Update: 2012-12-31 11:45 PM +0630

TIL

Medicinal Plants of Myanmar

Family: Alliaceae

compiled by U Kyaw Tun, U Pe Than, and staff of TIL. Not for sale.

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Family: Alliaceae 2 entries
• Alliaceae family - general characters(Monocotyledoneae)
• Allium cepa  • {krak-ώwun-ni}
• Allium sativum • {krak-ώwun-hpru}
• Allium spp.

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Alliaceae family - general characters (‘Moncotyledoneae’)

From: Families yielding important phytopharmaceuticals in Fundamentals of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy, by Michael Heinrich, J. Barnes, S. Gibbons, and E. Williamson, October 2003, ISBN:0443071322, pp.320 -- www.fleshandbones.com/readingroom/pdf/747.pdf

Allium is the only important genus of this family, which includes not only important food plants such as the common onion (Allium cepa L.), leek (A. porrum L.) and chives (A. schoenoprasum L.), but also the medicinal plant garlic (A. sativum L.). The genus is often included in the Liliaceae (i.e. the broadly defined lily family).

Important medicinal plants from the family
• Allium sativum L. (garlic).

Morphological characteristics of the family
These perennial herbs have underground storage organs (onions), which are used for hibernation. Typically, the flowers are composed of a perianth of two whorls of three with the sepals and petals having identical shape (i.e. the calyx and corolla are indistinguishable), six stamens and three superior, fused gynaecia. This is, in fact, the typical composition of the flowers of many related families that were previously united with the Liliaceae. The leaves are simple, annual, spirally arranged, parallel-veined and often of a round shape. The fruit is a capsule.

Distribution
The 700 species of family are found in northern temperate to Mediterranean regions.

Chemical characteristics of the family
The genus Allium is particularly well known for very simple sulphur-containing compounds, especially alliin and allicin (Fig. 4.1), which are thought to be involved in the reported pharmacological activities of the plant as a bactericidal antibiotic, in the treatment of arterial hypertension and in the prevention of arteriosclerosis and stroke.

 

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Allium cepa

Family: Alliaceae

Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcripts
• Agri2000 09-0212: {krak-thwan-U.kri:} {krak-thwun-ni-kri:}
• Chklist: Kyetthun-ni, Onion
• LSR067 : {krak-thwan-ni U.kri:}
• FAO :
• KS-TMN: NL
• Nagathein :
• UHM : NL

 

Myanmar-Script Spelling
• {krak-thwan} - -- MMDict032
•  {krak-thwan-ni} /|kje' thun ni|/ - n. onion.  -- MEDict042

Data above updated (070311) in Akshara index r1c1kaM.htm

Chklist data: 060729
• Allium cepa L. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Cultivated. Common Names: Kyetthun-ni, Onion

Hindi
Sanskrit

English common name used in Myanmar
• Agri2000  09-0212: Onion
• Chklist: Onion
• LSR067 : Onion
• FAO :
• KS-TMN: NL
• Nagathein :
• UHM : NL

Picture
• Leader - LSR

Plant identification characters

Distribution in Myanmar

Part used and uses

Constituents

 

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Allium sativum 

Family: Alliaceae

Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcripts
• Agri2000 08-0211:  {krak-thwan-hpru}
• Chklist: Kyetthun-byu
• LSR063: {krak-thwan-hpru}
• FAO : NL
• KS-TMN : NL
• Nagathein 1-184: {krak-thwan-hpru}
• UHM 03: Kyet-thun-phyu

 

Myanmar-Script Spelling:
{krak-thwan}   -- MM032
{krak-thwan-hpru} /|kje' thun bju|/ - n. garlic -- MEDict042

Data above updated (070311) in Akshara index r1c1kaM.htm

Chklist data : 060729
• Allium sativum L. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Cultivated. Common Names: Garlic, Kyetthun-byu

Hindi:
Sanskrit:

English common name used in Myanmar:
• Agri2000 08-0211:  Garlic
• Chklist: Garlic
• LSR 063: Garlic
• FAO : NL
• KS-TMN : NL
• Nagathein 1-184: Garlic
• UHM 03: Garlic

Picture:
• Leader, left, LSR063
• Leader from:  www.foodmuseum.com/images/garlic1.jpg
• Photo, Left: plantation http://wwwlb.aub.edu.lb/~webpleb/photos/alliaceae4/images/allium-sativum.jpg ;
Right: upper: flowers http://www.toildepices.com/fr/plantes/angio_mon/liliacee/allium/sati08.jpg
Right lower: Cloves of garlic http://www.toildepices.com/fr/plantes/angio_mon/liliacee/allium/sati08.jpg

Plant identification characters :
• A perennial strong smelling bulbous herb. -- UHM

Distribution in Myanmar:
• Taunglelon, Hsi-Seng, Shan States -- UHM

Part used and uses:
• Fresh bulb. Used as diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorant, bronchitis, carminative. -- UHM

Constituents:
• 1. Up to 0.9% of volatile oil containing diallyl disulphide and allylpropyl disulphide.
  2. Glucoside allin. 3. Allicin. -- UHM

• Allylsulfinyl-allyl sulfide (Allicin) , C6H10OS2 , mol.wt. 162.27, the antibacterial principle, where it occurs in bound form and is freed by enzymatic action. The action of allicin is considerably more bacteriostatic than bactericidal. It is about equally effective against Gram positive and Gram negative organisms. By the cylinder-plate method against Staphylococcus aureus, allicin shows an activity equivalent to about 15 Oxford penicillin units per mg., which is approximately 1 per cent of the activity of penicillin; however, allicin is equally effective against the Gram negative organisms which are practically unaffected by penicillin. The antibacterial activity is unaffected by the presence of p-aminobenzoic acid.
-- Guenther (citing: Cavallito and collaborators, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 66 (1944), 1950, 1952; 67 (1945), 1032)

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Allium spp.

UKT: The family Alliaceae was part of the family Liliaceae. And, some botanists (e.g. USDA-NRCS) continue to list the Allium species under the family Liliaceae.  However, others have moved them to Alliaceae (e.g. A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs, and Climbers of Myanmar (Chklist)). Since Chklist is a revised ed from the original works by J. H. Lace, R. Rodger, H. G. Hundley, and U Chit Ko Ko, MMPDB-2006 has adopted the classification of Chklist.

Results of search for 'Allium' in the Checklist of Plants of Myanmar, U.S. National Herbarium, 29 Jul 2006.
• Allium acidoides Stearn . Habit: Herb. Distribution: Reported from Myanmar
• Allium ampeloprasum L. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Reported from Myanmar. Common Names: Htan-kyetthun, Leek, Thinbaw-kyetthun-meik
• Allium ascalonicum L. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Cultivated. Common Names: Kyetthun-ni-gale, Onion
• Allium cepa L. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Cultivated. Common Names: Kyetthun-ni, Onion
• Allium hookeri Thwaites. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Kachin.
• Allium sativum L. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Cultivated. Common Names: Garlic, Kyetthun-byu
• Allium tuberosum Roxb. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Cultivated. Common Names: Gyu-myit, Indian leek
• Allium wallichii Kunth. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Reported from Myanmar

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Entry format: Botanical name / Family / Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcripts • Agri.Dept.2000 : • Chklist: • LSR : • FAO : • KS-TMN: • Nagathein : • UHM :/ Myanmar-Script Spelling (• Official Myanmar Dictionaries : - TravPo-M-Dict - Myan-Engl-Dict - Myan-Ortho / Chklist data / Hindi / Sanskrit / English common name used in Myanmar / Picture / Plant identification characters / Distribution in Myanmar / Part used and uses / Constituents /
End of TIL file