Update: 2007-03-11 01:43 PM -0500

TIL

Medicinal Plants of Myanmar

Apiaceae

compiled by U Kyaw Tun, U Pe Than, and staff of TIL. Not for sale.

Contents of this page:

Family: Apiaceae 4 entries
Apiaceae family - general characters
Apium graveolens  • {nän-nän (ta.roat)}
Centella asiatica • {mring:hkwa-rwak-ping}
Coriandrum sativum • {nän-nän (mran-ma)}
Foeniculum vulgare  • {sa.moan-sa.pa:}
Trachyspermum ammi  • {sa.mwat}
Apium spp.
Carum spp.
Centella spp.
Coriandrum spp.
Foeniculum spp.
Trachyspermum spp.

Main Index of DB | Top
Contents of this page

Apiaceae family - general characters

(aka Umbelliferae)

From: Families yielding important phytopharmaceuticals in Fundamentals of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy, by Michael Heinrich, J. Barnes, S. Gibbons, and E. Williamson, October 2003, ISBN:0443071322, pp.320 -- www.fleshandbones.com/readingroom/pdf/747.pdf

Important medicinal plants in the family:
Carum carvi L. (caraway), a carminative and also important as a spice.
Coriandrum sativum L. (coriander), a carminative and also important as a spice.
Foeniculum vulgare Miller (fennel), a mild carminative.
Levisticum officinale Koch (lovage), a carminative and antidyspeptic.
Pimpinella anisum L. (anise-fruit, wrongly called ‘seed’), an expectorant, spasmolytic and carminative.

 

Morphological characteristics of the family
This family of nearly exclusively herbaceous species is characterized by hermaphrodite flowers in a double umbel (Fig. 4.2); note that the closely related Araliaceae have a simple umbel. Typical for the family are the furrowed stems and hollow internodes, leaves with a sheathing base and generally a much divided lamina. The flowers are relatively inconspicuous, with two pistils, an inferior gynaecium with two carpels, a small calyx and generally a white to greenish corolla, with free petals and sepals.

 

Distribution
Members of this family, which has about 3000 species, are mostly native to temperate regions of the northern hemisphere.

 

Chemical characteristics of the family
Unlike the Araliaceae, members of this family are often rich in essential oil, which is one of the main reasons for the pharmaceutical importance for many of the apiaceous drugs (see above). Also common are 17-carbon skeleton polyacetylenes, which are sometimes poisonous, and (furano-)coumarins, which are responsible for phototoxic effects (e.g. in Heracleum mantegazzianum Sommier and Levier, hogweed). Some species accumulate alkaloids (e.g. the toxic coniine from hemlock, Conium maculatum L.).

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Apium graveolens

Family : Apiaceae; former listing as Umbelliferae

UKT: Apium graveolens has been identified also as {sa.mwut} by:
• LSR 161:
{sa.mwut}, {ta.roat-nän-nän}
• Agri-Dept2000:
Apium graveolens -- Umbelliferae -- {nän-nän-ta.roat)} 33-0864
Apium graveolens -- Umbelliferae -- {sa.mwat} {ta.roat-nännän} 17-0422
Apium graveolens -- Umbelliferae -- {ta.roat-nän-nän} 25-0646
However, since I suspect that {sa.mwut} is not A. graveolen, but Trachyspermum ammi , I have include the latter onn this page.

Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
• Agri.Dept.2000 25-0646 : {ta.roat nän-nän}
   33-864: {nän-nän (ta.roat)}
• Chklist: Celery, Phat-kyi-che, Ta-rok-nannan, Taru-ta-na-ngaw, Tayok-nannan
• FAO : NL
• LSR 161: {sa.mwut}, {ta.roat-nän-nän}
• KS-TMN : NL
• Nagathein 2-021: {ta.roat-nän-nän-ping}
• UHM 06: Ta-yoke-nan-nan

Myanmar-Script Spelling
{sa.mwat} - -- MMDict080
{sa.mwat} /|samu'|/ - n. kind of shrub, Carum copticum -- MEDict104

UKT: See Apium graveolens . Is it {ta.roat-nän-nän} or {sa.mwat}? Is {ta.roat-nän-nän} and {sa.mwat} the same?
   The answer to the first question: Apium graveolens  is most likely to be {ta.roat-nän-nän}.
   The answer to the second question: It is most probable that {ta.roat-nän-nän} and {sa.mwat} are different., because, the only sources that state that they are the same are the Agri.Dept2000 and its sister publication LSR.

Now the question, what is {sa.mwat}? Chklist names a plant with Burmese name "Samok". If Samok is {sa.mwat}, then it must be Trachyspermum ammi .

Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague . Habit: Shrub . Distribution: Cultivated . Common Names: Bishop's weed, Lovage, Samok -- Chklist

But the plant given by MEDict104, is Carum copticum , not Trachyspermum ammi .

USDA-NRCS gives:
"CACO44","Carum copticum (L.) Benth. & Hook. f. ex C.B. Clarke",">> Trachyspermum ammi","Apiaceae"

Based on the above considerations MMPDB will treat,
Apium graveolens? as {ta.roat-nän-nän}, and
Trachyspermum ammi  as {sa.mwat}.

Data above updated (070310) in Akshara index r4c1ta.htm

Chklist data: 070310
Apium graveolens L. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Cultivated. Common Names: Celery, Phat-kyi-che, Ta-rok-nannan, Taru-ta-na-ngaw, Tayok-nannan

Hindi:
Sanskrit:

English common name used in Myanmar :
• Agri.Dept.2000 25-0646: Celery
• FAO : NL
• LSR 161: Celery; Wild celery
• KS-TMN : NL
• Nagathein 2-021: NG
• UHM 06: Celery seed, Celery fruit, Apii Fructus

Picture:
• Leader from Nagathein 2-22

 

Plant identification characters :
• A biennial (sometimes annual) herb, leaves 6-15" long and possess 3 pairs and a terminal leaflet, all coarsely serrate and ternately lobed or divided, inflorescence compound umbell or small white flowers -- UHM

 

Distribution of Myanmar:
• Kachin States, Chin Hills (wild), Lawksawk, Mongnai, Taunglelon (Southern Shan State), Bauktaw, Kamayut (Rangoon) cultivated. -- UHM

 

Part used and used as:
• Dried ripe fruit. Used as Stimulant and condiment -- UHM

Constituents:
• 1. Up to 3 % of a colorless volatile oil containing d-limone. (7). -- UHM

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Centella asiatica

syn. Hydrocotyle asiatica

Family : Apiaceae; former listing as Umbelliferae

Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
• Agri.Dept.2000 48-1266: {mring:hkwa} - Hydrocotyle asiatica 
• Chklist: Myin-hkwa
• FAO : NL
• LSR 347: {mring:hkwa-ping} - Hydrocotyle asiatica
• KS-TMN:
• Nagathein 2-498: {mring:hkwa-kri:} - Hydrocotyle asiatica
• UHM 13: Myin-khwa - Centella asiatica

Myanmar-Script Spelling :
{mring-hkwa-rwak} - -- MMDict252
{mring-hkwa} /|mjin: khwa|/ - n. 3. kind of pennywort used medicinally and also as a vegetable. Hydrocotyle asiatica  -- MEDict371

 UKT: {rwak} simply means 'leaf' or 'leaves' referring to the fact that the leaves are used. {ping} means 'plant'. To show that it is plant whose leaves are eaten, MMPDB2006 has adopted the name {mring:hkwa-rwak-ping}.

Data above updated (070311) in Akshara index r5c5maM.htm

Chklist data: 070310
Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. . Cited as: Hydrocotyle asiatica L. . Habit: Herb . Distribution: Wide . Common Names: Myin-hkwa

Hindi:
Sanskrit:

English common name used in Myanmar:
• Penny wort -- Agri.Dept.2000
• Asiatic Pennyworth -- UHM

Picture (with ref.):

Plant:
• A slender herbaceous creeping plant with long prostate stems coming off from the leaf axils of a vertical root-stock -- UHM

Distribution in Myanmar:
Rangoon, Insein, Pegu, Pyinmana, Mandalay, traces throughout Burma -- UHM

Part used and uses ::
• Fresh and dried leaves. Used as brain tonic, skin diseases, nervous system and blood trouble, leprosy and syphilitic affections -- UHM

Constituents:
• 1. Alkaloid - Hydrocotyline 2. Glucoside - asiaticoside (in fresh leaves) (4) -- UHM

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Coriandrum sativum

Family : Apiaceae; former listing as Umbelliferae

Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
• Agri.Dept.2000 33-0863: {nän-nän (mran-ma)}
• Chklist: Nannan, Phat-kyi, Ta-ner-hgaw
• FAO : NL
• LSR 243: {nän-nän-ping}
• KS-TMN :
• Nagathein 2-158: {nän-nän}
• UHM 17: Nan-nan

Myanmar-Script Spelling :
{nän-nän} - -- MMDict165
{nän-nän} /|nan nan|/ - n. coriander. Coriandrum sativum . -- MEDict230

The foliage is "cilantro" (a parsley-like garnish with a distinctive, fresh fragrance that is used in Mexican and Southeast Asian salads, soups, and meat dishes) and the dried seeds are "coriander". -- www.floridata.com/ref/C/cori_sat.cfm

Data above updated (070311) in Akshara index : r4c5na.htm

Chklist data: 060619
Coriandrum sativum L. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Cultivated. Common Names: Coriander, Nannan, Phat-kyi, Ta-ner-hgaw

Hindi:
Sanskrit:

 

English common name used in Myanmar :
• Agri.Dept.2000 33-0863: Coriander
• FAO : NL
• LSR 243: Coriander
• KS-TMN :
• Nagathein 2-158: NG
• UHM 17: Coriander, coriander seed

Picture :
• Leader picture on right from: www.floridata.com/ref/C/cori_sat.cfm
• Seeds ready for harvest -- www.floridata.com/ref/C/cori_sat.cfm

 

Plant identification characters :

• An annual foetid smelling herb with erect slender smooth stem, branched in the upper part. The lower leaves are long-petioled, pinnate with nearly sessile, ovate to suborbicular deep lobed leaflets, crenate dentate on margin, upper leaves nearly sessile bi- or tri-pinnate with ultimate segments strap-shaped or linear. Inflor. compound umbels of white or pink flowers. Fruit is nearly spherical cremocarp.
   The name, "coriander", is derived from the Greek for "bed-bug", because the smell of the fresh foliage is said to resemble that of bug infested bed linens. The mature seeds do not retain this smell.
   Coriander is a delicately branched annual that reaches a height of 2-3 ft (0.6-0.9 m) with a spread of 1-2 ft (0.3-0.6 m). It often becomes top heavy and falls over, sprawling along the ground and sending up branches like so many new plants. The lower leaves of coriander are lobed, about 1-2 in (2.5-5.1 cm) across, and look a little like Italian parsley ( Petroselinum crispum). The upper leaves are finely dissected into linear segments and almost fernlike. The white or pink flowers are tiny and borne in numerous compound umbels (flat-topped clusters in which the flower stems arise from a single point). The flower clusters are only about 1-2 (2.5-5.1 cm) across, but are so abundant that the whole plant is quite showy. The seeds are contained in spherical yellowish brown pods that are ribbed and rough textured, and about an eighth inch in diameter. -- www.floridata.com/ref/C/cori_sat.cfm

 

Distribution in Myanmar:
• Throughout Burma -- UHM

 

Part used and used as :

• Dried ripe fruit. Used as Aromatic stimulant, carminative -- UHM

• The herb, Coriandrum sativum, gives us two distinctly different flavors for the kitchen. The lacy foliage is "cilantro", a parsley-like garnish with a distinctive, fresh fragrance that is indispensable in Mexican and Southeast Asian salads, soups, and meat dishes. The dried seeds are "coriander", a pleasantly aromatic spice that is much used in European and Middle Eastern stews, sausages, sweet breads and cakes. -- www.floridata.com/ref/C/cori_sat.cfm

 

Constituents :

•1. Up to 1 % volatile oil containing Coriandrol, 2. Fixed oil, 3. Calcium oxalate 4. Tannin (7) -- UHM

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Foeniculum vulgare 

Family: Apiaceae; former listing as Umbelliferae

Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
• Agri.Dept.2000 16-0414:  {sa.moan-sa.pa:}
• Chklist: Fennel, Samon-saba
• FAO : NL
• LSR 151: {sa.moan-sa.pa:}
• KS-TMN: NL
• Nagathein 1-377: {sa.moan-sa.pa:}
• UHM 26: Samon-saba

 

Myanmar-Script Spelling :
{sa.moan-sa.pa:} -  -- MMDict080
{sa.moan-sa.pa:} - n. aniseed -- MEDict104

UKT: Note that 'aniseed' is Pimpinella anisum and not Foeniculum vulgare .
anise seed or aniseed n. 1. The seedlike fruit of the anise. -- AHTD
anise n. 1. An annual, aromatic Mediterranean herb (Pimpinella anisum) in the parsley family, cultivated for its seedlike fruits and the oil obtained from them and used to flavor foods, liqueurs, and candies. 2. Anise seed. [Middle English anis from Old French from Latin anīsum from Greek anison] -- AHTD

Data above updated (070311) in Akshara index : r2c1sa.htm

Chklist data: 060619
Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Shan. Common Names: Fennel, Samon-saba

Hindi:
Sanskrit:

English common name used in Myanmar:
• Agri.Dept.2000 16-0414:  Fennel
• FAO : NL
• Lè-seik-shin 151: Fennel
• KS-TMN: NL
• Nagathein 1-377: Fennel
• UHM 26: Fennel seed

 

Picture:
• Leader from Nagathein 1-377:

 

Plant identification characters :

• A perennial aromatic herb attaining a height of about 1m. with narrow pinnae, small yellow flowers in compound umbels and oblong cremocarps. -- UHM

 

Distribution of Myanmar:
• Shan States. -- UHM

 

Part used and uses:
• The dried ripe fruit. Stimulant, carminative, galactagogue and condiment. Source of volatile oil of fennel. -- UHM

 

Constituents:
• Up to 6.5 percent of volatile oil. (Oleum foeniculi) containing anethol and fenchone, fixed oil. Calcium oxalate etc. (7) -- UHM

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Trachyspermum ammi

Family : Apiaceae

UKT: Trachyspermum ammi  is tentatively identified as {sa.mwat} . I am still waiting for more inforation from Burmese sources.
• Synonyms: Carum copticum (L.) Benth. & Hook. f., Carum copticum (L.) C.B. Clarke, Carum ajowan, Ptychotis ajowan, Trachyspermum copticum (L.) Link -- http://www.uni-graz.at/~katzer/engl/Trac_amm.html
• Ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi ) is  one of those spices that are very often confused with other plants, despite its unambigous English name. Literature has examples of misidentification with other spices (celery, lovage, nigella) and even nonculinary plants (goutweed, toothpickweed). -- http://www.uni-graz.at/~katzer/engl/Trac_amm.html

Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcripts
• Agri.Dept.2000 :
• Chklist: Bishop's weed, Lovage, Samok
• LSR :
• FAO :
• KS-TMN:
• Nagathein :
• UHM :

Myanmar-Script Spelling
{sa.mwat} - -- MMDict080
{sa.mwat} /|samu'|/ - n. kind of shrub, Carum copticum -- MEDict104

UKT: See Apium graveolens . Is it {ta.roat-nän-nän} or {sa.mwat}? Is {ta.roat-nän-nän} and {sa.mwat} the same?
   The answer to the first question: Apium graveolens  is most likely to be {ta.roat-nän-nän}.
   The answer to the second question: It is most probable that {ta.roat-nän-nän} and {sa.mwat} are different., because, the only sources that state that they are the same are the Agri.Dept2000 and its sister publication LSR.

Now the question, what is {sa.mwat}? Chklist names a plant with Burmese name "Samok". If Samok is {sa.mwat}, then it must be Trachyspermum ammi .

Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague . Habit: Shrub . Distribution: Cultivated . Common Names: Bishop's weed, Lovage, Samok -- Chklist

But the plant given by MEDict104, is Carum copticum , not Trachyspermum ammi .

USDA-NRCS gives:
"CACO44","Carum copticum (L.) Benth. & Hook. f. ex C.B. Clarke",">> Trachyspermum ammi","Apiaceae"

Based on the above considerations MMPDB will treat,
Apium graveolens? as {ta.roat-nän-nän}, and
Trachyspermum ammi  as {sa.mwat}.

Data above updated (070311) in Akshara index : r2c1sa.htm .

Chklist data :
Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague . Habit: Shrub . Distribution: Cultivated . Common Names: Bishop's weed, Lovage, Samok

Hindi : Ajvain, Carom, Omum
Sanskrit : Yavaanika, Ugragandha, Brahmadarbha, Ajmodika, Deepyaka, Yavsaha
--

English common name used in Myanmar :

Picture :
• Leader -- http://www.uni-graz.at/~katzer/engl/Trac_amm.html
• Seeds -- http://www.uni-graz.at/~katzer/engl/Trac_amm.html

Plant identification characters :

 

Distribution in Myanmar :

 

Part used and uses :

 

Constituents :
The essential oil (2.5 to 5% in the dried fruits) is dominated by thymol (35 to 60%); furthermore, α-pinene, p-cymene, limonene and γ-terpinene have been found.
   In the essential oil distilled from aerial parts (flowers, leaves) of ajwain grown in Algeria, however, isothymol (50%) was found to be the dominant constituent before p-cymene, thymol, limonene and γ-terpinene. Note, however, that the name isothymol is not well defined and might refer to both 2-isopropyl-4-methylphenol and 3-isopropyl-6-methylphenol (carvacrol). (Journal of Essential Oil Research, 15, 39, 2003)
   From South Indian ajwain fruits, almost pure thymol has been isolated (98%), but the leaf oil was found to be composed of monoterpenoids and sesquiterpenoids: 43% cadinene, 11% longifolene, 5% thymol, 3% camphor and others. (Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 64, 250, 2002) -- http://www.uni-graz.at/~katzer/engl/Trac_amm.html

Contents of this page

Apium spp.

Results of search for 'Apium' in the Checklist of Plants of Myanmar, U.S. National Herbarium, 10 Mar 2007.
Apium graveolens L. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Cultivated. Common Names: Celery, Phat-kyi-che, Ta-rok-nannan, Taru-ta-na-ngaw, Tayok-nannan

 

USDA-NRCS
"APIUM","Apium L.","celery", "Apiaceae"
"APGR2","Apium graveolens L."," wild celery","Apiaceae"
"APGRD","Apium graveolens L. var. dulce (P. Mill.) DC.","wild celery","Apiaceae"
"APDU2","Apium dulce Miller",">>Apium graveolens var. dulce","Apiaceae"
"CEGR11","Celeri graveolens (L.) Britt. p.p.",">>Apium graveolens var. dulce"," Apiaceae"
"APGRR","Apium graveolens L. var. rapaceum (Miller) Gaudin","celeriac","Apiaceae"
"APRA2","Apium rapaceum Miller",">>Apium graveolens var. rapaceum"," Apiaceae"
"APNO","Apium nodiflorum (L.) Lag.","European marshwort","Apiaceae"
"CYNO4","Cyclospermum nodiflorum (L.) W.D.J. Koch",">>Apium nodiflorum","Apiaceae"
"APPR2","Apium prostratum Labill.","prostrate marshwort"," Apiaceae"
"APRE","Apium repens (Jacq.) Lag.","creeping marshwort","Apiaceae"

Contents of this page

Carum spp.

Results of search for 'Carum' in the Checklist of Plants of Myanmar, U.S. National Herbarium, 10 Mar 2007.
Carum carvi L. . Habit: Herb . Distribution: Cultivated . Common Names: Caraway, Karaway, Karaway-si
Trachyspermum khasianum (C.B. Clarke) H. Wolff . Cited as: Carum khasianum C.B. Clarke . Habit: Herb . Distribution: Chin, Shan
Trachyspermum roxburghianum (DC.) Craib . Cited as: Carum roxburghianum Benth. & Hook. f. Habit: Herb . Distribution: Reported from Myanmar . Common Names: Kant-balu

USDA-NRCS-data
"CACO44","Carum copticum (L.) Benth. & Hook. f. ex C.B. Clarke",">>Trachyspermum ammi","Apiaceae"

Contents of this page

Centella spp.

Results of search for 'Centella' in the Checklist of Plants of Myanmar, U.S. National Herbarium, 10 Mar 2007.
Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. . Cited as: Hydrocotyle asiatica L. . Habit: Herb . Distribution: Wide . Common Names: Myin-hkwa

USDA-NRCS

"CENTE","Centella L.","centella","Apiaceae"
"CEAS","Centella asiatica (L.) Urban","spadeleaf"," Apiaceae"
"HYAS4","Hydrocotyle asiatica L.","> >Centella asiatica","Apiaceae"
"CEER2","Centella erecta (L. f.) Fern.","erect centella","Apiaceae"
"CEAS5", "Centella asiatica auct. non (L.) Urban [misapplied]",">>Centella erecta","Apiaceae"
"CERE5","Centella repanda (Pers.) Small", ">>Centella erecta","Apiaceae"

Contents of this page

Coriandrum spp.

Results of search for 'Coriandrum' in the Checklist of Plants of Myanmar, U.S. National Herbarium, 19 Jun 2006.
Coriandrum sativum L. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Cultivated. Common Names: Coriander, Nannan, Phat-kyi, Ta-ner-hgaw

USDA-NRCS

"CORIA","Coriandrum L.","coriander","Apiaceae"
"COSA","Coriandrum sativum L.","coriander","Apiaceae"

Contents of this page

Foeniculum spp.

Results of search for 'Foeniculum' in the Checklist of Plants of Myanmar, U.S. National Herbarium, 19 Jun 2006.

Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Shan. Common Names: Fennel, Samon-saba

USDA-NRCS

"FOENI","Foeniculum P. Mill.","fennel","Apiaceae"
"FOVU","Foeniculum vulgare P. Mill.","sweet fennel","Apiaceae"
"FOFO","Foeniculum foeniculum (L.) Karst.",">>Foeniculum vulgare","Apiaceae"

Contents of this page

Trachyspermum spp.

Results of search for 'Trachyspermum' in the Checklist of Plants of Myanmar, U.S. National Herbarium, 10 Mar 2007.
Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague . Habit: Shrub . Distribution: Cultivated . Common Names: Bishop's weed, Lovage, Samok
Trachyspermum khasianum (C.B. Clarke) H. Wolff . Cited as: Carum khasianum C.B. Clarke . Habit: Herb . Distribution: Chin, Shan
Trachyspermum roxburghianum (DC.) Craib . Cited as: Carum roxburghianum Benth. & Hook. f. . Habit: Herb . Distribution: Reported from Myanmar . Common Names: Kant-balu

Contents of this page

Entry format: Botanical name / Family / Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcripts • Agri.Dept.2000 : • Chklist: • LSR : • FAO : • KS-TMN: • Nagathein : • UHM :/ Myanmar-Script Spelling ( • Official Myanmar Dictionaries : - TravPo-M-Dict - Myan-Engl-Dict - Myan-Ortho / Chklist data / Hindi / Sanskrit / English common name used in Myanmar / Picture / Plant identification characters / Distribution in Myanmar / Part used and uses / Constituents /
End of TIL file