},
  lit. meaning: "wild banana"
- 16-0395 • M. chinensis  •  {wak-ma.lwut nghak-pyau:},
  lit. meaning: "not-high-for-a-pig-to-crawl-under banana"
- 16-0396 • M. glauca  • {nat nghak-pyau:}
   -- lit. {nat} means "deva" or "minor god"
- 16-0397 • M. sapientum var. arakenensis  • {ra.hkeing nghak-pyau:}
  -- lit. {ra.hkeing} means "people of the Rakhine or Arakan Coast"
- 16-0398 • M. sapientum var. champa •  {htau:pat nghak-pyau:} 
  -- lit. meaning: "butter banana"
- 16-0399 • M. sapientum var. dacca  •  {pya:rιρ-hsam: nghak-pyau:}
  -- lit. meaning: "honey-sprinkled banana"
- 16-0400 • M. sapientum var. rabra  •  {shwι nghak-pyau:}
  -- lit. meaning: "golden banana", however the colour is "reddish-yellow".

UKT note: Several species are listed in Chklist as {tau: nghak-pyau:}:
  • Musa itinerans E.E. Cheesm.
  • Musa laterita E.E. Cheesm.
  • Musa ornata Roxb.
  • Musa sapientum L.
  • Musa velutina H. Wendl. & Drude.
But, M. bakert is not listed at all in Chklist.

 

Myanmar-Script Spelling
• Official Myanmar Dictionaries :
{nghak-pyau:} -  --TravPo-M-Dict 076

Hindi :
Sanskrit :

English common name used in Myanmar :
• Agri.Dept.2000 16-0393 to 0400: Listed all as "banana", except M. chinensis  {wak-ma.lwut nghak-pyau:} which it named "Chinese banana", "Dwarf banana".
• FAO 045: Banana
 

Picture :
• Leader from FAO 044

Plant identification characters :

• Key characteristics: Branchless herb; green stem; leaves to 4 m long from center of stem; Single, large inflorescence through center of pseudo-stem; many varieties. Description: Tree-like perennial herb, 2–9 m tall. Tightly rolled over-lapping leaf sheath forms a cylindrical pseudo-stem, 20–50 cm in diameter. New leaves grow up through the centre of the pseudo-stem. The leaf blade is 1.5–4m long and 0.7–1m wide with pronounced supporting midrib. A single terminal inflorescence appear through centre of pseudo-stem, bending down when exerted, male flowers towards tip of stand, female behind these. Flower/fruit stand 50–150 cm long when mature. Fruits berrylike, seedless, curved 6–35 cm long, 2.5–5 cm wide, green, yellow or reddish. -- FAO

Distribution in Myanmar :

Part used and uses :
• Grown primarily for the fruit which, depending on cultivar can be eaten fresh, cooked or preserved in various ways. The male bud is eaten as a vegetable. Leaves are used for packing, wrapping and decorative purposes. -- FAO

Constituents :

 

Data from Chklist

Results of search for 'Musa' in the Checklist of Plants of Myanmar, U.S. National Herbarium, 22 May 2006.
• Ensete glaucum (Roxb.) E.E. Cheesm. Cited as: Musa glauca Roxb. Habit: Herb.
  Distribution: Bago, Unknown. Common Names: Nat-nget-pyaw, Shew-kyin-hnget-pyaw
• Musa acuminata Simmonds. Cited as: Musa sinensis Sw. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Cultivated.
  Common Names: Chinese banana, Dwarf banana, Thi-hmwe-nget-pyaw, Wet-ma-lut
• Musa itinerans E.E. Cheesm. Habit: Herb.
  Distribution: Chin, Kachin, Magway, Mandalay, Sagaing, Shan. Common Names: Taw-nget-pyaw
• Musa laterita E.E. Cheesm. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Bago, Mandalay, Sagaing, Shan.
  Common Names: Taw-nget-pyaw
• Musa nagensium Prain. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Kachin
• Musa ornata Roxb. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Cultivated. Common Names: Taw-nget-pyaw
• Musa rubra Wall. ex Kurz . Habit: Herb. Distribution: Kachin
• Musa sanguinea Hook. f. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Cultivated.
  Common Names: Dwarf banana, Red Banana
• Musa sapientum L. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Cultivated.
  Common Names: Cooking banana, Golden plantain, Nanthaphu, Plantain, Red plantain, Shwe-ngetpyaw, Taw-nga-pyaw 
• Musa sapientum var. arakanensis Ripl. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Cultivated.
  Common Names: Yakhine-ngetpyaw
• Musa sapientum var. champa Hort. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Cultivated.
  Common Names: Htawbat-ngetpyaw
• Musa sapientum var. dacca Horan. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Cultivated. Common Names: Pya-ye-san
• Musa sapientum var. rubra Firminger. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Cultivated.
  Common Names: Golden plantain, Red plantain, Shwe-ngetpyaw
• Musa textilis Nees. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Cultivated.
  Common Names: Abaca, Manila hemp, Manila-shaw-bin
• Musa velutina H. Wendl. & Drude. Cited as: Musa rosea Hort. ex Baker. Habit: Herb.
  Distribution: Cultivated. Common Names: Taw-nget-pyaw

USDA-NRCS

"ENSET","Ensete Horan.","ensete","Musaceae"
"ENVE2","Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheeseman","Abyssinian banana","Musaceae"
"ENED","Ensete edule Bruce ex Horan.",">>Ensete ventricosum","Musaceae"
"MUEN","Musa ensete Gmelin",">>Ensete ventricosum","Musaceae"
"MUSA2","Musa L.","banana","Musaceae"
"MUAC","Musa acuminata Colla","edible banana","Musaceae"
"MUCA5","Musa cavendishii Lamb. ex Paxton",">>Musa acuminata","Musaceae"
"MUCH","Musa chinensis Lamb. ex Paxton",">>Musa acuminata","Musaceae"
"MUZE","Musa zebrina Van Houtte ex Planch.",">>Musa acuminata","Musaceae"
"MUBA","Musa balbisiana Colla","banana","Musaceae"
"MUNA","Musa nana sensu Parham, non Lour.","","Musaceae"
"MUPA3","Musa Χparadisiaca L. (pro sp.) [acuminata Χ balbisiana]","French plantain","Musaceae"
"MUORN","Musa ornata Roxb. var. normalis Kuntze",">>Musa Χparadisiaca","Musaceae"
"MUSA","Musa sapientum L.",">>Musa Χparadisiaca","Musaceae"
"MUTE6","Musa textilis Nee","abaca","Musaceae"
"MUTR2","Musa troglodytarum L.","fe'i banana","Musaceae"
"MUVE","Musa velutina H. Wendl. & Drude","hairy banana","Musaceae"

Contents of this page

Musa textilis

Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
• Agri.Dept.2000 :  NL
• Chklist online: Musa textilis
  (UKT: reverse-transcription from "Manila-shaw-bin"
  - {ma.ni-la lhyau-ping} )
• FAO : NL specifically, but listed generically 045. See Musa spp.
• Lθ-seik-shin : NL
• KS-TMN: NL
• Nagathein : NL
• UHM: NL

Myanmar-Script Spelling :

Hindi :
Sanskrit :

English common name used in Myanmar :
• Agri.Dept.2000 :  NL
• Chklist online: Manila-shaw-bin
• FAO : NL specifically, but listed generically 045. See Musa spp.
• Lθ-seik-shin : NL
• KS-TMN: NL
• Nagathein : NL
• UHM: NL

Picture :
Leader edited from FAO

 

Plant identification characters :
• Habit: Herb. Distribution: Cultivated. -- Chklist

Distribution in Myanmar :

Part used and uses :

Constituents :

 

Contents of this page

Entry format: Botanical name / Family / Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcripts (• Agri.Dept.2000 : • FAO : • Lθ-seik-shin : • KS-TMN: • Nagathein : • UHM :/ Myanmar-Script Spelling Official Myanmar Dictionaries : - TravPo-M-Dict - Myan-Engl-Dict - Myan-Ortho / Hindi / Sanskrit / English common name used in Myanmar / Picture / Plant identification characters / Distribution in Myanmar / Part used and uses / Constituents /
End of TIL file