Update: 2006-08-06 01:55 PM -0700

TIL

Medicinal Plants of Myanmar

Meliaceae

compiled by U Kyaw Tun, U Pe Than, and staff of TIL. Not for sale.

Disclaimer: Because of the nature of the compilation, there are bound to be errors, and the reader is advised to check the accuracy of the data given. TIL and the authors do not accept responsibility (legal or otherwise) for any inconvenience that might have caused the reader.

Contents of this page:

Family: Meliaceae 4 entries
• Azadirachta indica  • {ta.ma} ; {ta.ma-hka:} 
• Azadirachta spp.
• Cedrela spp.
• Cedrela toona • {this.ka.to:}  
• Melia azedarach  • {pan:ta.ma}
• Melia birmanica • {tau-ta.ma hka:} , {pan:ta.ma}
• Melia spp. - to be read together with • Nagathein's note on {ta.ma}

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Azadirachta indica

Family: Meliaceae

Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
• Agri.Dept.2000 24-0630: {ta.ma} or {ta.ma kri:}
• FAO 75: tamaka
• Lθ-seik-shin 205: {ta.ma}
• KS-TMN 157: Ta-mar; Ta-mar-kha
• Nagathein 2-009: {ta.ma} or {ta.ma kri:}
• UHM 07: Ta-mar

Myanmar-Script Spelling :
• Official Myanmar Dictionaries :
{ta.ma} - --TravPo-M-Dict 121
{ta.ma} - n. neem tree, margosa tree, Azadirachta indica -- Myan-Engl-Dict 163

Hindi:
Sanskrit:

English common name used in Myanmar :
• Agri.Dept.2000 24-0630: Margosa tree; Neem
• FAO 75: Neem, Margosa-tree
• Lθ-seik-shin 205: NG (not given)
• KS-TMN 157: Neem Tree; Indian Lilac; Margosa Tree.
• Nagathein 2-009: NG
• UHM 07: • Margosa, Neem

 

Picture:
• Leader from FAO
• Photos: left -- habit with flowers; right -- habit with fruits. Click on the pictures to enlarge. -- KS-TMN

 

Plant identification characters :

• A large tree; younger stems cylindrical, pubescent, the older ones glabrous. Leaves alternate, unipinnately compound, paripinnate to sometimes imparipinnate; exstipulate; petioles glabrous, pulvinate; racheae glabrous; petiolules obsolete; leaflets in 4-6 opposite pairs, obliquely elliptic, subfalcate, if imparipinnate, the terminal ones smaller, the bases oblique, the margins irregularly serrate, the tips acuminate, the surfaces glabrous. Inflorescences in axillary paniculate cymes; penduncles glabrous; bracts small, narrowly ovate, caducous. Flowers pedicellate, bracteoles minute, caducous, bisexual, actinomorphic, pentamerous, hypoghnous. Calyx synsepalous, 5-lobed, basally connate, the lobes ovate, glabrescent with hairy margins, sepaloid. Corolla apopetalous, petals 5, oblanceolate, glabrescent, white. Androecium monadelphous, stamens 10, the staminal tubes with toothed apices, striated, glabrous without, tomentose within, white, the anthers dithecous, ovoid, sessile, inserted withing the staminal tubes slightly below the apices, dorsifixed, introrse, dehiscence longitudinal. Pistil 1, ovary ovoid, glabrous, 3-carpelled, syncarpous, 3-loculed, the placentation axile, the ovules 2, collateral in each locule, the styles cylindrical, the stigma 3-lobed, disc subtending the ovary minute. Fruit a 1-seeded drupe, oblongoid, glabrous; seed ellipsoid, glabrous, non-endospermic. Flowering period: January-April. Fruiting period: March-June -- KS-TMN

• A glabrous deciduous tree 10-50 feet with pinnate 20-45 cm leaves crowded near the end of the branches, leaflets 9-15, opposite, subopposite or alternate lanceolate, acuinate, oblique, serrate, glabrous, short petioled. -- UHM

 

Distribution in Myanmar:

• Grows wild in dry forests. Commonly planted throughout Myanmar. -- KS-TMN

• Pakokku, Myingyan, Meiktila, along Pyinmana-Thazi railroad, Dry Zone -- UHM

 

Part used and used as:

• Metrorrhagia; Emesis; Oedema: Leprosy; Infections; Carbuncles; Loss of appetite; Fatigue; To allay thirst; Cough; Antidote for poisons; Heal sores; Pyrexia. Twig -- Cough; Asthma; Haemorrhoids; Abdominal tumours; Infections. Leaf -- Haematemesis; Opthalmia; Leprosy; Infections; Loss of appetite; Biliousness; Good for eyes; Astringent effect; Antidote for poisons. Flower -- Biliousness; Expectorant; Infections. Unripe fruit -- Leprosy; Abdominal tumours; Haemorrhoids; Infections. Ripe fruit -- Haematemesis; Opthalmia; Chest pain. Seed and oil -- Leprosy; Infections. Seed oil -- Biliousness; Carminative; Expectorant; Leprosy; Infections; Carbuncles; Haemorrhoids; Oedema; Biliary infection; Blood disease; Pyrexia -- KS-TMN

• Leaves and seeds. Used as Parasitotropic affections of the skin, eczema, scabies, prevent against small pox and other skin infections. Substitute for gentian and quassia -- UHM

 

Constituents:

• 1. Margesine, 2. Bitter amorphous resin, 3. Margosic acid, 4. Tannic acid (4) -- UHM

 

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Azadirachta spp.

Family: Meliaceae

Results of search for 'Azadirachta' in the Checklist of Plants of Myanmar, U.S. National Herbarium, 11 May 2006.

• Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Habit: Tree. Distribution: Wide.
  Common Names: Margosa tree, Neem, Tama, Tamaga

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Cedrela spp.

Family: Meliaceae

Results of search for 'Cedrela' in the Checklist of Plants of Myanmar, U.S. National Herbarium, 12 May 2006.

• Cedrela febrifuga Blume. Habit: Tree. Distribution: Kachin, Sagaing.
  Common Names: Mai-yum, Petsut-ye-tama, Shin-shit, Ye-tama
• Cedrela microcarpa C. DC. Habit: Tree. Distribution: Kachin, Sagaing. Common Names: Taw-tama
• Cedrela serrata Royle. Habit: Tree. Distribution: Chin, Kachin, Mandalay, Sagaing, Shan.
  Common Names: Hill toon, Taung-tama, Thitma-e
• Toona ciliata M. Roemer. Cited as: Cedrela toona Roxb. Habit: Tree.
  Distribution: Bago, Mandalay, Shan, Yangon.
  Common Names: Indian mahogany, Kashit-ka, Latsai, Mai-yum, Moulmein cedar, Red cedar, Taung-tama, Thit-kado, Toon, Toon

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Cedrela toona

Family: Meliaceae

Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcripts :
• Agri.Dept.2000 61-1622: {this.ka.to:}
• FAO :  NL
• KS-TMN : NL
• Nagathein 3-455: {this.ka.to:}
• UHM : NL

Myanmar-Script Spelling :
• Official Myanmar Dictionaries :
{this.ka.to:} - -- TravPo-M-Dict 334
{this.ka.to:} - NL - Myan-Engl-Dict

Hindi:
Sanskrit:

English common name used in Myanmar :
• Agri.Dept.2000 61-1622: Toon tree
• FAO :  NL
• KS-TMN : NL
• Nagathein 3-455: NG
• UHM : NL

Picture:
• Leader -- Nagathein
• Photo: left - clump, right - leaves. Click to enlarge. http://selectree.calpoly.edu/Photos/Cedrela_sinensis/images/suckers-(clump).jpg

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Melia azedarach

Family: Meliaceae

Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcripts :
• Agri.Dept.2000 38-1006: {pan:ta.ma}
• FAO :  NL
• KS-TMN 158: Pan-tamar
• Nagathein 2-003:
• UHM : NL

Myanmar-Script Spelling :
• Official Myanmar Dictionaries :
{ta.ma} - --TravPo-M-Dict 121
{ta.ma} - n. neem tree, margosa tree, Azadirachta indica -- Myan-Engl-Dict 163

Hindi:
Sanskrit:

English common name used in Myanmar :
• Agri.Dept.2000 38-1006: not given
• FAO :  NL
• KS-TMN 158: Bead Tree; Persian Lilac; Bastard Cedar: Pride of China; Pride of India
• Nagathein 2-003: not given
• UHM : NL

Picture:

• Leader from FAO
• Photos: left -- habit with flowers; right -- habit with fruits. Click on the pictures to enlarge. -- KS-TMN

Plant identification characters:

• A large tree, trunks short, erect; younger stems ferruginous pubescent, the older ones glabrous. Leaves alternate, bipinnately compound, imparipinnate; exstipulate; petioles glabrous, pulvinate; leaflets in 1-4 opposite pairs on each secondary racheae, ovate to sometimes oblique, the bases obtuse to sometimes oblique, the margins serrate, the tips acuminate, the surfaces glabrous; petiolules short, foliaceous, pinnate to bipinnate on the primary peduncles. Flowers pedicellate, bracteoles minute, caducous, bisexual, actinomorphic, pentamerous, hypogynous. Calyx synsepalous, 5-lobed, basally connate, the lobes ovate, ferruginous without, glabrous within. Corolla apeopetalous, the petals 5, oblanceolate, pubescent without, glabrous within, light purple. Androecium monadelphous, stamens 10, the staminal tube with toothed apices, the anthers dithecous, oblongoid, inserted within the staminal tube slightly below the toothed apices, dorsifixed, introrse, dehiscence longitudinal. Pistil 1, ovary ovoid, glabrous, 5-carpelled, syncarpous, 5-loculed, the placentation axile, with 2 superposed ovules in each locule, the style 1, cylindrical, the stigma 5-fid, the disc subtending the ovary annular. Fruit a drupe, ovoid or oblongoid, glabrous, dark green to yellow; seed 1, 5-grooved, glabrous, endosperm thin and fleshy. Flowering and fruiting periods: March-May -- KS-TMN

UKT: The colour of flowers given the photo is undoubtedly yellow which does not agree with the colour "light purple" given above. See Nagathein's note on {ta.ma} .

• A medium-sized tree, about 40 ft high. A beautiful tree with straight stem. The leaves are like the leaves of {ta.ma} [Azadirachta indica ] but larger. Leaves grayish turning yellowish with age. An oil similar to that of {ta.ma} [Azadirachta indica ] can be obtained from seeds. A latex issues from the trunk in March and April. -- Nagathein, free translation by UKT .

 

Distribution in Myanmar:

• Grows wild and cultivated throughout tropical Myanmar. -- KS-TMN

Part used and uses:

• Haematemesis, Pyrexia; Leprosy; Emesis; Cholera; Heart; disease; Skin infection; Expectorant; Cause dehydration of the body; Haemorrhoid; Infections; Cough Burning sensation of the body; Antidote for rat bite poison. Leaf and flower -- Oedema during pregnancy; Menstrual disorder; Amenorrhoea; Diabetes; Lithiasis; Inflections; Epilepsy; Intestinal Colic; Haemorrhoid; Head-ache. Flower -- Scabies; Pruritis; Pimples; Skin disease. Seed -- Arthritis; Haemorrhoid; Polyuria; Muscle stiffiness; Destrution of hair follicles. Heart wood -- Osteoarthritis of the knee. -- KS-TMN

Constituents:

 

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Melia birmanica

Family: Meliaceae

Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcripts :
• Agri.Dept.2000 26-681: {tau-ta.ma hka:}, {pan: ta.ma}
• FAO :  NL
• KS-TMN : NL
• Nagathein 2-005: {ta.ma (pan:ta.ma)}
• UHM : NL

Myanmar-Script Spelling :
• Official Myanmar Dictionaries :
{ta.ma} - --TravPo-M-Dict 121
{ta.ma} - n. neem tree, margosa tree, Azadirachta indica -- Myan-Engl-Dict 163

Hindi:
Sanskrit:

English common name used in Myanmar :
• Agri.Dept.2000 26-681: NG
• FAO :  NL
• KS-TMN : NL
• Nagathein 2-005: NG
• UHM : NL

Picture:

 

Plant identification characters:

• The tree has a straight stem like that of ordinary {ta.ma} [Azadirachta indica ]. The smaller branches are extremely smooth. Leaves like that of {ta.ma} are in groups of 2's and 3's and oval shaped, and serrated. Flowers greenish white. Fruit oblong and yellow. When dried the fruit looks like a date [Phoenix sylvestris, Agri.dept.2000 19-488]. However, it is extremely bitter, and is therefore known as "bitter date". The seed is extremely hard. Only the fruit has medicinal use. -- Nagathein, free translation by UKT.

Distribution in Myanmar :

 

Part used and uses :

 

Constituents

 

Contents of this page

Melia spp.

Results of search for 'Melia' in the Checklist of Plants of Myanmar, U.S. National Herbarium, 11 May 2006.

• Melia azedarach L. Habit: Small tree. Distribution: Cultivated.
  Common Names: Bead tree, Hlim hlerm, Pan-tama, Persian lilac, Thinbaw-pan-tama
• Melia birmanica Kurz. Habit: Tree. Distribution: Mon, Sagaing, Taninthayi.
  Common Names: Pan-tama, Taw-tamaga
• Melia composita Willd. Habit: Tree. Distribution: Bago, Chin, Kachin, Magway, Sagaing, Shan, Yangon
  Common Names: Pan-tama
• Melia dubia Hiern. Habit: Tree. Distribution: Cultivated. Common Names: Pan-tama
• Melia excelsa Jack. Habit: Tree. Distribution: Mon, Taninthayi. Common Names: Tama-gale

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Nagathein's note on {ta.ma}

Family: Meliaceae

UKT: It is not well known that there are 2 genera of plants collectively called {ta.ma} in Burmese-Myanmar:  genus-Azadirachta  and genus-Melia . However, it is commonly known that there are several kinds of {ta.ma}, and the leaves of one is a favorite "vege-mate" {to.sa.ra}. See Myanmar cuisine. The following is from Nagathein 2-011 with free translation and additions (within [  ]) --  by UKT.

The summary of 6 kinds of {ta.ma} according to Burmese-Myanmar tradition:
1. {ba.ma ta.ma} - common to Upper Myanmar. [kind used as vege-mate {to.sa.ra}. It is not as bitter as the other kinds.]
2. {ku.la: ta.ma} - commonly found on roadsides. Leaves are smaller, and serration more deep, and taste more bitter [than {ba.ma ta.ma}]. The tree is the source of {ta.ma} gum which is soluble in water giving a strong glue. The glue is not attacked by insects.]. Some people mistakenly eat the leaves of the commonly found {thin:bau: tιΡ} as {thing:bau: ta.ma}. [By {thing:bau: ta.ma}, Nagathein 2-003 meant Melia azedarach ].
3. {pan:ta.mar} - also known as {ta.ma pra} [blue {ta.ma}] because of the blue colour of flowers.
4. {taung ta.ma} - leaves are larger [than {ba.ma ta.ma}] and extremely bitter. Almost no leaf-edge serration. People from Forestry department call it {this.ka.to:} [Cedrela toona Agri.dept.2000 61-1622].
5. {ta.ma hkyo} or {ta.ma cho} - small tree. Parts of the plant [leaves and stems] odourous. Leaves un-serrated. When compared with ordinary {ta.ma} [{ba.ma ta.ma}] not bitter.
6. {rι ta.ma} - [Nagathein did not elaborate]. [Many people by {rι ta.ma} mean those small planted by the Municipality of Yangon along road-sides. These trees are not commonly found elsewhere.]

UKT: {thin:bau: tιΡ} is Polyalthia longifolia of fam. Annonaceae -- Agri.dept.2000 60-1603

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Entry format: Botanical name / Family / Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcripts (• Agri.Dept.2000 : • FAO : • Lθ-seik-shin : • KS-TMN: • Nagathein : • UHM :/ Myanmar-Script Spelling Official Myanmar Dictionaries : - TravPo-M-Dict - Myan-Engl-Dict - Myan-Ortho / Hindi / Sanskrit / English common name used in Myanmar / Picture / Plant identification characters / Distribution in Myanmar / Part used and uses / Constituents /
End of TIL file