Update: 2006-08-06 01:19 PM -0700


Medicinal Plants of Myanmar


compiled by U Kyaw Tun, U Pe Than, and staff of TIL. Not for sale.

Contents of this page

Family: Cucurbitaceae 1 entry
• Momordica-charantia  • {krak-hing:hka:}

Main Index of DB | Top
Contents of this page

Momordica charantia

Family: Cucurbitaceae

Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcripts :
• Agri.Dept.2000 09-0213:  {krak-hing:hka:}
• FAO : NL
• Lè-seik-shing 071: {krak-hing:hka:}
• KS-TMN 090: {krak-hing:hka:}
• Nagathein 1-185: {krak-hing:hka:}
• UHM 33: Kyet-hin-ga


Myanmar-Script Spelling :
• Official Myanmar Dictionaries :
{krak-hin:hka:} --   -- TravPo-M-Dict 032
{krak-hin:hka:} - n.  bitter gourd, momordica charantia -- Myan-Engl-Dict 042

Hindi :
Sanskrit :

  English common name used in Myanmar :
• Agri.Dept.2000 09-0213:  Bitter gourd
• FAO : NL
• Lè-seik-shing 071: Bitter gourd
• KS-TMN 090: Carilla fruit
• Nagathein 1-185: Bitter gourd
• UHM 33: Bitter gourd


• Leader from Lè-seik-shing
• Photos: left -- close up of  flowers, right -- habit with fruits. Click on the pictures to enlarge. -- KS-TMN


Plant identification characters:

• An annual slender climber; stems long, much branched, 5-angled, grooved, pubescent, young parts pubescent or villous. Leaves alternate, simple, palmatisect, 5- to 7- lobed; exstipulate; tendrils simple, slender, angular, spirally coiled, pubescent; petioles stout, canaliculate at the adaxial sides, pubescent; laminae 5- to 7- sect, obscurely orbicular in outline, the lobes may or may not lobulate, the bases deeply cordate, the margins sinuate-dentate, the tips acute, 5- to 7- costate, reticulate, the surfaces pubescent or puberulent. Inflorescences axillary and solitary cymes; bracts large, orbicular, usually found at or below postillate flower, persistent. Flowers monoecious, ebracteolate, pedicellate, unisexual, zygomorphic, pentamerous, epigynous. Calyx synsepalous, campanulate, 5-lobed, the lobes ovate, acute, the tube short, with 2-3 basal oblong incurved scales. Corolla synpetalous, 5-lobed, rotate, the tube very short, inserted on the rim of calyx tube, lemon-yellow. Staminate flowers: stamens 3, inserted on the mouth of the corolla tube, the filaments short, flattened, the anthers sigmoid, at first cohering, at length free, monothecous in one stamen, dithecous in the other 2 stamens, dorsifixed, extrorse, dehiscence longitudinal. Pistillode absent. Pistillate flowers: Calyx and corolla characters similar to the staminate flower. Pistil 1, ovary ellipsoid, muricate, 3-carpelled, syncarpous, 1-loculed, the placentation parietal, ovules many, the style short, the stigma 3-lobed. Fruit a berry, ellipsoid, rostrate, muricate, green when young, bright orange when ripe; seeds obovoid, compressed, rugose, sculptured, aril red, non-endospermic. Flowering and fruiting periods: Throughout the year -- KS-TMN

• An annual with long stem, much branched angled and grooved, more or less pubescent tendrils simple, slender, elongate, pubescent leaves deeply divided into 5-7 lobes, monoecious, petals yellow. -- UHM


• Cultivated throughout Myanmar. -- KS-TMN

• Tongwa, Thani, Malet-to, Maubin, Twante Kwet-kin, Taikkyi, Okkan etc. -- UHM


Parts used and uses:

• Roots, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds -- Opthalmia; Biliousness; Expectorant; Pyrexia; Metrorrhagia; Anaemia; Urinary infections; Heals carbuncles; Bronchitis; Pruritis; Infections; Fissure in ano; Vaginitis. Leaf infusion -- Jaundice; Splenomegaly. Fresh leaf infusion -- Lithiasis; Stromatitis; Infections. Young fruit -- Arthritis. Fruit infusion -- Ascites; Cholera; Laryngitis -- KS-TMN

• Dried leaves. Decoction of the leaves used in piles, jaundice and as an anthelmintic, scabies, skin diseases, emetic, purgative, stomachic tonic, anti-rheumatic, diseases of the spleen and liver. Drug exerts some hypoglycenic action on rabbit and may have clinical usefulness in diabetes -- UHM

• The unripe fruit, which is bitter, is a favorite vegetable of Burmese (middle aged). However, the younger generation, especially the children, hate it: my own experience. The fruit loses its bitterness on ripening and becomes somewhat sweet. The ripe fruit is not used as a vegetable. -- UKT



•  A highly aromatic ethereal oil. A fixed oil. Traces of free acids. Carotene. A glucoside. A resin. Saponin like substance. Alkaloid momordicin. -- UHM

UKT: UHM did not specified the source of the above constituents. The source is most likely the ripe fruit.

Contents of this page

Entry format: Botanical name / Family / Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcripts (• Agri.Dept.2000 : • Chklist: • LSR : • FAO : • KS-TMN: • Nagathein : • UHM :/ Myanmar-Script Spelling (• Official Myanmar Dictionaries : - TravPo-M-Dict - Myan-Engl-Dict - Myan-Ortho / Hindi / Sanskrit / English common name used in Myanmar / Picture / Plant identification characters / Distribution in Myanmar / Part used and uses / Constituents /
End of TIL file