Update: 2007-03-17 02:04 AM -0500

TIL

Myanmar Medicinal Plant Database

Family: Apocynaceae

compiled by U Kyaw Tun, U Pe Than, and staff of TIL. Not for sale.

Contents of this page

Family: Apocynaceae 11 entries
• Apocynaceae family - general characters - compilation by TIL.
• Alstonia scholaris  • {taung-ma.ro:} / {taung-mθ-oap}
• Carissa carandas  • {hkδn-ping}
• Holarrhena antidysenterica • {lak-htoat-kri:}
• Nerium indicum  syn N. odorum • {nwθύ-tha-ki}
• Plumeria acutifolia  • {ta.roat-sδn-ka:}
• Plumeria alba • {ta.roat-sδn-ka: a.phru} •
• Plumeria rubra • {ta.roat-sδn-ka: a.ni} •
• Rauwolfia serpentina • {Boam~ma.ra-za}
• Thevetia neriifolia  syn. T. peruviana • {hsθύ.nhis-ra-thi}
• Vinca rosea • {thοn~bau:ma.Ρho:}
• Wrightia tomentosa • {lak-htoat-thaim}
• Alstonia scholaris and {lak-htoat} controversy
• Alstonia spp.
• Carissa spp.
• Holarrhena spp.
• Nerium spp.
• Plumeria spp.
• Rauwolfia spp.
• Thevetia spp.
• Vinca spp.
• Wrightia spp.

Main Index of DB | Top
Contents of this page

Apocynaceae family - general characters

A compilation by TIL.
Main source: Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apocynaceae

The Apocynaceae or dogbane family is a family of flowering plants, including trees, shrubs, herbs, and lianas.

Many species are tall trees found in the tropical rainforest, and most are from the tropics and subtropics, but some come from tropical dry, xeric environments. There are also some perennial herbs from temperate zones. Many of these plants have milky sap; and many species are poisonous if ingested. Some genera of Apocynaceae, such as Adenium however, have either clear and milky, latex sap, and others, such as Pachypodium, always have clear sap.

The family, as currently recognized, includes some 1500 species divided in about 424 genera. The family Asclepiadaceae is now, according to Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG II) included in the Apocynaceae (Endress & Bruyns, 2000).

There are five subfamilies:
• Rauvolfioideae • Apocynoideae • Periplocoideae • Secamonoideae • Asclepiadoideae
The former two sub-families were part of the Apocynaceae sensu stricto, whilst the latter three sub-families used to belong to the Asclepiadaceae. The Apocynaceae is the result of a conflation of the two families. (UKT Note: MMPDB follows the Chklist classification which does not necessarily concurs with that of APG.)

Species in this family are distributed mainly in tropical regions:
• In the rainforests and swamps of India and Malaya: small to very tall evergreen trees, often with buttress roots, such as Alstonia and Dyera.
• In northern Australia: small evergreen trees such as Cerbera and Ochrosia.
• In deciduous forests of Africa and India: smaller trees such as Carissa, Wrightia and Holarrhena.
• In tropical America, India, Myanmar and Malaya: evergreen trees and shrubs, such as Rauwolfia, Tabernaemontana and Acokanthera.
• In Central America: Plumeria, or the frangipani, with its waxy white or pink flowers and a sweet scent.
• In South America, Africa and Madagascar: many lianas such as Landolphia.
• In the Mediterranean region: Nerium, with the well-known oleander or Be-still tree (Nerium oleander).
• The only genera found in temperate Europe away from the Mediterranean are Vinca (Apocynoideae) and Vincetoxicum (Asclepiadoideae).
• In North America: Apocynum, dogbane or Indian hemp, including Apocynum cannabinum, a traditional source of fiber.
• In continental southern Africa (Angola, Botswana, Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland, and Zimbabwe) and Madgascar, except for the humid evergreen forest of the eastern side of Madgascar, and never above 2000 m for the entire island: Pachypodium.

The leaves are simple, usually opposite and decussate, or whorled; lacking stipules. Flowers are usually showy, radially symmetrical (actinomorphic), aggregated in cymose or racemose inflorescences (rarely fasciculate or solitary). They are perfect (bisexual), with a synsepalous, 5-lobed calyx. Inflorescences are terminal or axillary. The stamens are inserted on the inside of the corolla tube. The ovary is usually superior. The fruit is a drupe, a berry, a capsule or a follicle.

Several plants of this family had economic uses in the past.
• The genera Carpodinus, Landolphia, Hancornia, Funtumia and Mascarenhasia were used as a commercial source of inferior rubber.
• The juice of Acokanthera species such as A. venenata and the milky juice of the Namibian Pachypodium has been used as venom for arrow tips by the Bushmen. Some sources (Rapananrivo et al. on p. 5) state that Pachypodium do not have a milky sap.
• Several genera are grown as ornamental plants, including Amsonia (bluestar), Nerium (oleander), Vinca (periwinkle), Carissa (Natal plum, an edible fruit), Allamanda (golden trumpet), Plumeria (frangipani), Thevetia (lucky nut), Mandevilla (Savannah flower).
• Rauvolfia cafra is the Quinine tree. Rauvolfia serpentina or Indian Snakeroot yields the alkaloids reserpine and rescinnamine.
• Some are sources of drugs, such as cardiac glycosides, affecting the heart function, including Acokanthera, Apocynum, Cerbera, Nerium, Thevetia and Strophantus.
• The genus Apocynum was used as a source of fiber by Native Americans.
• The edible flower of Fernaldia pandurata (common name: Loroco) is a popular part of El Salvadorian and Guatamalan cooking.

Contents of this page

Alstonia scholaris

Family: Apocynaceae

Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
• Agri.Dept.2000
-17-0423: {sa.rζΡ:}, {taung-mu.ro:}, {taung-mθ-oap}
-29-0749: {taung-mu.ro:}, {taung-mθ-oap}
• Chklist: Devil tree, Dita bark, Letpan-ga, Taung-mayo, Taung-meoak
• LSR 209 : () {taung-mθ-oap(lak-pδn-hka:)}
   {taung-ma.ro:}, {thing-poan:}, {hsι:hka:}
• FAO 061: Lettok
• KS-TMN 45: Taung-ma-yoe; Let-htoke, Taung-mare-oke
• Nagathein 2-047: {taung-ma.ro:}
• UHM 04: Lak-htoat , Taung-me-ok

UKT: Agri.Dept.2000 applied the name {lak-htoat} to two other species of the family Apocynaceae,  Holarrhena antidysenterica pg 53 entry 1417 with the suffix "major" and to Wrightia tomentosa pg 53 entry 1418 with the suffix "minor".

Myanmar-Script Spelling
• {taung-mζΡ:oap} / {hsι:hka:kri:} / {taung-mu.ro:} / {lak-htoat} / {thing-poan:}
  -- MMDict131
• {taung-mζΡ:oap} /|taun me: ou'|/ - n. tall tree yielding soft white wood, with bark and sap having medicinal application. Alstonia scholaris . Also {taung-mu.ro:} -- MEDict178

Data above updated (070312) in Akshara index r4c1ta.htm {taung-ma.ro:} and r6c3la.htm {lak-htoat}

Chklist data : 070312
• Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br. . Habit: Tree . Distribution: Bago, Kachin, Mandalay, Shan, Taninthayi, Yangon . Common Names: Devil tree, Dita bark, Letpan-ga, Taung-mayo, Taung-meoak

Hindi
• {cha.ti.wan} -- Nagathein
Sanskrit

English common name used in Myanmar
• Agri.Dept.2000 -- Devil's tree
• Chklist:
• LSR: -- Devil's tree, Dita bark tree
• FAO 061: White cheesewood, milkwood pine, blackboard tree
• KS-TMN -- Devil's tree, Ditta bark tree
• Nagathein -- Not given
• UHM -- Not given

 Picture
• Leader from Nagathein
• Color drawing from FAO
• Photos: left -- habit with flowers, right -- habit with fruits -- KS-TMN

Plant identification characters
• Key characteristics: Medium to large sized; cylindrical bole; large buttresses when older; outer bark coming off in small papery flakes; leaves in whorls of 5–8; fruits 20– 40 cm long, slender follicles. Description: A medium to large tree up to 40 m high and 125 cm in diameter with a cylindrical bole. Older trees with buttresses up to 6 m high and reaching 2 m out from a bole. Outer bark brown or yellowish white, smooth, coming off in small papery flakes; inner bark yellow to brown with white latex. Leaves 7–23 cm long, in whorls of 4–8 on 1.5–3 cm long petiole, oblong-lanceolate or elliptical with rounded tip and numerous secondary veins. Flowers greenish to yellow, fragrant, with soft haired calyx. The fruits are slender cylindrical follicles, 20–40 cm long and 4–5 mm in diameter. -- FAO

• An evergreen tree, the bases often buttressed; bark dark greyish brown with lenticels, latex milky, copious. Leaves whorled, 4-7 per node, simple; stipules intrapetiolar; petioles stout; laminae oblong or ogovate-oblong, the bases cuneate, the margins entire, the tips obtuse, rounded or acute, unicostate, reticulate, the surfaces glabrous, the upper dark green , coriaceous, glaucous, the lower papillose, whitish. Inflorescences in terminal paniculate cymes, densely flowered; bracts linear-oblong. Flowers bractolate, pedicellate, bisexual, actinomorphic, pentamerous, hypogynous. Calyx synsepalous, 5-lobed, urceolate. Corolla sunpetalous, 5-lobed, salverform, greenish white, the tube cylindrical, broader above the base, narrow below the middle, inflated towards region of anthers, the lobes with left margins overlapping, throat rim with tufts of long white hairs. androecium polyandrous, stamens 5, epipetalous below the throat, the anthers dithecous, introrse, basifixed, dehiscence longitudinal.Pistil 1, 2-carpelled, syncarpous and 2-loculed at the base, ovary ovoid, splits into two unilocular and unilocular and unicarpellate ovaries, the stigma placentation parietal in each ovary, disc absent, the styles 2, fused into one just above the ovaries, the stigma clavate, 2-fid. Fruit follicles, cylindrical; seeds elliptic-oblongoid, comose at both ends, endospermfleshy, scanty. Flowering period: October - November. Fruiting period: December - April -- KS-TMN

A large tree. Leaves formation is similar to {lak-pan°} (Salmalia malabarica fam. Bombacaceae -- Agri.Dept.2000 53-1419), i.e. in whorls. Flowers in dense clusters, white with disagreeable odour. Fruits, long and thin. White milky sap which turns black on drying. Dried sap very bitter. Bark is also bitter. Because of the bitter taste and similarity to {lak-pan°}, the plant is sometimes erroneously called as {lak-pδn-hka:} or "bitter Lak-pan". However, because it is not a true {lak-pδn}, the medicinal properties are quite different. Caveat: Unscrupulous vendors passed on the dried sap as "wild-Arrow poison" and the root as {this.wing-pauk-hpru}. -- Nagathein, free translation by UKT.

 

{taung-mu.ro:} was known as {sa.rζΡ:} at one time. In a Pali text "{that~ta paN~Ni gu-ha-yεn}", meaning "at the mouth of a cave where the {sa.rζΡ:} trees grew", we find the tree being referred to. According to the Magadi dictionary (Magadi is another name for the Pali language -- the holy language of Theravada Buddhism), {that~ta.paN~Ni} means a whorl of 6 to 7 leaves, and on actual counting of the leaves in a whorl we find mostly 6 to 7 leaves. -- Nagathein, free translation by UKT.

• A tall evergreen tree with bitter milky juice and whorled leaves base often buttressed; leaves very coriaceous, whitish beneath, flowers pubescent, follicle very long and slender.-- UHM

 

Distribution in Myanmar
• Grows wild in moist regions, throughout Myanmar -- KS-TMN
• Insein, Tharawaddy, Zigon, Lawksauk, Kalaw, Hsi-Seng (Southern Shan State), traces throughout Burma. -- UHM

 

Part used and uses
• Most important source of pulai timber. Wood yields good pulp. Bark and latex is used medicinally for many purposes. -- FAO
• Bark -- Astringent; Antiseptic; Febrifuge; Chronic amoebic dysentery; Chronic dysentery. Leaf -- Heals chronic sores. Latex -- Heals sores. -- KS-TMN
• Dried bark.Malarial fever, chronic diarrhoea and advanced stages of dysentery -- UHM

 

Constituents

 

Contents of this page

Carissa carandas 

Family: Apocyanacea

Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
• Agri.Dept.2000 12-0306: {hkδn-ping}
• Chklist: Karaunda, Khan
• LSR  : NL
• FAO : NL
• KS-TMN 46 : Khan
• Nagathein 1-274: {hkan°ping}
• UHM : NL

 

Myanmar-Script Spelling
• {hkδn} - -- MMDict044
• {hkδn} /|khan|/ - n. kind of shrub or tree, Carissa carandas  -- MEDict058

Data above updated (070312) in Akshara index r1c2hka.htm

Chklist data : 070312
• Carissa carandas L. . Cited as: Carissa carandas var. congesta Bedd. . Habit: Small tree . Distribution: Cultivated . Common Names: Karaunda, Khan

Hindi
• {ka.raan~da} -- Nagathein
Sanskrit

English common name used in Myanmar
• Agri.Dept.2000 12-0306: Christ's thorn
• Chklist:
• LSR: NL-
• FAO: NL
• KS-TMN 46: Bengal currents
• Nagathein 1-274: 
• UHM : NL

Picture :
• Leader: Carissa spinarium from Nagathein 1-275
• Photos: left -- habit with flowers, right -- close up of fruits -- KS-TMN

Plant identification characters :

• A large evergreen shrub; bark light grey, branchlets usually with thin stout sharp spines. Leaves opposite, simple; exstipulate; petioles short; laminae elliptic or broadly elliptic or obovate, the bases obtuse to rounded, the margins entire, the tyips acute, often shortly mucronate, unicostate, reticulate, the surfaces glabrous, glaucous, coriaceous. Inflorescences in axillary corymbose cymes; bracts linear. Flowers ebracteolate, pedicellate, bisexual, actinomorphic, pentamerous, hypogynous. Calyx synsepalous 5-partite, the lobes lanceolate, pubescent. Corolla synpetalous, 5-lobed, salverform, the lobes oblong lanceolate, puvbescent, the tube cylindrical, dilated at the throat, pubescent, white. Androecium polyandrous, apically appendaged, basifixed, introrse, dehiscence longitudinal. Pistil 1,ovary ellipsoid 2-carpelled, syncarpous, 2-loculed, the placentation axile, the ovules 2 in each locules 2 in each locule, the style filiform  the stigma minutely 2-fid. Fruit a drupe, ellipsoid, purplish black when ripe; seeds oblongoid, concave endosperm fleshy. Flowering and fruiting periods: October - January - June -- KS-TMN

A large evergreen shrub. Leaves somewhat round and shiny. About one inch in length. Branches have strong thorns. Fruits in clusters and about in shape to immature {zi:} fruits (UKT: about 3/4 inch). Flowers small, scented, and red. Similar in shape to {tau.sδn-pθύ} or jasmine. It is a well known plant. -- Nagathein, free translation by UKT.

• Habit: Small tree, Distribution: Cultivated -- Chklist

 

Distribution in Myanmar :
• Grows wild and cultivated throughout Myanmar. -- KS-TMN

 

Part used and uses :
• Root: -- Pruritis; Gonorrhoea: Pyrexia; Indigestion; Chronic ulcer. Unripe fruit -- Haematemesis; Appetizer; Mucolytic; To allay thirst. Ripe fruit -- Carminative; Expectorant; Biliousness; Haematemesis; Antidote for poisons ; Appetizer; Easily digested -- KS-TMN

 

Constituents

 

Contents of this page

Holarrhena antidysenterica

Family: Apocynaceae

Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
• Agri.Dept.2000 53-1417: {lak-htoat-kri:}
• Chklist: Danghkyam-kaba, Dangkyam, Kurchi conessi, Lettok, Lettok-gyi, Mai-hkao-long, Mai-yang
• LSR 407: {lak-htoat-kri:}
• FAO : NL
• KS-TMN : NL
• Nagathein 3-246: {lak-htoat-kri:}
• UHM 29: Lettok-kyi

Myanmar-Script Spelling
• {lak-htoat} - -- MMDict295
• {lak-htoat} /|le' htou'|/ - n. same as {lak-htoat-kri:}
- n.  tree which provides useful timber and bark for treating dysentery, Holarrhena antidysenterica -- MEDict 448

Data above updated (070312) in Akshara index r6c3la.htm

Chklist data : 070312
• Holarrhena pubescens Wall. ex G. Don . Cited as: Holarrhena antidysenterica Wall. . Habit: Small tree . Distribution: Wide . Common Names: Danghkyam-kaba, Dangkyam, Kurchi conessi, Lettok, Lettok-gyi, Mai-hkao-long, Mai-yang

Hindi
•कुडा  {ku.Πa} -- Nagathein, transliteration by UKT
Sanskrit
• {ku.Π} -- Nagathein

English common name used in Myanmar
• Agri.Dept.2000 53-1417: Rose bay
• Chklist:
• LSR 407: Rosebay
• FAO -- NL
• KS-TMN -- NL
• Nagathein 3-246: Kurichi
• UHM 29: Kurchi, Conessi bark

Picture :
• Leader -- left - • Coloured drawing -- http://www.himalayahealthcare.com/herbfinder/h_holarr.htm .
right -- from Nagathein 3-247

Plant identification characters
• A small deciduous tree, bark pale, leaves 6-12 by 1 1/2-5" base obtuse rounded or acute, nerves 10-14 pairs, strong, arched, flowers white, inodorous in terminal corymoose cymes. -- UHM

• History: The tree was believed to have sprung from the drops of 'amrita' (nectar) that fell on the ground from the bodies of Rama's monkeys who were restored to life by Indra. The seeds and bark have been used in Materia Medica for a long time. Arabic and Persian writers called the seeds Lisan-el-asafir-el-murr, and Zaban-i-gungishk-i-talk (bitter sparrow's tongue) respectively. The Portuguese physicians, Garcia and Christopher a Costa, use the names Coru, Curo, Cura and Corte de pata.
   Ainslie mentions the bark as having been admitted into British materia medica, under the name of Conessi bark. This bark enjoyed for a time considerable repute in Europe. Sir Walter Elliot regarded it as one of the most valuable medicinal products of India. In 1887, M. R. Blondel discussed and illustrated the botanical history and structure of this plant. Habit. It grows throughout India up to an altitude of 4,000 ft. It is especially abundant in the sub-Himalayan tract. Morphology Description (Habit). H. antidysentrica is a deciduous shrub or small tree. The bark is rather rough, pale brownish or greyish; the leaves are opposite, subsessile, elliptic or ovate-oblong, membranous; the flowers are white, in terminal corymbose cymes; the follicles, divaricate, cylindric and usually white spotted; the seeds are light brown. --  http://www.himalayahealthcare.com/herbfinder/h_holarr.htm

Distribution in Myanmar
• Prome, Tharawaddy, outside forest reserve, Mudon area, Kyaikmaraw and vicinity. -- UHM

Part used and uses :
• Bark. Antidysenteric, astringent, febrifuge, anthelmintic, carminative and aphrodisiac. -- UHM

• Pharmacology. Various fractions of H. antidysenterica showed promising activity against experimental amoebiasis in rats and hamsters (fn01). The fruit extract (50% ethanolic) showd antiprotozoal effect against Ent.histolytica strain STA, Trypanosoma evansi, anticaner effect against human epidrmoid carcinoma of the nasopharynx in tissue culture and pypoglycemic activity in rats (fn02). Clinical studies. Clinical tests with connessine on patients with intestical hepatic amebiasis have been found to give results, comparable to those obtained with emetine (fn03). Toxicity. Use of connesine must, however, be closely supervised, as in some cases it can produce neurological troubles like Vertigo, sleeplessness, agitation, anxiety and delirium (fn04). Indications. The bark has astringent, antidysenteric, anthelmintic, stomachic, febrifugal and tonic properties. It is used in the treatment of amebic dysentery and diarrhea. Product Range. Diarex (DiarCare), Diarex PFS, Diarex Vet.
   References
. fn01. Dutta, N. K and lyer, S. N., J. Ind. Med. Assoc., 1968, 50, 349. fn02. Dhar, M. L, et. al., Ind. J. Exp. Biol., 1968, 6, 232. fn03. Signier, F. et. al., 1949. Medicine Tropicale, 9, 99-109, Tanguy, et. al., 1948, ibid, 8, 12-31. fn04. oliver, B.B. (1986). Medicinal Plants in Tropical West Africa, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 163. --  http://www.himalayahealthcare.com/herbfinder/h_holarr.htm

Constituents :
• 1. Kurchine. 2. Conessine. 3. Kurchicine. 4. Holarrhine (17) -- UHM
• The principal alkaloid of kurchi is conessine. The other alkaloids reported to be present in the bark are: conamine, conkurchine, connessimine, kurchine, conarrhinine, holarrhinene and isoconcessimine. -- http://www.himalayahealthcare.com/herbfinder/h_holarr.htm

Contents of this page

Nerium indicum
Nerium odorum

Family: Apocynaceae

UKT: Since,  Nerium indicum and N. odorum are synomyms
data on the two are presented in the same entry. See Chklist data given below.

Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
• Agri.Dept.2000 34-0884: Nerium oleander {nwθύ-tha-ki} or {nwθύ-tha-ki}
• Chklist: Nwe-tha-gee, Tayok-hnin-si
• LSR 251: {nwθύ-tha-ki}
• FAO : NL
• KS-TMN 49: Nwe-tha-gee, Tayoke-hnin-si
• Nagathein 2-171: {nwθύ-tha-ki}
• UHM 34: Nwe-tha-gi

UKT: literary meaning of "Tayoke-hnin-si" is "Chinese rose."

Myanmar-Script Spelling
• {nwθύ-tha-ki} - -- MMDict173
• {nwθύ-tha-ki} /|nwe tha gi|/ - n. oleander, Nerium odorum -- MEDict 241

UKT: Though the Bur-Myan pronunciation of the first syllable is / {nwθ}/, it is spelled with a killed {ya.} -- the correct spelling is {nwθύ} meaning a "creeper". We must note that, unlike the English-Latin semivowel <y>, the Bur-Myan semivowel {ya.} acts more like a consonant than a vowel. If only {ya.} had acted like a semi-vowel, its inherent vowel cannot be killed.

Data above updated (070312) in Akshara index r4c5naM.htm

Chklist data
• Nerium oleander L. Cited as: Nerium indicum Mill. Habit: Climber/Creeper. Distribution: Cultivated. Common Names: Nwe-tha-gee, Oleander, Rose bay, Sweet-scented Indian oleander, Tayok-hnin-si

Hindi
•कनेर {ka.nιr} -- Nagathein, transliteration by UKT
Sanskrit

English common name used in Myanmar
• Agri.Dept.2000 34-0884: Oleander
• Chklist: Oleander, Rose bay, Sweet-scented Indian oleander,
• LSR 251: Roses of Sharon, Oleander
• FAO : NL
• KS-TMN 49: Indian oleander, Sweet-scented oleander
• Nagathein 2-171: NG
• UHM 34: Sweet scented oleander, Nerium root, Oleander root, Radix nerium

Picture :
• Leader from: www.himalayahealthcare.com/herbfinder/h_nerium.htm
• Photos: left -- habit with flowers, right -- habit with fruits -- KS-TMN

Plant identification characters :
• A large evergreen shrub; stems erect glabrous, sap milky. Leaves in whorls of three, simple; exstipulate; petioles very short; laminace linear-lanceolate, the bases decurrent, tapering into the petiole, the margins entire, the tips acuminate, unicostate, the midrib very stout, reticulate, glabrous, coriaceous. Inflorescences in terminal cymes. Flowers fragrant, bracteate, bracteolate, pedicellate, bisexual, actinomorphic, pentamerous, hypogynous. Calyx synsepalous, 5-partite, the lobes lanceolate, narrow, glandular within. Corolla synpetalous, 5-lobed, infundibuligorm, the tubes cylindric, the throat campanulate with 5 broad fringed scalesm the lobes orbicular, overlapping to the right, reddish rose or white, fragrant. Androecium polyandrous, staments 5, epipetalous, the filaments short, inserted near the mouth of the corolla tube, alternate with the corolla lobes, the anthers dithecous, sagittate, adherent by viscid exudates to the stigma or clavuncle, apically appendaged, the anther cells spurred, the spuyrs long, linear, as long as the cells, dehiscence longitudinal. Pistil 1, ovaries 2,distinct, each ovary 1-carpelled, 1-loculed, the placentation parietal, the ovules straight; seeds oblongoid, comose, endosperm fleshy, thin. Flowering and Fruiting period: Throughout the year -- KS-TMN

Evergreen small tree. Grows up to 20ft. Branches firm and rigid pointing upwards. Leaves: whorl of 3; lance-like, narrow at tip and base; thick, narrow, shiny and leathery; midrib firm and rigid; petiole short. Flowers: Large and bell-like; white or reddish pink; sweet smelling; in clusters on branches. Flowering period: {tan-hku:} to {na.yoan} [approx: Apri-May] - LSR, free translation by UKT.

• A large glabrous evergreen shrub with milky juice, leaves 10-15cm., linear lanceolate, thickly coriaceous, acuminate, midrib very stout, nerves slender, petiole very short, usually in whorls of 3, flowers 1 1/2 in. diam., sweet scented, rose white or yellow, follicles 6-9 in. -- UHM

Distribution in Myanmar :
• Naturalized and planted throughout Myanmar -- KS-TMN
• Planted in gardens as ornamentals. -- UHM

Part used and uses
• Root
-- Aphrodisiac; Gives energy; Very poisonous. Flower -- Analgesic for chronic pains and aches; Back-ache; Head-ache; Scabies; Aphrodisiac. -- KS-TMN
• Root. Used as aphrodisiac, tonic, good for chronic pain in the abdomen and pain in the joints, very powerful heart poison. -- UHM

Constituents
• 1. Two bitter principles, neriodorin and neriodorein. (3) -- UHM

Contents of this page

Plumeria acutifolia

Family: Apocynaceae

UKT: What is {ta.roat-sa.ka: a.phru} meaning "the white-{ta.roat-sa.ka:}" ? And, what is P. acutifolia ? We have to choose among the three mentioned in Chklist:
• Plumeria alba L. , • Plumeria obtusa L. , or • Plumeria rubra L. . Cited as: Plumeria acuminata Ait. (Red plumeria or Tayoksaga-ani).
   The name P. acutifolia can be misleading, especially because the colour of the flower is given as <white>. And so MMPDB will drop it.

Myanmar-Script Spelling
• {ta.roat-sδn-ka:} - -- MMDict122
{ta.roat-sδn-ka:} - n. frangipani, Plumeria acutifolia -- MEDict165

Contents of this page

Plumeria alba

Family: Apocynaceae

UKT: {ta.roat-sδn-ka: a.hpru} is identified by Chklist as:
• Plumeria obtusa L. . Habit: Small tree . Distribution: Cultivated . Common Names: Akyaw, Tayok-saga-aphyu

Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
• Agri.Dept.2000 25-0639: {ta.roat-sa.ka:}
• FAO : NL
• Chklist:
• LSR  213 : {ta.roat-sa.ka:}
• KS-TMN 50 : Tayoke-saka
• Nagathein 1-366: Plumeria alba () {sa.ka: (ta.roat) a.hpru}
• UHM : NL

Myanmar-Script Spelling
• {ta.roat-sδn-ka:} - -- MMDict122
• {ta.roat-sδn-ka:} - n. frangipani, Plumeria acutifolia -- MEDict165

UKT: The official orthography {ta.roat-sδn-ka:} is derived from two words {ta.roat} and {sδn-ka:}. {sδn-ka:} by itself refers to a group of sweet smelling flowers and their respective trees, one of which has a prominent place in Myanmar history of Bagan (Pagan) Period in connection with Nat worship. {ta.roat} refers to China and Chinese, and so the word {ta.roat-sδn-ka:} means the "Chinese {sδn-ka:}". The word {ta.roat} is applied as an affix.

• Official Myanmar Dictionaries 088: {sδn-ka:}
-- MMDict088

The equivalent of {sδn-ka:} in Pali is {sam~pa.ka.} which according to PTS (Pali Text Society) Dictionary, 1st ed. (1921-1925), 1999 reprint, p262, is Campaka the Champaka tree (Michelia champaka fam: Magnoliaceae) having fragrant white and yellow flowers. Please note that the "white" {ta.roat-sδn-ka:} (Agri.Dept.2000 25-0461) is known in Myanmar as "White champa".

Data above updated (070312) in Akshara index r4c1ta.htm

Chklist data: 070312
• Plumeria alba L. . Habit: Tree . Distribution: Cultivated
• Plumeria obtusa L. . Habit: Small tree . Distribution: Cultivated . Common Names: Akyaw, Tayok-saga-aphyu
• Plumeria rubra L. . Cited as: Plumeria acuminata Ait. . Habit: Small tree . Distribution: Cultivated . Common Names: Frangipani, Mawk-sam-ka, Mawk-sam-ka, Mawk-sam-pailong, Pagoda tree, Red plumeria, Sonpabataing, Tayok-saga, Tayoksaga-ani

Hindi
• UKT: Name in Hindi given by Nagathein was in Devanagari only. I could not decipher because of poor print quality.
Sanskrit

English common name used in Myanmar
• Agri.Dept.2000 -- Pagoda tree
• FAO -- NL
• LSR -- Pagoda tree
• KS-TMN -- Frangipani, Jasamine tree, Pagoda tree
• Nagathein -- White champa
• UHM -- NL

 

Picture
• Leader, flower and leaf,  from http://utenti.lycos.it/piantetropicali/fiore.htm. Not available in Nagathein
• Tree from http://www.bionatics.com/VisuelsSpecifiques/Bionatics/Plant/Zoom/frangi_a.jpg
•Photos: left -- habit with flowers, right -- fruits -- KS-TMN

 

Plant identification characters :
• A deciduous small tree; trunk crooked, bark rough, branches swollen, leafy at the tips, latex milky, copious. Leaves spirally arranged, simple; exstipulate; petioles long, stout; laminae oblong-lanceolate or oblanceolate, the bases acute, the margins entire, the tips acute, unicostate, reticulate, glabrous. Inflorescences 2-to 3-chotomous cymes, 2- 4-flowered, termina; bracts deciduous. Flowers large and showy, bracteolate, pedicellate, bisexual, actinomorphic, pentamerous, perigynous. Calyx synsepalous, 5-fid, the lobes obtuse. Corolla synpetalous, 5-lobed, salverform, the tubes cylindrical, the lobes obovate, contorted, over lapping to the left, the throat naked, the inner white with a yellow centre, the outer tinged with pink, fragrant. Androecium polyandrous, stamens 5, epipetalous, inserted near the base of the corolla tube, alternate the lobes, the anthers dithecous, linear-oblongoid, free from the stigmatic clavuncle, dehiscence longitudinal. Pistil 1, ovaries 2, distinct, half inferior, each ovary 1-carpelled, 1-loculed, the placentation parietal, the ovules numerous in each, the style 1, the stigma or clavuncle single, massive. Fruit follicles, linear-oblongoid; seeds oblongoid, plano-convex, winged, endosperm fleshy, thin. Flowering period: Throughout the year. Fruiting period: Throughout the year -- KS-TMN

Distribution in Myanmar :
• Naturalized and planted throughout Myanmar -- KS-TMN

Part used and uses
• Shoot, bark, flower -- Leprosy; Pruritis; Heal boils and carbuncles; Analgesic; Febrifuge for prolong fevers; Inflammations; Ascites. Bark, leaf -- Abdominal tumours; Inflammations; Rheumatism; Skin diseases. Flower and shoot -- Malaria; Pruritis. Latex -- Very poisonous -- KS-TMN

Constituents

 

Contents of this page

Plumeria rubra

Family: Apocynaceae

UKT: {ta.roat-sδn-ka: a.ni} is identified by Chklist as:
• Plumeria rubra L. . Cited as: Plumeria acuminata Ait. . Habit: Small tree . Distribution: Cultivated . Common Names: Frangipani, Mawk-sam-ka, Mawk-sam-ka, Mawk-sam-pailong, Pagoda tree, Red plumeria, Sonpabataing, Tayok-saga, Tayoksaga-ani

Burmese-Myanmar transcripts
• Agri.Dept.2000 :
• Chklist: Mawk-sam-ka, Mawk-sam-ka, Mawk-sam-pailong, Tayok-saga, Tayoksaga-ani
• LSR :
• FAO :
• KS-TMN:
• Nagathein :
• UHM :

Myanmar-Script Spelling
• {ta.roat-sδn-ka:} - -- MMDict122
• {ta.roat-sδn-ka:} - n. frangipani, Plumeria acutifolia -- MEDict165

Data above updated (070312) in Akshara index r4c1ta.htm

Chklist data
• Plumeria rubra L. . Cited as: Plumeria acuminata Ait. . Habit: Small tree . Distribution: Cultivated . Common Names: Frangipani, Mawk-sam-ka, Mawk-sam-ka, Mawk-sam-pailong, Pagoda tree, Red plumeria, Sonpabataing, Tayok-saga, Tayoksaga-ani

Hindi
Sanskrit

English common name used in Myanmar
• Agri.Dept.2000 :
• Chklist: Frangipani, Pagoda tree, Red plumeria,
• LSR :
• FAO :
• KS-TMN:
• Nagathein :
• UHM :/

Picture
• Leader www.nybg.org/bsci/belize/Plumeria_rubra.jpg
• Photos www.bojensen.net/EssentialOilsEng/EssentialOils11/EssentialOils11.htm

Plant identification characters
• Frangipani,Plumeria rubra (Apocyanaceae). This little tree with thick branches and big leaves (until 45 cm long and 15 cm broad) is grown as an ornamental tree in the tropics and the sub-tropics. The fragrant flowers are red, but there are many varieties having yellow or white flowers. The tree has many names: Kembodja (Indonesia), Bermuda lily, and Frangipani (England, France), to name a few. Frangipani was the name of a Roman noble family. -- www.bojensen.net/EssentialOilsEng/EssentialOils11/EssentialOils11.htm

Distribution in Myanmar

Part used and uses

Constituents
• Frangipani,Plumeria rubra (Apocyanaceae). The fragrance of the flowers is dominated by the two compounds phenethyl alcohol (or 2-phenylethanol) and phenylacetaldehyde [32]. -- www.bojensen.net/EssentialOilsEng/EssentialOils11/EssentialOils11.htm

Contents of this page

Rauwolfia serpentina 

Family: Apocynaceae

Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
• Agri.Dept.2000 43-1123: {Boam~ma.ra-za}
• Chklist: Bonma-yaza
• FAO : NL
• LSR 319 : {Boam~ma.ra-za}
• KS-TMN 53: Bonma-yaza, Zalat-hpru
• Nagathein 2-370: {Boam~ma.ra-za}
• UHM 41: Bon-ma-yaza

Myanmar-Script Spelling :
• {Boam~ma.ra-za} -    -- MMDict226
• {Boam~ma.ra-za} /|boun maja za|/ - n. rauwolfia, Rauwolfia serpentina --MEDict 328

Data above updated (070313) in Akshara index r5c4Ba.htm

Chklist
• Rauvolfia serpentina (L.) Benth. . Habit: Shrub . Distribution: Bago, Chin, Kayin, Mandalay, Mon, Yangon . Common Names: Bonma-yaza

Hindi
• {hsar-pa.gan~Da}
Sanskrit

English common name used in Myanmar
• Agri.Dept.2000 -- Serpent wood
• FAO -- NL
• Lθ-seik-shin -- Serpent wood
• KS-TMN -- Serpent wood, Serpentine
• Nagathein -- Not given
• UHM -- Not given

Picture :
• Leader: drawing -- Nagathein 2-371; photo -- KS-TMN
• Photos: left -- habit with flowers, right -- flowers and fruits  -- KS-TMN

 

Plant identification characters :
• A small shrub or an undershrub; younger stems cylindrical, rarely branched dichotomously, bark rarely lentrcellate. Leaves in whorls of 3, rarely 2, simple; exstipulate; petioles glabrous; laminae elliptic to ovate-elliptic, the bases attenuate, the margins entire, the tips acute to acuminate, unicostate, reticulate, the surfaces glabrous, membranous.Inflorescences terminal or lateral cymes, the cymes many-flowered, the primary peduncle 2- to 3- or 4-chotomously branched, the secondary peduncles bear 2-flowered cymules, the ultimate cymules 4- to 5-flowered, the peduncles red or green; bracts subulate, red, decuduous. Flowers bracteolate, peidcellate, the pedicels red or green, bisexual, actinomorphic, pentamerous, hypogynous. Calyx synsepalous, 5-sect, campanulate, the lobes unequal, linear-lanceolate, reddish. Corolla sunpetalous, 5-lobed, salverform, the tubes slender, obscurely decurved, reddish pink, dilated slightly above the middle, the lobes elliptic-ovate, white. Androecium polyandrous, staments 5, epipetalous, the filaments curved, inserted, the anthers ovoid, dithercous, dorsifixed, dehiscence longitudinal. Pistil 1, ovaries 2, ovoid, apocarpous becoming syncarpous, 2-carpelled, 2-loculed, the placentation axile, the ovules drupe, deeply 2-lobed, syncarpous at the base, obscurely bi-apiculate. Fruit a drupe, deeply 2-lobed, the style 1, filiform, the stigma calyptriform at the base, obscurely bi-apiculate, Fruit a 1-seeded, green when young, purplish black when ripe; seeds ovoid, endosperm fleshy. Flowering period: October - December. Fruiting period: November-March. -- KS-TMN

• An erect shrub up to 1m. high with cylindrical stems bearing a pale bark and exhibiting a light-coloured viscous latex when ruptured, leaves green, when dry very pale beneath, lanceolate, narrowed into a short petiole, arranged in terminal and axillary cymes, fruit a single 2-1obed drupe turns purplish black at maturity. -- UHM

Distribution in Myanmar :
• Grows wild on low hills, ascending up to 1000 ft, throughout Myanmar. -- KS-TMN
• Katha, Namkhan, Banmauk, Pyinamana, Toungoo Zigon, Okkan, Taikkyi, Hlegu, Thaton, Kay-Mongnai Range, Sainka (Southern Shan States) -- UHM

Part used and uses :
• Root: Cures hypertension; Hypnotic: Insanity; Infections; Gives energy; For longevity of life. -- KS-TMN
• Roots. Used as anti-hypertensive agent, (reduces blood pressure), sedative insanity. -- UHM

Constituents :
• 1. Two series of alkaloids: a. Ajmaline group consisting of ajmaline, Ajmalinine, and Ajmalicine-all feebly basic.  b. Serpentine group consisting of Serpentine and 2. Reserpine_ chief alkaloid with sedative, activity. 3. Other alkaloids: a. Isoajmaline (identical with Isorauwolfine) b. Neoajmaline. c. Rauwolscine. d. Rauwolfinine. 4. Sterols 5. An oxymethylanthraquinone derivative. 6. Fumaric acid. 7. Oleic acid. 8. Glucose. 9. Sucrose. 10. Unsaturated alcohols. 11. Calcium oxalate. 12. A fluorescent substance. (3) -- UHM

Contents of this page

Thevetia neriifolia
Thevetia peruviana

Family: Apocynaceae

UKT: Since,  T. neriifolia and T. peruviana are synomyms
data on the two are presented in the same entry. See Chklist and USDA-NRCS-data given below for synonyms.

Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
• Agri.Dept.2000 24-0620: {(hsθύ.nhis-ra-thi)} / {ta.hsθύ.nhis-ra-thi}
• Chklist: Payaung-pan, Sethnayathi
• LSR 183: {hsθύ.nhis-ra-thi (a.wa)}
• FAO : NL
• KS-TMN 54: Set hnit-yathi; Hpayaung-pan
• Nagathein 1-479: {hsθύ.nhis-ra-thi pan:}
• UHM : NL

Myanmar-Script Spelling
• {hsθύ.nhis-ra-thi}
-- MMDict109
UKT: The plant is not listed in both MMDict and MEDict.

UKT: {hsθύ.nhis-ra-thi} literally means the twelve Rasi (ra-thi} corresponding to the 12 lunar months. The first rasi begins with the Sun's transit from the 12th Sign of Zodiac (Pisces, the Fishes = Meena) to the first sign (Aries, the Ram = Meesa), signifying the beginning of the Myanmar Solar New Year. This falls about the middle of April. The first day of the first Myanmar lunar month, generally, does not coincide with the Solar New Year; which usually falls about the middle of the first lunar month, the month of Tankhu. Myanmars have 12 "Flowers of the Month", the designated flower being the most common bloom for that month. In the case of T. nerrifloia or T. peruviana , because it blooms the year-round, it is named the {hsθύ.nhis-ra-thi pan:} or the "flower of the 12-rasi".

Data above updated (070313) in Akshara index r2c2hsa.htm

Chklist data
• Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) Schum. Habit: Small tree. Distribution: Cultivated. Common Names: Mawk-hkam-long, Payaung-pan, Sethnayathi, Yellow oleander
USDA-NRCS:
"THEVE","Thevetia Adans.","thevetia","Apocynaceae"
"THPE3","Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) K. Schum. ","luckynut","Apocynaceae"
"CATH7","Cascabela thevetia (L.) Lippoid","&gt;&gt; Thevetia peruviana","Apocynaceae"
"CETH6","Cerbera thevetia L.","&gt;&gt; Thevetia peruviana","Apocynaceae"
"THNE3","Thevetia neriifolia A. L. Juss. ex Steudel","&gt;&gt; Thevetia peruviana","Apocynaceae"

Hindi
•कनेर {ka.nι:r} -- Nagathein, transliteration by UKT
Sanskrit

English common name used in Myanmar
• Agri.Dept.2000 24-0620: Yellow oleander
• Chklist: Yellow oleander
• FAO -- NL
• LSR 183: Exile oleander
• KS-TMN -- Bastard oleander, Exile oleander, Yellow oleander
• Nagathein -- Not given
• UHM -- NL

 

Picture
• Leaders: left - http://www.cyprusweekly.com.cy/imagefiles/thevetia%20neriifolia2.JPG
right - http://ag.arizona.edu/pima/gardening/aridplants/Thevetia_peruviana.html
•Photos: left -- habit with flowers , right -- habit with fruits  --KS-TMN

 

Plant identification characters

• An evergreen shrub or small tree; younger stems glabrous, sap milky. Leaves alternate, spirally arranged, simple; exstipulate; sessile; laminae linear to linear-lanceolate, the bases attenuate, the margins entire, the tips acute, unicostate, reticulate, the upper surfaces bright green, glaucous. Inflorescences terminal or supra-axillary scorpioid cymes, few-flowered; bracts subulate, deciduous. Flowers ebracteolate, pedicellate, bisexual, actinomorphic, pentamerous, hypogynous. Calyx synsepalous, 5-sect, the lobes ovate, imbricate, persistent. Corolla synpetalous, 5-lobed, funnelform, the lower part of tube cylindrical, campanulate above the lobes contorted, overlapping to the left in bud, the tube appendaged at the throat of 5 scales, arching over the stamens, yellow, white or pink. Androecium polyandrous, stamens 5, epipetalous, inserted at the base of the corolla throat, alternate the lobes, the anthers dithecous, sagittate, incumbent on the stigmatic clavuncle, dehiscence longitudinal; disc cupular, thick, accrescent in fruit. Pistil 1, ovaries 2, distinct, each ovary 1-carpelled, 1-loculed, the placentation parietal, ovules 2 in each, the style 1, slender, the stigma or clavuncle  single, angular. Fruit a drupe, broadly obovoid, epicarp fleshy, black when ripe; seeds 4, endospermic. Flowering and fruiting periods: Throughout the year. -- KS-TMN

• Form: tree or shrub. Seasonality: evergreen. Size: normally 6-8ft; as tree can be to 20ft tall. Leaves: alternate, nearly sessile; linear to linear lanceolate; to 6in long by 1/4in wide; dark green, glossy. Flowers: regular, fragrant, yellow or orange, 2in across in clusters; blooms over long period. Fruit: capsule; hard, angled, to 1in across, green to red to black. Stems/Trunks: can be trained as tree with single trunk; poisonous sap is milky. Range/Origin: tropical America. Hardiness: foliage damaged at 28°F, but survives much colder temps -- http://ag.arizona.edu/pima/gardening/aridplants/Thevetia_peruviana.html

 

Distribution in Myanmar
• Commonly planted in the plains of Myanmar. -- KS-TMN

 

Part used and uses
• Root -- Skin disease; Ringworm. Leaf -- Arthritis; Pruritis. Flower -- Carminative; Haemorrhoids; Carbuncles; Pyrexia; Pruritis; Pruritis; Good for eyes -- KS-TMN

• The yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana) is an ornamental tree of the Apocyanaceae family that is common throughout the tropics and subtropics.1 Its sap contains cardiac glycosides that are toxic to cardiac muscle and the autonomic nervous system. 2 Ingestion of its seeds results in a clinical picture similar to that of digoxin overdose.3-5 Severely poisoned patients may die in dc shock resistant ventricular fibrillation. Many patients with moderate poisoning show PR interval prolongation and progression to atrioventricular (AV) dissociation.  ... Yellow oleander poisoning resembles digoxin poisoning. ... Most of our patients were healthy before they ate the seeds. -- http://heart.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/83/3/301

Constituents

 

Contents of this page

Vinca rosea

Family : Apocynaceae

Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcripts
• Agri.Dept.2000 : NL
• Chklist: Thinbaw-mahnyo-pan
• LSR 449: {thοn~bau:ma.Ρho:}
• FAO : NL
• KS-TMN: NL
• Nagathein :
• UHM : NL

 

Myanmar-Script Spelling
• {thοn~bau:ma.Ρho:}
-- MMDict333
• {thοn~bau:ma.Ρho:} /|thin: bo: mahnjou:|/ - n. Madagascar periwinkle. Vinca rosea -- MEDict511
• {za.lup} /|zala'| - n. kind of flowering shrub resembling the periwinkle. Cerbera fruiticosa -- MEDict149

Data above updated (070316) in Akshara index r6c5tha.htm

Chklist data
• Vinca rosea L. . Habit: Herb . Distribution: Bago, Mandalay, Yangon . Common Names: Thinbaw-mahnyo-pan

Hindi
Sanskrit

English common name used in Myanmar
• Agri.Dept.2000 : NL
• Chklist: NG
• LSR 449: Madagascar Periwinkle
• FAO : NL
• KS-TMN: NL
• Nagathein :
• UHM : NL

 

Picture
• Leaders: coloured drawing - LSR449; photo - www.nhes.hcc.edu.tw/plant/images/日日春.jpg
• adult moth hovering and feeding on Rose Periwinkle ( Vinca rosea )
(Photo : courtesy of Leigh Whisson, Doolgunna Station, near Meekatharra, Western Australia.) -- www-staff.it.uts.edu.au/.../sphi/kingii.html

Plant identification characters

Distribution in Myanmar

Part used and uses

Constituents 

 

Contents of this page

Wrightia tomentosa

Family: Apocynaceae

Syn. W. pubescens R. Br. --  http://fm2.fieldmuseum.org/plantatlas/main.asp?plantID=544
Periploca arborea Dennstedt, Schlόssel Hortus Malab. 13, 23, 25. 1818; Nerium tomentosum Roxburgh; Wrightia tomentosa (Roxburgh) Roemer & Schultes. --  http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=210002329

Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcripts
• Agri.Dept.2000 53-1418: {lak-htoat-thaim}
• Chklist: Lettok-thein, Taung-zalut
• LSR : NL
• FAO : NL
• KS-TMN: NL
• Nagathein 3-254: {lak-htoat-thaim}
• UHM :

Myanmar-Script Spelling
• {lak-htoat-thaim} - -   MMDict295
• {lak-htoat-thaim} /|le' htou' thein|/  - n. medium-sized tree which provides useful timber and bark for treating renal complaints. Wrightia tomentosa.  MEDict448

Data above updated (070313) in Akshara index r6c3la.htm

Chklist data :
• Wrightia arborea (Dennst.) Mabb. Cited as: Wrightia tomentosa Roem. & Schult. Habit: Small tree. Distribution: Ayeyarwady, Bago, Mandalay, Yangon. Common Names: Danghkyam-kaii, Lettok-thein, Mai-lang, Mai-yang-hka-oaun, Taung-zalut

 

Hindi :
Sanskrit :

 

English common name used in Myanmar :
• Agri.Dept.2000 53-1418: NG
• Chklist: NG
• LSR : NL
• FAO : NL
• KS-TMN: NL
• Nagathein 3-254: NG
• UHM :

 

Picture :
• Leaders: left - flower -- http://ecocrop.fao.org/GPPIS.exe$ShowHost?Host=10924
right - Nagathein

 

Plant identification characters :

• 胭木 yan mu . Trees to 20 m tall. Branches gray or brown, pubescent, lenticellate. Petiole 2-10 mm; leaf blade elliptic to broadly so or obovate, 6-18 X 3-8.5 cm, pubescent to glabrescent adaxially, tomentose abaxially; lateral veins 10-15 pairs. Cymes pubescent; peduncle to 2 cm. Pedicel 1-1.5 cm. Sepals ovate or broadly so, ca. 3 mm. Corolla yellowish, pinkish, or salmon, rotate or subrotate; tube 3-7 mm, glabrous; lobes narrowly elliptic to ovate, 0.8-1.6 cm, papillate; corona scales 10, shorter than anthers, glabrous inside, apex dentate. Ovaries connate. Follicles connate, cylindric, 14-21 X 3-4 cm, lenticellate. Seeds linear-fusiform, ca. 2 cm, coma ca. 3.5 cm. Fl. May-Oct, fr. Aug-Dec. 2n = 22. -- http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=210002329

 

• Deciduous or mixed forests, stream banks; 200-1500 m. Guangxi, Guizhou, Yunnan [India, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam]. --  http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=210002329

 

Distribution in Myanmar :

 

Part used and uses :

 

Constituents :

 

 

Alstonia scholaris and {lak-htoat} controversy

UKT:

The name {lak-htoat} has been applied to a number of plants. First, I will try to list entries that have been entered under the name, {lak-htoat}, in the Official Myanmar Dictionaries.

• MMDict131
A large tree whose latex and bark have medicinal properties. The latex is white when fresh but turns black on drying. (The plant is also known as {hsι:hka:kri:}, {taung-mu.ro:}, {lak-htoat}, and {thin-poan:}. -- free translation by UKT.

• MMDict295
A medium sized tree with bluish bark bearing long pods. -- free translation by UKT

• MEDict448
{lak-htoat} - n. same as {lak-htoat-kri:} -- MEDict448

• MEDict448
{lak-htoat-kri:} - tree which provides useful timber and bark for treating dysentery, Holarrhena antidysenterica -- MEDict448
[UKT: {lak-htoat-kri:} literally means "large-{lak-htoat}"]

• MEDict448
{lak-htoat-thaim} - n. medium-sized tree which provides useful timber, and bark for treating renal complaints. Wrightia tomentosa -- MEDict448
[UKT: {lak-htoat-thaim} literally means "dwarf-{lak-htoat}"]

Since, Alstonia scholaris, fam. Apocynaceae, is a large tree,

• Alstonia scholaris "... is a large tree, with smooth, entire, thick leaves disposed in whorls. ..." -- King's American Dispensatory, by H. W. Felter and J. U. Lloyd, 1898, http://www.ibiblio.org/herbmed/eclectic/kings/alstonia-scho.html

the name {lak-htoat} should not be applied to it. However, there are authors who have listed A. scholaris as {lak-htoat}:

• FAO listed Alstonia scholaris as Lettok (M. Jensen,  Trees commonly cultivated in Southeast Asia, pg. 60-61)
• KS-TMN, pg.45 , listed Alstonia scholaris as Taung-ma-yoe, Lak-htoke, Taung-mare-oke
• UHM 4: listed Alstonia scholaris as Lettok, Taung-meok

Contents of this page

Alstonia spp.

Results of search for 'Alstonia' in the Checklist of Plants of Myanmar, U.S. National Herbarium, 12 Mar 2007.
• Alstonia rostrata Fischer . Cited as: Alyxia calophylla Wall., Winchia calophylla A. DC. . Habit: Tree . Distribution: Mon, Mon, Taninthayi, Taninthayi . Common Names: Kalar-paung
• Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br. . Habit: Tree . Distribution: Bago, Kachin, Mandalay, Shan, Taninthayi, Yangon . Common Names: Devil tree, Dita bark, Letpan-ga, Taung-mayo, Taung-meoak

Contents of this page

Carissa spp.

Results of search for 'Carissa' in the Checklist of Plants of Myanmar, U.S. National Herbarium, 12 Mar 2007.
• Carissa carandas L. . Cited as: Carissa carandas var. congesta Bedd. . Habit: Small tree . Distribution: Cultivated . Common Names: Karaunda, Khan
• Carissa spinarum A. DC. . Cited as: Carissa macrocarpa (Eckl.) DC. . Habit: Small tree . Distribution: Cultivated . Common Names: Khanzat, Natal plum, Taw-khan-pin

Contents of this page

Holarrhena spp.

Results of search for 'Holarrhena' in the Checklist of Plants of Myanmar, U.S. National Herbarium, 12 Mar 2007.
• Holarrhena pubescens Wall. ex G. Don . Cited as: Holarrhena antidysenterica Wall. . Habit: Small tree . Distribution: Wide . Common Names: Danghkyam-kaba, Dangkyam, Kurchi conessi, Lettok, Lettok-gyi, Mai-hkao-long, Mai-yang

Contents of this page

Nerium spp.

Family: Apocynaceae

Results of search for 'Nerium' in the Checklist of Plants of Myanmar, U.S. National Herbarium, 30 Jul 2006.
• Nerium oleander L. Cited as: Nerium indicum Mill. Habit: Climber/Creeper. Distribution: Cultivated. Common Names: Nwe-tha-gee, Oleander, Rose bay, Sweet-scented Indian oleander, Tayok-hnin-si

USDA-NRCS
"NEGR4","Nerium grandiflorum Roxb. ex R. Br.","&gt;&gt;Cryptostegia grandiflora", "Asclepiadaceae"
"NERIU","Nerium L.", "oleander","Apocynaceae"
"NEOL"," Nerium oleander L.","oleander","Apocynaceae"

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Plumeria spp.

Results of search for 'Plumeria' in the Checklist of Plants of Myanmar, U.S. National Herbarium, 12 Mar 2007.
• Plumeria alba L. . Habit: Tree . Distribution: Cultivated
• Plumeria obtusa L. . Habit: Small tree . Distribution: Cultivated . Common Names: Akyaw, Tayok-saga-aphyu
• Plumeria rubra L. . Cited as: Plumeria acuminata Ait. . Habit: Small tree . Distribution: Cultivated . Common Names: Frangipani, Mawk-sam-ka, Mawk-sam-ka, Mawk-sam-pailong, Pagoda tree, Red plumeria, Sonpabataing, Tayok-saga, Tayoksaga-ani

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Rauwolfia spp.

Results of search for 'Rauvolfia' in the Checklist of Plants of Myanmar, U.S. National Herbarium, 12 Mar 2007.
• Rauvolfia microcarpa Hook. f. . Habit: Shrub . Distribution: Reported from Myanmar . Common Names: Taung-zalat
• Rauvolfia rivularis Merr. . Habit: Shrub . Distribution: Kachin
• Rauvolfia serpentina (L.) Benth. . Habit: Shrub . Distribution: Bago, Chin, Kayin, Mandalay, Mon, Yangon . Common Names: Bonma-yaza
• Rauvolfia verticillata (Lour.) Baill. . Cited as: Rauvolfia densiflora (Thwaites) Benth., Rauvolfia ophiorrhizoides (Kurz) Kerr, Rauvolfia peguana Hook. f., Rauvolfia perakensis King & Gamble . Habit: Shrub . Distribution: Reported from Myanmar . Common Names: Sin-bonma-yaza, Thit-nga-yok, Ye-zalut

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Thevetia spp.

Family: Apocynaceae

Results of search for 'Thevetia' in the Checklist of Plants of Myanmar, U.S. National Herbarium, 30 Apr 2006.
• Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) Schum. Habit: Small tree. Distribution: Cultivated. Common Names: Mawk-hkam-long, Payaung-pan, Sethnayathi, Yellow oleander

USDA-NRCS:
"THEVE","Thevetia Adans.","thevetia", "Apocynaceae"
"THPE3","Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) K. Schum.","luckynut","Apocynaceae"
"CATH7","Cascabela thevetia (L.) Lippoid","& gt;&gt;Thevetia peruviana","Apocynaceae"
"CETH6","Cerbera thevetia L.","&gt;&gt; Thevetia peruviana","Apocynaceae"
"THNE3","Thevetia neriifolia A. L. Juss. ex Steudel","&gt;&gt; Thevetia peruviana","Apocynaceae"
"THTH3","Thevetia thevetioides (Kunth) Schumann","thevetia","Apocynaceae"

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Vinca spp.

Results of search for 'Vinca' in the Checklist of Plants of Myanmar, U.S. National Herbarium, 16 Mar 2007.
• Tabernaemontana divaricata (L.) R. Br. ex Roem. & Schult. . Cited as: Ervatamia coronaria (Willd.) Stapf, Ervatamia divaricata Burkill, Ervatamia recurva (Roxb.) Lace, Tabernaemontana coronaria Willd., Tabernaemontana recurva Roxb., Vinca alba Noronha . Habit: Shrub, Climber . Distribution: Cultivated . Common Names: Cape jasmine, Cape jasmine, Lashi, Moonbeam, Taw-zalat, Zalat, Zalat-setkya
• Vinca rosea L. . Habit: Herb . Distribution: Bago, Mandalay, Yangon . Common Names: Thinbaw-mahnyo-pan

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Wrightia spp.

Results of search for 'Wrightia' in the Checklist of Plants of Myanmar, U.S. National Herbarium, 31 Jul 2006.
• Wrightia arborea (Dennst.) Mabb. Cited as: Wrightia tomentosa Roem. & Schult. Habit: Small tree. Distribution: Ayeyarwady, Bago, Mandalay, Yangon. Common Names: Danghkyam-kaii, Lettok-thein, Mai-lang, Mai-yang-hka-oaun, Taung-zalut
• Wrightia collettii Ngan . Habit: Tree, Shrub. Distribution: Reported from Myanmar
• Wrightia dubia (Sims) Spreng. Cited as: Strophanthus jackianus Wall. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Taninthayi, Taninthayi
• Wrightia laevis Hook. f. Habit: Tree. Distribution: Reported from Myanmar
• Wrightia religiosa Benth. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Taninthayi. Common Names: Bontayasa

USDA-NRCS-data
[Unable to locate]

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Entry format: Botanical name / Family / Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcripts • Agri.Dept.2000 : • Chklist: • LSR : • FAO : • KS-TMN: • Nagathein : • UHM :/ Myanmar-Script Spelling (•Official Myanmar Dictionaries : - TravPo-M-Dict - Myan-Engl-Dict - Myan-Ortho / Chklist data / Hindi / Sanskrit / English common name used in Myanmar / Picture / Plant identification characters / Distribution in Myanmar / Part used and uses / Constituents /
End of TIL file