Update: 2007-03-10 05:35 AM -0500


Myanmar Medicinal Plant Database

Family: Anacardiaceae

compiled by U Kyaw Tun, U Pe Than, and staff of TIL. Not for sale.

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Family: Anacardiaceae 1 entry
• Anacardium occidentale • {thi-hoL-tha.rak}
• Anacardium spp.

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Anacardium occidentale

Family: Anacardiaceae

Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
• Agri.Dept.2000 58-1558: {thi-hoL-tha.rak}
• Chklist: Cashew nut, Mak-mong-sang-yip, Thiho-thayet
• FAO 63: Thiho thayet si. Syn. Cassurium reniforme
• LSR : NL
• Nagathein 3-388: {thi-hoL-tha.rak}
• UHM 05: Thiho-thayetsss


Myanmar-Script Spelling
• {thi-hoL-tha.rak} -- MM324
• {thi-hoL-tha.rak} /|thi hou thaje'|/ - n. cashew, Anacardium occidentale -- MEDict496

UKT: {thi-hoL-tha.rak} literally means "the mango of Sri Lanka". However, since the plant does not belong to the mango group, {thi-hoL} is not to be treated as an affix. The mango in Burmese-Myanmar is {tha.rak}, and {thi-hoL} means the country of Sri Lanka.

Data above updated (070310) in Akshara index r6c5tha.htm

Chklist data : 070310
• Anacardium occidentale L. . Habit: Tree . Distribution: Cultivated . Common Names: Cashew nut, Mak-mong-sang-yip, Thiho-thayet

Hindi :
• {ka-gyu} -- Nagathein

English common name used in Myanmar
• Agri.Dept.2000 -- Cashew nut
• FAO -- Cashew
• LSR -- NL
• KS-TMN -- NL
• Nagathein -- Not given
• UHM -- Cashew nut


• Leader from Nagathein.
• Colour drawing from FAO


Plant identification characters

• Key characteristics: Small tree, wide dome-shaped crown, low crooked branches, smooth brown bark, large simple obovate, dark green shining leaves with prominent midribs and veins, very characteristic fruit. Description: An evergreen tree up to 12 m high with a dome-shaped crown. Branching starts at 0.5–1.5 m above the ground. Bark is smooth and brown. Leaves alternate, on 1–2 cm long stalks, obovate to obovate-oblong, up to 20 Χ 15 cm, leathery, red-brown when young, later shining green, smooth, with prominent midrib and veins. Flower stands terminal, drooping panicles, up to 25 cm long with fragrant flowers with 5 petals, 7–13 mm long and 5 sepals, 4–15 mm long. Male flowers with 7–9 stamens, hermaphroditic flowers usually with 9 short and 1 long viable stamen. First whitish later turning pinkish-red. The “real” fruit is a kidney shaped nut about 3 Χ 1.2 cm sitting on the much enlarged and swollen flower stalk-the fruit-like cashew apple, which is pear shaped, 10–20 cm Χ 4–8 cm and red to yellow. Ecology: Requires high temperatures. Rainfall distribution more important than amount. Tolerates dry conditions if roots have access to soil moisture. -- FAO

Fruit, prominent shape. Immature fruit is acrid, but becomes sweet on ripening. Has a burning taste which becomes lessened on ripening. In Thaton and Moulmein areas, it simply known as {thi-hoL-thi:} without {tha.rak} -- Nagathein, free interpretation and translation of excerpt by UKT.

• A small tree with ovate leaves and panicles of red flowers, fruit 1in. on a pyriform fleshy recepticle -- UHM


Distribution in Myanmar

• Mergui, Tavoy, Syriam -- UHM


Part used and uses

• Nuts are used as a main food or delicacy depending on availability. The cashew apple is eaten fresh, mixed in fruit salads or made into juice. Seed coats and shells are used as poultry feed. Valuable oil can be extracted from the shell. The wood is used as fuel or low quality timber. Cashew also contains tannins and gum. Young shoots and leaves are eaten raw or cooked. All tree parts are used in traditional medicine, especially for treating skin ailments. -- FAO

• Fruits. Vesicant, vermifuge, escharotic, leprosy -- UHM

UKT: Medical terms from AHTD and other sources:
• ves·i·cant n. 1. A blistering agent, especially mustard gas, used in chemical warfare. adj. 1. Causing blisters.
• es·cha·rot·ic adj. 1. Producing an eschar. n. 1. A caustic or corrosive substance or drug.
• es·char n. 1. A dry scab or slough formed on the skin as a result of a burn or by the action of a corrosive or caustic substance. [Middle English escare from Old French; See scar 1 ]


• 1. Cardol (Mesocarp) - Yellowish or reddish oily vesicating substance becoming darker on exposure to air. 2. Anacardic acid - Pericarp. 3. Tannic acid - Pericarp. 4. 40 to 50 % of fixed oil - seed (1) -- UHM

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Anacardium spp.

Results of search for 'Anacardium' in the Checklist of Plants of Myanmar, U.S. National Herbarium, 10 Mar 2007.
• Anacardium occidentale L. . Habit: Tree . Distribution: Cultivated . Common Names: Cashew nut, Mak-mong-sang-yip, Thiho-thayet



Contents of this page

Entry format: Botanical name / Family / Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcripts (• Agri.Dept.2000 : • Chklist: • LSR : • FAO : • KS-TMN: • Nagathein : • UHM :/ Myanmar-Script Spelling (• Official Myanmar Dictionaries : - TravPo-M-Dict - Myan-Engl-Dict - Myan-Ortho / Hindi / Sanskrit / English common name used in Myanmar / Picture / Plant identification characters / Distribution in Myanmar / Part used and uses / Constituents /
End of TIL file