Update: 2006-08-01 05:36 PM -0700

TIL

Myanmar Medicinal Plant Database

Family: Araliaceae

compiled by U Kyaw Tun, U Pe Than, and staff of TIL. Not for sale.

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Family: Araliaceae 1 entry
• Araliaceae family - general characters
• Panax fruticosum • {ga.Loan-lak-thζΡ:} - syn. Polyscias fruticosa
• Hedera spp.
• Heptapleurum spp.
• Panax spp.
• Polyscias spp.

UKT: The following spp. of this family are listed in Agri.Dept.2000
Araliaceae -- Heteropanax fragrans -- {ta.cham:sa} 24-0617
Araliaceae -- Panax fruticosum -- {ga.Loan-lak-thζρ:} 14-0356
Araliaceae -- Panax schinseng -- {ging-hsing:} 15-0373
Araliaceae -- Schefflera venulosa -- {Bi-lu:lak-wa:} 42-1106
Araliaceae -- Talinum patens -- {kau-li.thein (htau:ling-soan)} 03-0074

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Araliaceae family - general characters

From: Families yielding important phytopharmaceuticals in Fundamentals of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy, by Michael Heinrich, J. Barnes, S. Gibbons, and E. Williamson, October 2003, ISBN:0443071322, pp.320 -- www.fleshandbones.com/readingroom/pdf/747.pdf

Important medicinal plants from the family
• Hedera helix L. [(common) ivy], used as a cough remedy.
• Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (ginseng), used as an adaptogene (a very ill-defined category) and to combat mental and physical stress [and sometimes replaced by Eleutherococcus (Acanthopanax) senticosus (Rupr. and Maxim) Maxim from the same family].

Morphological characteristics of the family
This family consists mostly of woody species, characterized by hermaphrodite flowers in a simple umbel (see the closely related Apiaceae with a double umbel). The leaf lobes are hand-shaped, and the flowers relatively inconspicuous with two pistils, an inferior gynaecium, a small calyx and generally a white to greenish corolla, with free petals and sepals.

Distribution
This family of >700 species is widely dispersed in tropical and subtropical Asia and in the Americas. Hedera helix is the only species native to Europe.

Chemical characteristics of the family
Of particular importance from a pharmacognostical perspective are the saponins, triterpenoids and some acetylenic compounds. The triterpenoids (ginsengosides) are implicated in the pharmacological effects of Panax ginseng, while saponins (hederasaponins) are of relevance for the secretolytic effect of Hedera helix.

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Panax fruticosum
Polyscias fruticosa

Family : Araliaceae

syn. Panax fruticosus L.; Polyscias fruticosa (L.) Harms
-- www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?409424

Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcripts
• Agri.Dept.2000 14-0356: {ga.Loan-lak-thζΡ:}
  -- gives the name as Panax fructicosum
• Chklist: Kalon-letthe -- name given as Polyscias fruticosa
• LSR : NL
• FAO : NL
• KS-TMN: NL
• Nagathein : NL
• UHM : NL

 

Myanmar-Script Spelling
• Official Myanmar Dictionaries :
{ga.Loan-lak-thζΡ:} - - TravPo-M-Dict 064
{ga.Loan-lak-thζΡ:} - n. ornamental shrub with pointed, digitate leaves, Polyscias fructicosa - Myan-Engl-Dict 084
{ga.Loan-lak-thζΡ:} - NL in Myan-Ortho

 

Chklist data
• Polyscias fruticosa (L.) Harms. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Cultivated. Common Names: Kalon-letthe
UKT: Not listed as Panax spp.

Analysis of numbers of papers/mentions over time (Agricola database 1970-1996):
Panax fruticosum
Common Name(s):
panax
Crop Use(s): medicinal crop=vegetable
Reference Source(s): sturtevant
Number of Papers/Mentions: 0 -- www.newcrops.uq.edu.au/listing/panaxfruticosum.htm

Hindi
Sanskrit :

 

English common name used in Myanmar :
• Agri.Dept.2000 14-0356: NG
• Chklist: NG
• LSR : NL
• FAO : NL
• KS-TMN: NL
• Nagathein : NL
• UHM : NL

 

Picture :
• Leader: -- http://www.plantoftheweek.org/week253.shtml

 

Plant identification characters :

• Polyscias fruticosa, or Ming Aralia, is an evergreen shrub or small tree native to India to Polynesia. The dark green glossy leaves are at least tripinnate and appear much divided. Individual leaves vary from narrowly ovate to lanceolate and are about 4 inches (10 cm) long. Plants will reach up to 6-8 feet (1-2 m) in height. They make excellent indoor trees and are very long lived in containers. They are used as hedge material in USDA zone 10. Blooming Time: Usually summer. Flowers are small and inconspicuous.
   Culture: Polyscias fruticosa need full sun to partial shade to high interior lighting. In the greenhouse, we use a soil mix consisting of 2 parts peat moss to 2 parts loam to 1 part sand or perlite. The plants should be kept moist and never should be allowed to dry thoroughly. Plants are fertilized only 3 times during the growing season using a balanced fertilizer diluted to ½ the strength recommended on the label. Since the plants are fairly slow growers, very little pruning is needed to keep the desired form. During the winter months, water should be restricted, but the plant should never be allowed to dry out completely.
   Propagation: Polyscias fruticosa are propagated from root and stem cuttings, air layers and from suckers at the base.
  Polyscias fruticosa was featured as Plant of the Week March 26-April 1, 2004. -- http://www.plantoftheweek.org/week253.shtml

 

Distribution in Myanmar :

 

Part used and uses

 

Constituents

 

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Hedera spp.

Family: Araliaceae

Results of search for 'Hedera' in the Checklist of Plants of Myanmar, U.S. National Herbarium, 30 Jul 2006.
• Hedera helix C.B. Clarke. Habit: Climber/Creeper. Distribution: Cultivated. Common Names: English ivy, Kyaukkat-nwe
• Hedera nepalensis K. Koch. Cited as: Hedera himalaica Tobler. Habit: Climber. Distribution: Kachin

USDA-NRCS
"HEDER","Hedera L.","ivy","Araliaceae"
"HECA37","Hedera canariensis Willd.","Canary ivy","Araliaceae"
"HECA31","Hedera caucasigena Pojark.","","Araliaceae"
"HECO20","Hedera colchica (K. Koch) K. Koch","colchis ivy","Araliaceae"
"HEHE","Hedera helix L.","English ivy","Araliaceae"
"HEHEC","Hedera helix L. ssp. canariensis (Willd.) Cout.","Algerian ivy","Araliaceae"
"HEHI12","Hedera hibernica (Kirchn.) Bean.","Atlantic Ivy","Araliaceae"
"HEHEH2","Hedera helix L. var. hibernica (Kirchn.) Jaeger",">>Hedera hibernica","Araliaceae"

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Heptapleurum spp.

Family: Araliaceae

Results of search for 'Heptapleurum' in the Checklist of Plants of Myanmar, U.S. National Herbarium, 30 Jul 2006.
• Heptapleurum elatum C. B. Clarke. Habit: Tree. Distribution: Reported from Myanmar
• Heptapleurum venulosum Seem. Habit: Small tree, Climber. Distribution: Ayeyarwady, Mandalay, Yangon. Common Names: Myauk-letwa, Natthami-letwa, Tauktet-letwa
• Schefflera hypoleuca (Kurz) Harms. Cited as: Heptapleurum hypoleucum Kurz. Habit: Tree. Distribution: Chin, Mon, Unknown. Common Names: Kane-pee
• Schefflera impressa (C.B. Clarke) Harms. Cited as: Heptapleurum impressum C. B. Clarke. Habit: Tree. Distribution: Reported from Myanmar
• Schefflera khasiana (C.B. Clarke) R. Viguier. Cited as: Heptapleurum khasianum C. B. Clarke. Habit: Tree. Distribution: Reported from Myanmar
• Schefflera lawranceana R. Viguier. Cited as: Heptapleurum lawranceanum Prain. Habit: Tree. Distribution: Kachin

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Panax spp.

Family: Araliaceae

Results of search for 'Panax' in the Checklist of Plants of Myanmar, U.S. National Herbarium, 30 Jul 2006.
• Panax ginseng C. A. Mey. Cited as: Panax schin-seng Nees. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Reported from Myanmar. Common Names: Asiatic ginseng, Chinese ginseng, Kauli-thein
• Panax pseudoginseng Wall. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Kachin, Sagaing
• Panax pseudoginseng subsp. himalaicus Hara. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Kachin
• Panax pseudoginseng var. bipinnatifidus (Seem.) Li. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Kachin
• Panax quinquefolium L. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Cultivated. Common Names: American ginseng

USDA-NRCS
"PANAX","Panax L.","ginseng","Araliaceae"
"PAGI2","Panax ginseng C. Meyer","Chinese ginseng","Araliaceae"
"PASC17","Panax schinseng Nees",">>Panax ginseng","Araliaceae"
"PAPS11","Panax pseudoginseng Wallich","ginseng","Araliaceae"
"PAPSJ","Panax pseudoginseng Wallich ssp. japonicus (C. Meyer) H. Hara","Japanese ginseng","Araliaceae"
"PARE17","Panax repens Maxim.",">>Panax pseudoginseng ssp. japonicus","Araliaceae"
"PAPSP","Panax pseudoginseng Wallich ssp. pseudoginseng","ginseng","Araliaceae"
"PAQU","Panax quinquefolius L.","American ginseng","Araliaceae"
"PATR2","Panax trifolius L.","dwarf ginseng","Araliaceae"

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Polyscias spp.

Family: Araliaceae

Results of search for 'Polyscias' in the Checklist of Plants of Myanmar, U.S. National Herbarium, 30 Jul 2006.
• Polyscias fruticosa (L.) Harms. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Cultivated. Common Names: Kalon-letthe

USDA-NRCS
"POLYS4","Polyscias J.R. & G. Forst.","aralia","Araliaceae"
"POCU14","Polyscias cumingiana (K. Presl) Fernandez-Villar","Malaysian aralia","Araliaceae"
"ARPI7","Arthrophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) C. B. Clarke",">>Polyscias cumingiana","Araliaceae"
"NOPI","Nothopanax pinnatus (Lam.) Miq.",">>Polyscias cumingiana","Araliaceae"
"PORU15","Polyscias rumphiana Harms",">>Polyscias cumingiana","Araliaceae"
"POFR5","Polyscias fruticosa (L.) H.A.T. Harms","Ming aralia","Araliaceae"
"NOFR2","Nothopanax fruticosus (L.) Miq.",">>Polyscias fruticosa","Araliaceae"
"POGR28","Polyscias grandifolia Volkens","","Araliaceae"
"POGU","Polyscias guilfoylei (Bull ex Cogn. & E. March.) Bailey","geranium aralia","Araliaceae"
"POSC10","Polyscias scutellaria (Burm. f.) Fosberg","shield aralia","Araliaceae"
"POBA7","Polyscias balfouriana (hort. Sander ex Andrι) Bailey",">>Polyscias scutellaria","Araliaceae"
"POPI13","Polyscias pinnata J.R. & G. Forst.",">>Polyscias scutellaria","Araliaceae"
"POSU20","Polyscias subcapitata Kanehira","polyscias","Araliaceae"
"POTR24","Polyscias tricochleata (Miq.) Fosberg","","Araliaceae"

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Entry format: Botanical name / Family / Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcripts • Agri.Dept.2000 : • Chklist: • LSR : • FAO : • KS-TMN: • Nagathein : • UHM :/ Myanmar-Script Spelling (• Official Myanmar Dictionaries : - TravPo-M-Dict - Myan-Engl-Dict - Myan-Ortho / Chklist data / Hindi / Sanskrit / English common name used in Myanmar / Picture / Plant identification characters / Distribution in Myanmar / Part used and uses / Constituents /
End of TIL file