Update: 2006-08-06 01:17 PM -0700

TIL

Medicinal Plants of Myanmar

Combretaceae

compiled by U Kyaw Tun, U Pe Than, and staff of TIL. Not for sale.

Main Index of DB | Top
Contents of this page

Contents of this page:

Family: Combretaceae 5 entries
• Quisqualis indica  • {hta:wθύ-mheing:}
• Terminalia bellerica  • {this-hseim.}
• Terminalia catappa • {ba-dan°}
• Terminalia chebula  • {hpan-hka:}
• Terminalia citrina  • {kra.su.} ; {kra.su.-hpan-hka:}

Main Index of DB | Top
  Index of Collected papers |
 
Agri.Dept.2000: Akshara | Science names | Family names
 Contents of this page

Quisqualis indica

Family: Combretaceae

Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcripts :
• Agri.Dept.2000 30-0776: {hta:wθύ-mheing:}
• FAO : NL
• Lθ-seik-shin 215: {hta:wθύ-mheing:}
• KS-TMN 081: {hta:wθύ-mheing:}
• Nagathein 2-097: {Da.wθύ-mhein:}
• UHM 40: Dawe-hmaing

 

Myanmar-Script Spelling :
Official Myanmar Dictionaries :
{hta:wθύ-mheing:} - -- TravPo-M-Dict 141
{hta:wθύ-mheing:} - n creeper plant with blossoms that change from white to pink and red. Quisqualis indica. -- Myan-Engl-Dict 194

Hindi :
Sanskrit
:

 

English common name used in Myanmar:
• Agri.Dept.2000 30-0776: Rangoon creeper
• FAO : NL
• Lθ-seik-shin 215: Rangoon creeper, Chinese Honey suckle
• KS-TMN 081: Rangoon creeper
• Nagathein 2-097: Rangoon creeper
• UHM 40: Rangoon creeper

 

Picture:
• Leader from Nagathein
• Photos: left -- habit with flowers, right --  close up of flowers. Click on the pictures to enlarge. -- KS-TMN

 

Plant identification characters :

• A large shrub, subscandent. Leaves opposite, distichous, simple; exstipulate; petiolate; laminae oblong to broadly elliptic, the bases obtuse to rounded, the margins entire, the tips acute to acuminate, unicostate, reticulate, the upper surfaces glabrous, the lower puberulent. Inflorescences in terminal and axillary spikes; bracts subulate. Flowers ebracteolate, sessile, bisexual, actinomorphic, pentamerous, epigynous. Calyx synsepalous, 5-fid, the lobes triangular, acute, the tube or hypanthium long and slender above the ovary, the hypanthium base adnate to the ovary. Corolla apopetalous, the petals 5, oblong or obovate-oblong, pale red. Androecium polyandrous, stamens 10, biseriate, the outer oblongoid, versatile, extrorse, dehiscence longitudinal. Pistil 1, ovary ellipsoid, 1-carpelled, 1-loculed, the ovules 3-4, pendulous from locule apex, the style filiform, the stigma capitate, Fruit a drupe, 5-angled, winged, black, glabrous, coriaceous; seed 1, non-endospermic. Flowering period: November-March. Fruiting period: November-March -- KS-TMN

• A rambling subscandent large shrub. Leaves opposite, oblong or obovate, acuminate, entire. Flowers in short spikes axillary and terminal, white or red coloured, calyx tube prolonged long and slender above the ovary, deciduous. Fruit 3/4-1Ό by scarcely 1/2 in., glabrous, black, very acute at the top. -- UHM

 

Distribution in Myanmar :

• Grows wild throughout Myanmar. Planted. -- UKS-TMN

• Wild in Rangoon and vicinity. -- UHM

 

Part used and uses :

• Leaf -- Gastric pain; Dysentery; Seed -- As an antiseptic; Anthelmintic; Febrifuge for high fevers; Dysentery. -- KS-TMN

• Seeds. Used as anthelmintic. -- UHM

 

Constituents :

• 1. 27 percent of oil containing linoleic, oleic, palmitic, stearic and arachidic acids. 2. A sterol. 3. Fatty acid. 4. An active principle resembling santonin. (35) -- UHM

 

 

Contents of this page

Terminalia belerica

Family: Combretaceae

Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcripts :
• Agri.Dept.2000 61-1636:   {this-hseim.}
• FAO : NL
• Lθ-seik-shin 469: {this-hseim.}
• KS-TMN 082: Thit-seint
• Nagathein 3-495: {this-hseim.}
• UHM : NL

 

Myanmar-Script Spelling
Official Myanmar Dictionaries :
{this-hseim.} - -- TravPo-M-Dict 334
{this-hseim.} - n. belleric myrobalan; straight-stemmed tree bearing astringent, furry fruit with nutty kernels, Terminalia belerica -- Myan-Engl-Dict 513

 

Hindi :
Sanskrit :

 

English common name used in Myanmar :
• Agri.Dept.2000 61-1636:  Bastard myrobalan
• FAO : NL
• Lθ-seik-shin 469: Bastard myrobalan
• KS-TMN 082: Bastard Mybolan; Bedda Nuts; Belleric Myrobalan
• Nagathein : not given
• UHM : NL

 

Picture :
• Leader www.toddcaldecott.com/web%20graphics/T_beler.gif
• Photos: left -- habit with flowers, right -- habit with fruit. Click on the pictures to enlarge. -- KS-TMN

 

Plant identification characters :

• A deciduous tree; younger stems glabrescent, woody. Leaves clustered at branchlet ends, simple; exstipulate; petiolate; laminae broadly elliptic, the bases oblique, the margins entire, the tips rounded to sub-acute, unicostate, reticulate, the surfaces glabrous. Inflorescences axillary spikes, clustered, sometimes cauliflorous; bracts small, caducous. Flowers ebracteolate, sessile, the bisexuals about four-fifths of the spike length, the staminates few, only at the upper ends of spike, actinomorphic, pentamerous, epigynous. Calyx synsepalous, 5-fid, campanulate, pale yellow, the lobes small, subulate, the outer surfaces glabrous, the inner villous. Corolla absent. Anderoecium polyandrous, stamens 10, in 2 whorls, the filaments equal in length, the anthers dithecous, oblongoid, versatile, dehiscence longitudinal, disc present. Pistil 1, ovary ellipsoid, tomentose, 1-carpelled, 1-loculed, the ovules 1-2, pendulous, the style 1, the stigma simple. Fruit a drupe, broadly ellipsoid, tomentose, coriaceus; seed solitary, broadly elipsoid, 5-ribbed when dry, rugose, non-endospermic. Flowering period: February-March. Fruiting period: December-January -- KS-TMN

 

Distribution in Myanmar :

• Throughout Myanmar, grows up to 5000ft. -- KS-TMN

 

Part used and uses :

• Root bark, leaves, flowers, fruits, seed -- Metrorrhagia; laryngitis; Opthalmia; Cough; Heart disease; Promotes hair growth; Good for eyes; Giddiness after excess eating. Root brake -- For tooth-ache and gum inflammation. Bark: Anemia; jaundice; Leucoderma; Dysentery. Dried leaf: Indigestion. Flower: Splenomegaly; Dysentery; Chest pain; Purifies blood; Bronchitis. Fruit rind -- Asthma; Cough; Laryngitis; Bronchitis; Cough; Astringent. Fruit flesh -- Lithasis; Dysuria; Opthalmia; Asthma; Cough; Palpitation of heart; Analgesic for pains and aches. Flesh of ripe fruit: Arthritis, Opthalmia. Fruit powder: Impotency; Biliary infection; Cholecystitis; Indigestion; Unproductive cough Bronchitis. Seed -- Bronchitis; Emesis; Giddiness; Cough; To allay thirst; Heals boils and carbuncles -- KS-TMN

• Indications: sore throat, pharyngitis, laryngitis, cough, catarrh, bronchitis, gastric ulcers, hemorrhoids, chronic diarrhea, dysentery, parasites, cholelithiasis, ophthalmia, headache, alopecia and premature greying, edema, rheumatism (topical), wounds (topical) (Dash 1991, 9-10; Frawley and Lad 1986, 164; Kirtikar and Basu 1993, 1018-1019; Nadkarni 1976, 1203-04; Varrier 1996, 258) Contraindications: Vatakopa (Frawley and Lad 1986, 164). Toxicity: No data found. -- --- www.toddcaldecott.com/ Vibhitaki.html

• Medical research: ·AIDS: An extract of Terminalia bellerica showed significant inhibitory activity on human immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse transcriptase, with IC50 < or = 50 micrograms/ml (el-Mekkawy et al 1995). Four lignans (termilignan, thannilignan, hydroxy-3',4'-(methylenedioxy) flavan, anolignan B) possessed demonstrable anti-HIV-1 in vitro (Valsaraj et al 1997). • ·Antimalarial: Four lignans (termilignan, thannilignan, hydroxy-3',4'-[methylenedioxy] flavan, and anolignan B) possessed demonstrable antimalarial activity in vitro (Valsaraj et al 1997). • ·Antimutagenic: Two polyphenolic fractions isolated from T. bellerica were significantly effective against mutagenic effects in Salmonella typhimurium. Interaction of the polyphenols with S9 proteins may be the probable cause of the inhibitory effect (Padam et al 1996). • Antifungal: Four lignans (termilignan, thannilignan, hydroxy-3',4'-(methylenedioxy) flavan, and anolignan B) possessed demonstrable antifungal activity in vitro (Valsaraj et al 1997). Comments: Vibhitaka is a stimulating astringent, and has a wide application in any condition of atony, prolapse, and relaxation of the mucosa. For coughs, sore throats, laryngitis and dyspepsia the churna may be taken with honey. In the treatment of dry, irritative coughs Nadkarni recommends a linctus of equal parts Vibhitaka, Saindhava (rock salt), Pippali (Piper longum), and Maricha (Piper nigrum) (1976, 1204). • Frawley and Lad mention that Vibhitaka is useful in the treatment of cholelithiasis and urinary lithiasis, liquefying and expelling the stones (1986, 164). It is useful in the treatment uterine and colonic prolapse, and hemorrhage (Varier 1996, 258). The mature, dried fruit of Vibhitaka is effective in the treatment of diarrhea, dysentery and parasites, but in the latter case should be taken along with purgatives such as Senna (Cassia angustifolia) as Vibhitaka can be constipative (Varier 1996, 258). A decoction of the fruit may be taken internally and can be used externally as an eyewash in the treatment of ophthalmological disorders (Nadkarni 1976, 1204). Vaidya Mana Bhajracharya indicates that the fresh fruit pulp is used as a collyrium in the treatment of nontraumatic corneal ulcer (avranashukla) (1997, 85). Varier mentions that the oil from the seeds is trichogenous, and can be used topically for leucoderma and skin diseases (1996, 258). Vibhitaka is most commonly found as an ingredient in Triphala, usuallu mixed in equal parts with Haritaki and Amalaki. --- www.toddcaldecott.com/ Vibhitaki.html

Constituents :

 

Contents of this page

Terminalia catappa

Family: Combretaceae

Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcripts
• Agri.Dept.2000 41-1082: {ba-dan°}
• FAO : NL
• Lθ-seik-shin : NL
• KS-TMN: NL
• Nagathein 2-322: {ba-dan° Ein~di.ya.}
• UHM : NL (not listed)

 

Myanmar-Script Spelling :
• Official Myanmar Dictionaries  :
{ba-dan°} --    -- TravPo-M-Dict 216
{ba-dan°} -- n. badum tree; Indian almond, Terminalia catappa.-- Myan-Engl-Dict 312

UKT: Though official calligraphy is {ba-dan°}, I have given the alternate calligraphy {ba-dan°} which is more suitable for en-sized aksharas such as {ba.}.
   Note the Burmese-Myanmar spelling for India was given by Nagathein as {Ein~di.ya.} here, but elsewhere as {ein~di.ya.}. The accepted orthography at present is {ein~di.ya.}.

Hindi
Sanskrit :

  English common name used in Myanmar:
• Agri.Dept.2000 41-1082: Almond
• FAO : NL
• Lθ-seik-shin : NL
• KS-TMN: NL
• Nagathein 2-322: {ba-dan° Ein~di.ya.}
• UHM : NL

 

Picture:
• Leader from http://www.cieer.org/geirs/illustrations/Terminalia_catappa_ill.jpg
• Photo: left - leaves and green fruits http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/carr/images/ter_cap_fr.jpg
• Photo: right - ripe fruit http://pharm1.pharmazie.uni-greifswald.de/systematik/7_bilder/yamasaki/yamas211.jpg

 

Plant identification characters

• UKT's free translation from Nagathein 2-322 on {ba-dan° ein~di.ya} (literal meaning: 'Indian {ba-dan°}'  : Medium-sized tree with large leaves. Small fruits turning reddish when ripe. Large seed (stone), which can be pressed to yield a yellowish oil. The seed oil has no smell. Similar to seed oil from "true" {ba-dan°}. (UKT: Though Nagathein did not elaborate what he meant by "true", it was most probably that of "wild" {ba-dan°} or {ba-dan° rein:} commonly planted along road sides as shade trees.). The oil from Indian {ba-dan°} is better (UKT: medicinally?). It does not spoil on long storage in years.
• UKT's free translation from Nagathein 2-322 on {ba-dan°rein:} (literal meaning: 'wild ba-dan°} : Tree commonly found along road-sides in Myanmar. Myanmars usually call it {ba-dan°. Leaf roundish 10 inches to 1 foot in length. Tip wide tapering towards base. A reason why the tree is planted along road-sides is because it is a very large and fast-growing tree which gives good shade and offers protection from heat. The seed kernel is rich in taste. (UKT: The word used was {hseim.} similar to the taste of the kernel of many seeds such as the pumpkin seeds.). The seeds on pressing yields an oil which is similar to coconut oil and is tasty.

 

Distribution in Myanmar:

 

Part used and uses:

• In Ayurveda it is used as bitter, acrid, astringent, laxative, germicidal and antipyretic and is applied in a diverse range of conditions including cough, tuberculosis, eye diseases, dyspepsia, diarrhoea, dysentery, inflammation of the small intestine, biliousness, flatulence, liver disease and leprosy. It is also said to cleanse the blood and the voice and to promote hair growth7; 12. Terminalia bellerica fruit is also used in Egyptian folk medicine 10.
   Scientific studies : • Terminalia bellerica Fruit extract has anti-bacterial activity against Micrococcus pyogenes and Escherichia coli 6. • Oral administration of a water-soluble fraction of the Terminalia bellerica fruit demonstrated significant hepatoprotective activity in vivo against experimental liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride 13. • An alcoholic extract of Terminalia bellerica fruit was found to have a marked stimulant effect on the secretion of bile in vivo. The total solid content of the bile was also increased. An aqueous extract had poor activity in the same test model 12. • An open clinical study in 93 patients suffering from respiratory conditions found that vibhitaki (Terminalia bellerica) had anti-asthmatic, anti-spasmodic, expectorant and anti-tussive effects14. • Oral administration of the Terminalia bellerica extract (100 mg/kg body weight) reduced the blood sugar level in normal and in alloxan (120 mg/kg) diabetic rats significantly. • The antioxidant properties of methanolic extracts of 12 Indian medicinal plants including Terminalia bellerica were evaluated by in-vitro DPPH method and lipid peroxidation assay. The results suggest that all the tested plant materials have moderate to potent antioxidant activity 25. -- www.pharmainfo.net/exclusive/reviews/triphala_a_reputed_herbal_formulation/1/

 

Ethnobotany (Worldwide use):

 

Constituents:  

• Terminalia bellerica is belongs to the family Combretaceae commonly known as ‘vibhitaki’ in Ayurveda. The dried fruit contains about 20% of both condensed and hydrolysable tannins. Other constituents include lipids, b-sitosterol, saponins, gallic and ellagic acids and their derivatives, glycosides and various carbohydrates. -- www.pharmainfo.net/exclusive/reviews/triphala_a_reputed_herbal_formulation/1/

Contents of this page

Terminalia chebula 

Family : Combretaceae

Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcripts:
• Agri.Dept.2000 41-1073: {hpan-hka:}
• FAO : NL
• Lθ-seik-shin 305: {hpan-hka:}
• KS-TMN 85 : Hpan-ga
• Nagathein 2-315: {hpan-hka:}
• UHM : NL

• Official Myanmar Dictionaries 211:
{hpan-hka:} -  -- TravPo-M-Dict 211
{hpan-hka:} - myrobalan tree, chebulic myrobalan, Terminalia chebula -- Myan-Engl-Dict 303

Hindi
Sanskrit: Haritaki (Sanskrit) -- http://www.ayurhelp.com/plants/haritaki.htm

English common name used in Myanmar
• Agri.Dept.2000 41-1073: Myrobalan
• FAO : NL
• Lθ-seik-shin 305: Myrobalan
• KS-TMN 85 : Black Myrobalan; Chebulic Myrobalan
• Nagathein 2-315: not given
• UHM : NL

 

Picture:

• Leader photo from: www.horticopia.com/hortpix/html/pc5202.htm
• Photos:left -- habit with flowers, right -- habit with fruit. Click on the pictures to enlarge. -- KS-TMN
• See photo of fruit from: www.motherherbs.com/index.html

 

Plant identification characters

• A deciduous tree; younger stems glabrescent, woody. Leaves sub-opposite, simple; exstipulate; petiolate; laminae broadly elliptic to elliptic-oblong, rarely ovate, the bases obtuse, the margins entire, the tips acute, unicostate, reticulate, glabrescent. Inflorescences paniculate spikes, terminal and axillary; peduncles tomentose; bracts subulate, small, caducous. Flowers ebracteate, sessile, bisexual, acinomorphic, pentamerous, epigynous. Calyx synsepalous, 5-fid, campanulate, pale yellow, the lobes small, ovate, the outer surfaces glabrous, the inner villous. Corolla absent. Androecium polyandrous stamens 10, in 2 whorls, the filaments equal in length, the anthers dithecous, ovoid, dorsifixed, versatile, dehiscence longitudinal, disc present. Pistil 1, ovary ovoid, pubescent, 1-carpelled, 1-loculed, the ovules 1-2, pendulous, the style glabrescent, the stigma simple. Fruit a drupe, broadly ellipsoid, 5 ribbed, coriaceous, scarlet when young, changing to green when ripe, glabrescent, rugose; seed solitary ellipsoid, 5-ribbed, rugose, non-endospermic. Flowering and fruiting periods: March-June -- KS-TMN

• Nagathein and UKT's free translation
 It is a very tall large tree and its roots go deep into the ground. The stem is tall and straight. Flowers: white and yellow, and 1 to 2 inches long. Leaves are similar in shape to the leaves of {mu.ya:kri:} Adhatoda vasica but up to 3 to 8 inches long.

• Abundant in North India and southwards to the Deccan tablelands at 1,000 to 3,000 ft. -- source unknown.

• Large tree, young branchlets, leaf buds: Leaves:- mostly subopposite, distant, ovate, with long, soft, shining, rust coloured, or silvery hairs. Wither in the cold season. Flowers:- Dull white or yellowish, with a strong offensive smell. Blossom in April to May. Fruits: Obovoid or ellipsoidal from a broad base, glabrous. Formation in November to January. -- http://www.ayurhelp.com/plants/haritaki.htm

• Mature height, 75' to 90' or 22.8m to 27.4m.. Prefers full sun; soil should be dry to moist. Bloom color: white. www.horticopia.com/hortpix/html/pc5202.htm

 

Distribution in Myanmar:

• Throughout Myanmar, grow up to 5000ft. -- KS-TMN

 

Part used and uses :

• Fruit -- Heartburn; Good for eyes; Gastrointestinal diseases; Skin disease, Jaundice; Haemorrhoids; Hiccough; Indigestion; Gastrointestinal colic. Bark -- Oedema; Hepatitis; Hepatomegaly; Best antidote for snake bite; Pyrexia. Seed -- Diarrhoea; Oedema; Very useful for inflammations either taken orally or as an external application -- KS-TMN

• Nagathein and UKT's free translation.
Fruit tastes sour-bitter, and finally sweet. Good for digestion. Good for eyes. Calm the three harmful agencies: {tri.dau-tha.}. Used for various diseases particularly those involving intestines, skin diseases, jaundice, {mrin:tha.reik} (piles), {tu.la-tha.rau}, hiccups, indigestion, {wa-thing.}, {pa-da.rak} (paraplegia), etc.
   Note that there are various kinds of {hpan-hka:}. The one that is fleshy, large and yellow is known as {thing~bau hpan-hka:}. (UKT: the prefix {thing~bau} literally meaning "ship" implies an imported species.}. Imported from Kabul (Afghanistan) it is known as {ka-bul hpan~hka.} and more beneficial. Another kind is {ha-ri.ta.ki} is also classified as {hpan-hka:} and is known as {kra.su.}. See {kra.su.} Terminalia citrina .

 

Constituents:

• Fruits: contain astringent substances - tannic acid, Chebulinic acid, gallic acid etc. Resin and a purgative principle of the nature of anthraquinone and sennoside are also present. Fruit contains a constituent which has a wide antibacterial and antifungal spectrum and also inhibits growth of E.coli, the most common organism responsible for urinary tract infection. The fruit pulp exhibits laxative properties. - http://www.ayurhelp.com/plants/haritaki.htm

Contents of this page

Terminalia citrina

Family: Combrataceae

Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
• Agri.Dept.2000 07-0170:  {kra.su.}
• FAO : NL
• Lθ-seik-shin 055: {kra.su.}; {hpan-hka:ngθύ}
• KS-TMN 86: Kyasu; Kya-su-hpangah; Taw-hpangah
• Nagathein 1-152: {kra.su.}
• UHM : NL

Myanmar-Script Spelling
• Official Myanmar Dictionaries {kra.su.}
- -- TravPo-M-Dict 028
- tree bearing officinal fruits, Terminalia citrina ,  Myan-Engl-Dict 036

Hindi:
Sanskrit:

English common name used in Myanmar:
• Agri.Dept.2000 07-0170:  Hara nut tree
• FAO : NL
• Lθ-seik-shin 055: not given
• KS-TMN 86: Citrine-Myobalan
• Nagathein 1-152: Citrina tree
• UHM : NL

Picture:
• Leader from Lθ-seik-shin Click on picture to enlarge.
• Photos: left -- habit with flowers, right -- habit with fruit. Click on the pictures to enlarge. -- KS-TMN
• See photo and descriptive text from Queen Sirikit Arboretum http://www.arboretum.ait.ac.th/searchall.cfm#

 

Plant identification characters :

• A deciduous tree; younger stems woody, terete,  glabrescent. Leaves sub-opposite, with 2 glands at the terminal ends, simple; exstipulate; petroles, puberulent; lanminae;  elliptic or  elliptic - lanceolate to ellipticoblong, the bases obtuse, the margins entire, the tips acute to abruptly acuminate, unicostate, reticulate, the surfaces glabrescent, coriaceous. Inflorescences in terminal and axillary paniculate spikes, laxly flowered; peduncles tomentose, the secondary peduncles 4-16; bracts subulate, pubescent. Flowers small, ebracteolate, sessile, bisexual, actinomorphic, pentamerous, epigynous, caducous. Calyx synsepalus, 5-fid, campanulate, the tube adnate to the ovary forming a hypanthium and prolonged above it, the lobes ovate, the outer surfaces glabrescent, the inner villous, pale yellow, presistent. Corolla absent. Androecium polyandrous, stamens 10, in 2 whorls, adnate to the base of the calyx tube, the filaments equal in length, exserted, the anthers dithecous, ovoid, versatile, introrse, dehiscence longitudinal. Pistil 1, ovary inferior, ellipsoid, 1- carpelled, 1- loculed, with a solitary pendulous ovule form locule apex,  glavrous, the style slender with a dilated base, subtended by a 5-lobed villous disc, the stigma simple. Fruit  adrupe, ellipsoid, 5-ribbed, coriaceous, glabrous, rugose, dark green when young, bright yellow when ripe; seeds ellipsoid, 5-ribbed, rugose, non-endospermic.
-- KS-TMN

• Deciduous, 20-30 meters tall. Flowering: Feb - Apr -- Queen Sirikit Arboretum http://www.arboretum.ait.ac.th/searchall.cfm#

• Nagathein and UKT's free translation. (UKT: In writing this section Nagathein seemed to be citing the literatures from 3 traditional medical schools: 1. {ni.GaN~Πu. kyam:}, 2. {ra-za.ni.GaN~Πu. kyam:}, and 3. {dab~ba.gu.Na pa.ka-tha. kyam:})

{kra.su.} is of the same kind as {hpan-hka:}. True {hpan-hka:} is a large tree, whereas {kra.su.} is a medium sized tree. According to {ni.GaN~Πu. kyam:} there are 7 kinds of {kra.su.} :
1. {zi-wun~ti} -- golden colour; 2. {wi.za-ya} -- similar in shape to Burmese-gourd; 3. {rau-hi.Ni} -- grayish colour; 4. {pu-ta.na} -- thin rind, large pit; 5. {a.ma.ta} -- small pit, thick flesh; 6. {a.Ba.ya} -- 5-pointed cross-section; 7. {sι-ki} -- 3-pointed cross-section. -- Nagathein, free translation by UKT.

True {hpan-hka:} Terminalia chebula , T. reticulata  (Family: Combrataceae). See also {hpan-hka:}.
Go back to True-hpan-hka-b

Some of these plants grow in Myanmar. Since all members of this group is equally medicinally effective, you can group {kra.su.} and {hpan-hka:} together. According to {dub~ba.gu.Na. kyam:}, in such a group there are only 3 kinds differentiated by the size of the fruits: large, medium, and small. The large-fruit kind has thick pithy flesh and small pit. The medium-fruit kind has less flesh and large pit. The small-fruit kind has thin rind, little flesh, and largest fruit. The dry new fruit (a year-old) is firm and weighty, and has oil. The flesh is not pithy. The whole fruit sinks in water. -- Nagathein, free translation by UKT.

The medicinal literature do not treat {kra.su.} and {hpan-hka:} fruits differently and the same term {ha.ri-ta.ki} is used. However, they are not the same, and the prefix {wa.na.} (literary meaning "jungle") is to be attached to one kind -- {wa.na.ha.ri-ta.ki}.
   {kra.su.} is {wa.na.ha.ri-ta.ki} and is spindle-shaped (pointed at both ends).
   {hpan-hka:} is common {ha.ri-ta.ki} and only one end pointed.
   {hpan-hka:} is to be used only when {kra.su.} is not available, and its use is allowed by {ni.GaN~Πu.} practitioners. -- Nagathein, free translation by UKT.

 

Distribution in Myanmar:

Part used and uses :

• Fruit: Asthma; Diarrhea; Boils; Burns; Constipation; Migraine; Dental disease; Haemoptysis; Dizziness; Bleeding haermorrhoids; Eye disease; Gastric hyperacidity; Anaemia; Elephantiasis; Orchitis; Arthritis; Anasarca; Hoarse voice; Dysentery; Pyrexia; Infections; Traumatic cuts; Cardiac diseases; Cough; Hepatomegaly; Urolithiasis; For life longevity. -- KS-TMN

• Nagathein and UKT's free translation:

 Nagathein cited literature ({kyam:}) from 3 traditional medical schools:
1. {ni.GaN~Πu. kyam:}
2. {ra-za.ni.GaN~Πu. kyam:}
3. {dab~ba.gu.Na pa.ka-tha kyam:}
   According to {ni.GaN~Πu. kyam:} : Promotes internal heat (UKT: this generally means it helps digestion.) Increase mental capacity. Promotes longevity. Strengthens eye-sight. Increases body-weight. Helps bowel and kidney functions. Effective for the following: Cough, Asthma, {mι-ha.}, {mrin:tha.reik} (piles), Leprosy, Edema, Infections, Deterioration of voice, Dysentery, Constipation and difficult urine passage, Fevers, Cuts, Vomiting, Tiredness, Skin eruptions,  Cardiac disease,  Stomach pains, Spleen enlargement, Liver enlargement, Urolithiasis .
   According to {ra-za.ni.GaN~Πu. kyam:}: Thirst, fix jaw, neck pain, semen reduction. Good for convalescence, those under recent illness, and pregnant mothers.
   According to {dab~ba.gu.Na pa.ka-tha kyam:}, {kra.su.} is like a mother. A mother, out of anger, may harm her child, but {kra.su.} would never harm humans.

• Fruits. Used as: T. citrina is used in traditional medicine in Thailand to treat diarrhoea and skin infections. Five known tannins were isolated from the methanol extract of the fruits and identified as corilagin, punicalagin, 1,3,6-tri-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucopyranose, chebulagic acid and 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucopyranose. All compounds exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (MIC values of 128-1024 ug/ml). Only corilagin was active against Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae (MIC values of 1024 ug/ml for both bacteria), whereas both corilagin and punicalagin were active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC value of 1024 ug/ml). Except for 1,3,6-tri-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucopyranose, all compounds exhibited antifungal activity against Candida albicans (MIC values of 512-1024 ug/ml). [Burapadaja, et al] -- from: Anthony C. Dweck, NATURAL PRESERVATIVES, www.dweckdata.com/Lectures/Preservatech.pdf . Available in TIL archives.

• Young fruit used to recurring stomach disorders, fever, etc. -- Queen Sirikit Arboretum http://www.arboretum.ait.ac.th/searchall.cfm#

Constituents:

• Five known tannins were isolated from the methanol extract of the fruits and identified as corilagin, punicalagin, 1,3,6-tri-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucopyranose, chebulagic acid and 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucopyranose. -- Anthony C. Dweck, NATURAL PRESERVATIVES, www.dweckdata.com/Lectures/Preservatech.pdf

Contents of this page

Entry format: Botanical name / Family / Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcripts (• Agri.Dept.2000 : • Chklist: • LSR : • FAO : • KS-TMN: • Nagathein : • UHM :/ Myanmar-Script Spelling (• Official Myanmar Dictionaries : - TravPo-M-Dict - Myan-Engl-Dict - Myan-Ortho / Hindi / Sanskrit / English common name used in Myanmar / Picture / Plant identification characters / Distribution in Myanmar / Part used and uses / Constituents /
End of TIL file