Update: 2006-07-16 12:04 PM -0700


Myanmar Medicinal Plant Database

Family: Aristolochiaceae

compiled by U Kyaw Tun, U Pe Than, and staff of TIL. Not for sale.

Contents of this page

Family: Aristolochiaceae 1 entry
• Aristolochia indica  • {lth~tha.ra.mu-li}
• Aristolochia spp.

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TIL-DB Indices: Akshara | Alphabet-Botanical | Alphabet-Family
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Aristolochia indica 

Family: Aristolochiaceae

UKT: In order to overcome the short-coming of Arial Unicode font, the Romabama spelling is given in upper case letters: {ITH~THA.RA.MU-LI} -- the first letter is capital letter I and not L .

Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
• Agri.Dept.2000 64-1723:  {ITH~THA.RA.MU-LI A.HPO}
• FAO : NL
• Lθ-seik-shin 491: {ITH~THA.RA.MU-LI}
• KS-TMN 58: Eik-thara-muli
• Nagathein 4-061: ()  {ITH~THA.RA.MU-LI (a.kri:myo:)}
• UHM 07: Eik-thara-muli

UKT: Agri.Dept.2000 p64 listed two similar species, A. indica and A. macrophyla , which are differentiated by putting affixes. A. indica is affixed with {a.hpo} literally meaning "male" by some authors, and {a.kri:myo:} literally meaning "large kind" by others. A. macrophyla is affixed with {a.ma.} "female" or with {a.ngθύ-myo:} "small kind".
   Searching the Chklist and USDA-NRCS-data has brought up an interesting point: Chklist listed only A. indica and not A. macrophyla, whereas USDA-NRCS-data listed only A. macrophyla and not A. indica.

Myanmar-Script Spelling
• Official Myanmar Dictionary
{lth~tha.ra.mu-li} - -- TravPo-M-Dict 396
{lth~tha.ra.mu-li} - n. kind of creeper plant used in indigenous medicine, Aristolochia indica -- Myan-Engl-Dict 635

UKT: Note that the Pali word is made up of two parts, {lth~tha.ra.} and {mu-li}

• इसरमूल -- translitered by Nagathein to {i.hsar-mul} -- Nagathein

UKT: Comparison of Hindi and Burmese names brings up an interesting point for me who is interested in the akshara writing system. In Hindi-Devanagari, the second character is स which corresponds to Burmese-Myanmar r6v5 {tha.} and not to r2c2 {hsa.} as Shin Nagathein had suggested. It is obvious that he had given the transcription of the Hindi name in Burmese-Myanmar script, instead of transliterating from Devanagari to Myanmar.
   If we are to ignore the inconsistency of the second character, we can conclude that the name of the plant in Burmese and Hindi in script form (Myanmar for Burmese, and Devanagari for Hindi) is the same.

English common name used in Myanmar
• Agri.Dept.2000 64-1723:  Birthwort
• FAO : NL
• Lθ-seik-shin 491: Indian birthwort
• KS-TMN 58: Indian birthwort
• Nagathein 4-061: not given
• UHM 07: Indian birthwort

UKT: The English common name "birthworth" is listed in AHTD:
birth·wort n. 1. Any of several herbs or woody vines of the genus Aristolochia having showy, malodorous, purplish-brown to yellowish flowers with peculiar or unusual shapes. The European species A. clematitis was used as a folk medicine to aid childbirth.



• Leader from Nagathein
• Photos: left -- habit with flowers, right -- habit with fruits -- KS-TMN


Plant identification characters

• Woody climbers; stems 6-angled, ribbed; underground stems or rhizomes small, bear numerous wiry roots. Leaves alternate, simple; exstipulate; petiolate; laminae pandurate, the bases obtuse, the margins obscurely entire, the tips acute, unicostate, reticulate. Inflorescences axillary racemes, 3- to 7-flowered, epigynous. Perianthe synphyllous, the limb 2-lobed, ligulate, dark purple, the tubes cylindrical with a globose base, pale green, mouth oblique. Androecium polyandrous, stamens 6, adnate to the style, forming a cupular column or gynosteminum, the filaments sessile, the anthers dithecous, oblongoid, adnate, extrorse, inserted, dehiscence longitudinal. Pistil 1, ovary narrowly obovoid, 2-carpelled, syncarpous, 6-loculed, the placentation axile, the ovules numerous, one in each locule, the style short and stout, the stigma 6-lobed, Fruit a septicidal capsule, oblongoid, sulcate; seeds triangular, endosperm fleshy. Flowering period: October-November. Fruiting period: November-January -- KS-TMN

• A shrub with twining long stems which are slender and woody at the base, grooved and glabrous; leaves of various forms from linear-oblong to obovate-oblong or subpanduriform, usually obtuse acuminate, glabrous, subcordate or subtruncate or rounded, inflorescence, axillary few flowered racemes -- UHM


Distribution in Myanmar

• Grows wild throughout Myanmar, common on low hills. -- KS-TMN

• Sagaing, Shwebo, Pa-an Division, Indu -- UHM


Part used and uses

• Root: Oxytocic: Chronic arthritis; Diaphoretic; Leucoderma; Head-ache; Antidote for snake and scorpion venoms; Dysentery; Amenorrhoea; Infantile diarrhoea, Pyrexia and laryngeal disease. Root decoction -- Arthritis. Leaf: Ascites. Fresh leaf -- Antidote for snake-bite -- KS-TMN

• Dried stem and bark. -- UHM



• 1. iso-Aristolochic acid, allantoin, 0.05 % alkaloid aristolochin, essential oil containing carbonyl compounds (13) -- UHM

Contents of this page

Aristolochia species

Family: Aristolochiaceae

Results of search for 'Aristolochia' in the Checklist of Plants of Myanmar, U.S. National Herbarium, 30 Apr 2006.
• Aristolochia atropurpurea Par. Habit: Climber/Creeper. Distribution: Mon
• Aristolochia bracteata Retz. Habit: Climber/Creeper. Distribution: Wide. Common Names: Poe-that
• Aristolochia cucurbitoides Liang. Habit: Climber. Distribution: Reported from Myanmar
• Aristolochia griffithii Hook. f. & Thomson ex Duch. Habit: Climber. Distribution: Reported from Myanmar
• Aristolochia hookeriana Craib. Habit: Climber/Creeper. Distribution: Cultivated. Common Names: Fly catching plant
• Aristolochia indica L. Habit: Climber/Creeper. Distribution: Bago, Mandalay, Yangon. Common Names: Eik-tha-ra-muli, Indian birth wort
• Aristolochia pierrei Lecomte. Habit: Climber. Distribution: Reported from Myanmar
• Aristolochia roxburghiana Klotzsch. Habit: Shrub, Climber. Distribution: Kayin, Sagaing, Yangon
• Aristolochia saccata Wall. Habit: Climber/Creeper. Distribution: Chin
• Aristolochia tagala Cham. Habit: Climber/Creeper. Distribution: Chin, Mandalay, Yangon
• Aristolochia transsecta (Chatterjee) C.Y. Wu. Cited as: Isotrema transsectum Chatterjee. Habit: Climber. Distribution: Reported from Myanmar
• Aristolochia wardiana Ma. Habit: Climber. Distribution: Reported from Myanmar

"ARIST2","Aristolochia L.","dutchman's pipe","Aristolochiaceae"
"ARAN6","Aristolochia anguicida Jacq.","harlequin dutchman's pipe","Aristolochiaceae"
"ARBI4","Aristolochia bilabiata L.","West Indian dutchman's pipe","Aristolochiaceae"
"ARCH16","Aristolochia chasmema auct. non H. Pfeifer [misapplied]",">>Aristolochia bilabiata","Aristolochiaceae"
"AROB5","Aristolochia oblongata auct. non Jacq. [misapplied]",">>Aristolochia bilabiata","Aristolochiaceae"
"ARBI5","Aristolochia bilobata L.","twolobe dutchman's pipe","Aristolochiaceae"
"ARCA10","Aristolochia californica Torr.","California dutchman's pipe","Aristolochiaceae"
"ISCA2","Isotrema californica (Torr.) Huber",">>Aristolochia californica","Aristolochiaceae"
"ARCL","Aristolochia clematitis L.","birthwort","Aristolochiaceae"
"ARCO40","Aristolochia cordifolia Mutis ex Kunth [excluded]","","Aristolochiaceae"
"ARCO8","Aristolochia coryi I.M. Johnston","Cory's dutchman's pipe","Aristolochiaceae"
"ARBR9","Aristolochia brevipes auct. non Benth. [misapplied]",">>Aristolochia coryi","Aristolochiaceae"
"ARBRA2","Aristolochia brevipes Benth. var. acuminata S. Wats.",">>Aristolochia coryi","Aristolochiaceae"
"AREL10","Aristolochia elegans Mast.","elegant dutchman's pipe","Aristolochiaceae"
"ARLI5","Aristolochia littoralis auct. non Parodi [misapplied]",">>Aristolochia elegans","Aristolochiaceae"
"ARER","Aristolochia erecta L.","swanflower","Aristolochiaceae"
"ARLO10","Aristolochia longiflora Engelm. & Gray",">>Aristolochia erecta","Aristolochiaceae"
"ARGR2","Aristolochia grandiflora Sw.","pelicanflower","Aristolochiaceae"
"ARLA24","Aristolochia labiata Willd.","mottled dutchman's pipe","Aristolochiaceae"
"ARMA7","Aristolochia macrophylla Lam.","pipevine","Aristolochiaceae"
"ARDU2","Aristolochia durior Hill",">>Aristolochia macrophylla","Aristolochiaceae"
"ISMA4","Isotrema macrophyllum (Lam.) C.F. Reed",">>Aristolochia macrophylla","Aristolochiaceae"
"ARMA9","Aristolochia maxima Jacq.","Florida dutchman's pipe","Aristolochiaceae"
"AROD","Aristolochia odoratissima L.","fragrant dutchman's pipe","Aristolochiaceae"
"ARPE7","Aristolochia peltata L.","peltate dutchman's pipe","Aristolochiaceae"
"ARPE8","Aristolochia pentandra Jacq.","Marsh's dutchman's pipe","Aristolochiaceae"
"ARMA8","Aristolochia marshii Standl.",">>Aristolochia pentandra","Aristolochiaceae"
"ARRE3","Aristolochia reticulata Jacq.","Texas dutchman's pipe","Aristolochiaceae"
"ARRI3","Aristolochia ringens Vahl","gaping dutchman's pipe","Aristolochiaceae"
"ARSE3","Aristolochia serpentaria L.","Virginia snakeroot","Aristolochiaceae"
"ARCO20","Aristolochia convolvulacea Small",">>Aristolochia serpentaria","Aristolochiaceae"
"ARHA4","Aristolochia hastata Nutt.",">>Aristolochia serpentaria","Aristolochiaceae"
"ARNA2","Aristolochia nashii Kearney",">>Aristolochia serpentaria","Aristolochiaceae"
"ARSEH","Aristolochia serpentaria L. var. hastata (Nutt.) Duchartre",">>Aristolochia serpentaria","Aristolochiaceae"
"ARSEN","Aristolochia serpentaria L. var. nashii (Kearney) Ahles",">>Aristolochia serpentaria","Aristolochiaceae"
"ENSEH","Endodeca serpentaria (L.) Raf. var. hastata (Nutt.) C.F. Reed",">>Aristolochia serpentaria","Aristolochiaceae"
"ARTO3","Aristolochia tomentosa Sims","woolly dutchman's pipe","Aristolochiaceae"
"ISTO","Isotrema tomentosa (Sims) Huber",">>Aristolochia tomentosa","Aristolochiaceae"
"ARTR5","Aristolochia trilobata L.","bejuco de santiago","Aristolochiaceae"
"ARWA","Aristolochia watsonii Woot. & Standl.","Watson's dutchman's pipe","Aristolochiaceae"
"ARPO10","Aristolochia porphyrophylla H. Pfeifer",">>Aristolochia watsonii","Aristolochiaceae"
"ARWR2","Aristolochia wrightii Seem.","Wright's dutchman's pipe","Aristolochiaceae"
"ARIST5","Aristotelia L'Hιr.","","Elaeocarpaceae"
"ARCH17","Aristotelia chilensis (Molina) Stuntz","maquei","Elaeocarpaceae"

Contents of this page

Entry format: Botanical name / Family / Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcripts (• Agri.Dept.2000 : • Chklist: • LSR : • FAO : • KS-TMN: • Nagathein : • UHM :/ Myanmar-Script Spelling (• Official Myanmar Dictionaries : - TravPo-M-Dict - Myan-Engl-Dict - Myan-Ortho / Hindi / Sanskrit / English common name used in Myanmar / Picture / Plant identification characters / Distribution in Myanmar / Part used and uses / Constituents /
End of TIL file