Update: 2007-03-12 03:59 PM -0500

TIL

Myanmar Medicinal Plant Database

Family: Acanthaceae

compiled by U Kyaw Tun, U Pe Than, and staff of TIL. Not for sale.

Contents of this page

Family: Acanthaceae 6 entries
• Acanthus ilicifolius • {hka.ra (rι)}
• Adhatoda vasica ; Justicia adhatoda L. • {mu.ya:kri:}
• Andrographis paniculata • {hsι:hka:kri: (nga.roat-hka:)} ()
• Barleria prionitis • {laip-hsu:rhwι}
• Hygrophila phlomoides • {mi.kyaung:kwam:hpat}
• Rhinacanthus nasutus ; R. communis • {htau:la.pat}
   UKT: Name changed to Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.).
• Acanthus spp.
• Adhatoda spp.
• Andrographis spp.
• Barleria spp.
• Hygrophila spp.
• Justica spp.
• Rhinacanthus spp.

Main Index of DB | Top
Contents of this page

Acanthus ilicifolius

Family: Acanthaceae

Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
• Agri2000 11-0277: {rι-hka.ra} 
• Chklist: Kaya-chon, Kha-yar, Kha-yar-chon
• LSR : NL
• FAO : NL
• KS-TMN 026: Khayar; Ye-khayar
• Nagathein 1-241: {hka.ra (rι)}.
• UHM : NL

Nagathein also listed another as {hka.ra (koan:)}, Argemone mexicana  fam: Papaveraceae

Myanmar-Script Spelling
• {hka.ra} - -- MMDict040
• {hka.ra} /|khaja|/ - prickly poppy, Agemone mexicana -- MEDict052

UKT: Agemone mexicana -- is of the family Papaveraceae -- http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/CropFactSheets/argemone.html

Data above updated (070310) in Akshara index r1c2hka.htm

Chklist data : 060418
• Acanthus ilicifolius L. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Ayeyarwady, Rakhine, Taninthayi, Yangon. Common Names: Holly-leaved acanthus, Kaya-chon, Kha-yar, Kha-yar-chon, Sea holly

Hindi :
• {har-kuky-kaaN~Ta} for () {hka.ra (rι)} -- Nagathein
Sanskrit

English common name used in Myanmar
• Agri.2000 -- Sea holly; Holly-leaved acanthus
• Chklist: Holly-leaved acanthus, Sea holly
• LSR : NL
• FAO -- NL
• KS-TMN -- Sea Holly
• Nagathein -- Sea Holly
• UHM -- NL

 

Picture :
• Leader from Nagathein 1-242
• Photos: left -- flowers ; right -- habit with fruits. Click on the pictures to enlarge.-- KS-TMN

 

Plant identification characters:

• An erect shrub; branches sparce, the younger stems terete, glabrous. Leaves opposite and decussate,simple; stipules spinous; petioles short; laminae oblong or elliptic, pinnaatifid to pinnatipartite, the bases, the margins and the tips spinous, unicostate, reticulate, the surfaces glabrous,  coriaceous. Inflorescences in terminal spicate cymes, elongate, laxly flowered; bracts ovate, acute, glabrous. Flowers bracteolate, the bracteoles broadly lanceolate, sessile, bisexual, zygomorphic, hypogynous. Calyx synsepalous, 4-sect, the two outer lobes larger, elliptic, the two inner ones broadly lanceolate. Corolla synpetalous, bilabiate, blue,the upper lip obsolete, the lower lip elongate obovate, obtusely 3-lobed, pubescent within. Androecium polyandrous, stamens 4, didynamous, shorter than the lower lip, epipetalous, the filaments stout, attached at the base of the corolla tube, curved below the anthers, exserted, the anthers monothecous, oblongoid, spurred, dorsifixed, extrorse, dehiscence longitudinal, necteriferous disc absent. Pistill, ovary ovoid, 2-carpelled, syncarpous, 2-loculed, the placentation axile, the ovules 2 in each locule, the style slender, the stigma bifid.] Fruit a loculicidal capsule, oblongoid, compressed, chestnut brown; seeds 4, subglobose, compressed, glabrous, non-endospermic. Flowering and fruiting periods: April - August -- KS-TMN

• Nagathein and UKT's free translation:

Generally grows in coastal areas on brackish water edges. A tall plant with thorns. Though this species bears white flowers, there is another with blue flowers.

 

Distribution in Myanmar:
• Grows wild at the edges of the Mangrove forests in Myanmar. -- KS-TMN

 

Part used and uses:
• Galactagogue; As an expectorant; Indigestion; Flatulence; Neuralgia; Biliousness; Oedema. Leaf - Arthritis; Neuralgia. Young stem or leaf -- Antidote for snake venom. Thorn -- Antidote for snake bite  -- KS-TMN

Constituents

 

Contents of this page

Adhatoda vasica
Justicia adhatoda L.

Family: Acanthaceae

Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
• Agri2000 44-1154: {mu.ya:kri:}
• Chklist: Hitingra-hpraw, Htingra-hpraw, Malabar nut tree, Malabar nut tree, Mauk-salum, Mauk-salum, Maya-gyi, May-gyi, My-yar-gyi, Ye-magyi, Ye-magyi
• LSR : NL
• FAO : NL
• KS-TMN 029: Muyar-gyi; Mayar-gyi
• Nagathein 2-428: {mu.ya:kri:}
• UHM 02: Maya-gyi, Yema-gyi, Mauk-sa-lun

Myanmar-Script Spelling
• {mu.ya:kri:} -- MM235
• {mu.ra:kri:} /|majagji:|/ - n. kind of medicinal shrub -- MEDict343

Data above updated (070310) in Akshara index r5c5ma.htm

Chklist data : 070308.
• Justicia adhatoda L. Cited as: Adhatoda vasica Nees. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Wide. Common Names: Hitingra-hpraw, Htingra-hpraw, Malabar nut tree, Malabar nut tree, Mauk-salum, Mauk-salum, Maya-gyi, May-gyi, My-yar-gyi, Ye-magyi, Ye-magyi

The following is from USDA-NRCS:
Kingdom: Plantae – Plants . Subkingdom: Tracheobionta – Vascular plants. Superdivision: Spermatophyta – Seed plants. Division: Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants. Class: Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons. Subclass: Asteridae – . Order: Scrophulariales – . Family: Acanthaceae – Acanthus family. Genus: Justicia L. – water-willow. Species: Justicia adhatoda L. – Malabar nut

UKT: The suffix {kri:} (meaning: <big>) in Burmese-Myanmar name {mu.ya:kri:} suggests that there is a very similar plant which would have the suffix {thι:} (meaning <small>. That similar plant is {mu.ya:thain} where the suffix {thain} means <stunted> almost meaning <small>. That plant is (Chklist data:)
• Justicia decussata Roxb. . Habit: Shrub . Distribution: Wide . Common Names: Ma-yar-thein, Nat-pan, Tamase-kyan
(See more plants of Justicia spp.)

Hindi:
• अरुसा {a.ru.hsa} -- Nagathein
 (UKT: Hindi-Devanagari and Hindi-Myanmar scripts given by Nagathein need to be checked because semi-vowels are involved.)
Sanskrit:

English common name used in Myanmar :
• Agri2000 -- Malabar nut
• Chklist: Malabar nut tree
• LSR : NL
• FAO -- NL
• KS-TMN -- Malabar nut tree
• Nagathein --  Not given
• UHM -- NL

 

Picture:
• Leader from picture on right from: www.avicenna.cz/ item/adhatoda-vasica, 20040726-adhatoda.jpg, 127 x 160 pixels - 6k, www.avicenna.cz/ item/adhatoda-vasica
• Photos: left -- habit with flowers. right -- habit with flowers and young fruits -- KS-TMN
• Flower  -- www.tropicamente.it/ web/a.htm

 

Plant identification characters:

• A perennial dense shrub; bark yellowish, the younger stems terete, pubescent, unarmed, the nodes tumid. Leaves opposite and decussate, simple; exstipulate; petiolate; laminae elliptic-lanceolate, the bases acute, the margins entire, the tips acuminate, unicostate, reticulate, the surfaces glabrous. Inflorescences in axillary spicate cymes, densely flowered; peduncles short; bracts broadly ovate, foliaceous. Flowers bracteolate, pedicellate, bisexual, zygomorphic, pentamerous, hypogynous. Calyx synsepalous, campanulate, 5-sect, the lobes oblong-lanceolate, imbricate. Corolla synpetalous, 5-lobed, bilabiate, the tubes cylindrical, the upper half laterally inflated, constricted above the middle, the upper lips 2-fid, erect, the lower lips 3-fid, spreading, white, throat with pinkish stripes. Androecium polyandrous, stamens 2, epipetalous, the anthers dithecous, sagittate ,the lobes divergent at the base, the lower lobe apiculate at the base, introrse ,dehiscence longitudinal, disc annular. Pistil 1, ovary ovoid, 2-carpelled, syncarpous, 2-loculed, the placentation axile, the ovules 2 in each locule, the style filiform, the stigma 2-lipped. Fruit a loculicidal capsule, clavately oblongoid, dorsi-ventrally flattened; seeds subglobose, 2 per fruit, 1 aborted, tubercular-verrucose, glabrous, non-endospermic. Propagation: This species propagate mainly by cuttings. Flowerings period: November - March. Fruiting period: January - March -- KS-TMN

• Nagathein, and UKT's free translation.

Height 4 to 8 feet, with leaves 4 to 8 inches in length. Leaf tips acuminate. Subspecies bearing white and red flowers. Subspecies also differentiated by stem-colour: "white" and "dark". Younger stems of "white" are greenish, whereas those of "dark" are darkish. The entire plant is to be used. -- Nagathein, free translation by UKT.

• A dense shrub with many long opposite ascending branches, stem with yellowish bark, terete, glabrous, leaves elliptic-lanceolate, acuminate, minutely pubescent when young, glabrous when mature, entire, inflor. a short dense axillary paniculate spike. -- UHM

U Pe Than: One of identification characteristics is the bitter taste of leaves when chewed. The taste is due to the presence of the alkaloid vasicine. Structure :  vasicine.gif 198 x 194 pixels - 3k grandfinale.at.infoseek.co.jp/ anthranilic-syn... from http://images.google.com/images

 

Distribution in Myanmar:
• Throughout the Myanmar plains up to 4000ft. KS-TMN
• Taunggyi, Taunglelon reserved forest (Southern Shan State), Hsipaw, Loikaw, Syriam, Kyaikmaraw, Kado (Moulmein) -- UHM

 

Part used and uses  :
• Whole plant -- (young plant): Jaundice; Opthalmia; Mucolytic. (whole plant): Carminative; For good voice; Good for heart. Roots, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds: Expectorant; Biliousness. Root: Cough; Mucolytic; Asthma; Epiphora; Epistaxis; Stomatitis; Haematemesis; Antidote for scorpion stings; Leucorrhoea; Tooth-ache. Leaf: Biliary infection; Haematemesis; Asthma; Leucorrhoea. -- KS-TMN

• Fresh and dried leaves. Expectorant, chronic and acute bronchitis. -- UHM

• Tender shoots boiled and eaten with salt and sometimes mixed with curd; (Garhwal Himalayas): shoots and stem eaten. Vernacular name - Kumaon region: Basinga. Ref. BHARGAVA, GUPTA. -- FAO Famine Foods

 

Constituents:

• 1. 0.25% of alkaloid vasicine  2. Odorous volatile principle of the nature of an essential oil. (4) -- UHM

• The leaves of the plant contain two major alkaloids called vasicine, and vasicinone (Ref 1,2) . The active alkaloid vasicine and its autooxidation product vasicinone have shown bronchodilator and antihistaminic effects (Ref 3,4) . Uterine stimulant activity and moderate hypotensive activity of the alkaloids were reported. Thrombopoeitic activity of vasicine has been observed (Ref 5) . Intraamniotic injection of vasicine hydrochloride was effective in inducing mid-trimester abortions at dose of 60mg (Ref 6) .
   The leaf extract has been used for the treatment of bronchitis and asthma for many centuries. It relieves cough and breathlessness (Ref 7) . It is also prescribed commonly for bleeding due to idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, local bleeding due to peptic ulcer, piles, menorrhagia etc. Its local use gives relief in pyorrhoea and in bleeding gums (Ref 8) .
Ref: 1. Pandita, K: Planta Med, 48:81 (1983). 2. Atal, C.K. : Chemistry and Pharmacology of vasicine - A new oxytocic and abortifacient, P.58., New Delhi(1980). 3. Chopra, R.N. : Indigenous Drugs of India, Academic Publishers, Calcutta (1982). 4. Amin, A.H. and D.R Mehta : Nature, 184:1317 (1959). 5. Atal, C.K. et al. : Ind. J. Exp. Biol., 20:704 (1982). 6. J. Obstet, Gynaecol. India 1979, 29, 939. 7. Gogate, V.M. : Dravyagunavignyana, continental prakashan,   Pune (1982) 8. Doshi, J.J.et al. : Int. J. Crude Drug Res., 21:173(1983). -- www.sirisimpex.com/adhatoda.htm

• Pharmacological, animal toxicity, pharmacokinetic, formulation and stability studies carried out and reported from this Institute in recent years indicated that vasicine, the alkaloid of Adhotoda vasica holds promise for its use as an oxytocic/abortifacient in therapeutics. This report covers the investigations on its clinical pharmacology carried out on 24 human volunteers with 0.5-16 mg dose of vasicine injected iv. in 500 ml saline in 3 hours with the objective of determining any acute human toxicity, tolerance, pharmacological action, any untoward effect and safe dosage range. Vasicine tried up to 16 mg dose on the hospital in-patients on 2nd to 8th day of normal puerperium was well tolerated and showed no undesirable effect in clinical observations, haematological and biochemical investigations and kidney and liver function tests carried out before, during and after vasicine treatment. However, uterus became firm and contracted after vasicine treatment which indicated its effectiveness as an oxytocic. -- Wakhloo RL, Girija Kaul, Gupta OP, Atal CK, Safety of vasicine hydrochloride in human volunteers, Indian Journal of Pharmacology, Short Communication, vol 12, issue 2, p129-131, 1980 www.ijp-online.com/article. asp?issn=0253-7613;year=1980;volume=12;issue=2;spage=129;epage=131;aulast=Wakhloo;type=0

Contents of this page

Andrographis paniculata

Family: Acanthaceae

Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
• Agri2000 20-0520: {hsι:hka:kri:}
• Chklist: King of bitters, Sega-gyi, Se-khar-gyi
• LSR177: {hsι:hka:kri: (nga.roat-hka:) }
• FAO : NL
• KS-TMN 030: Hsay-khar-gyi; Nga-yoke-khar
• Nagathein 1-451: {hsι:hka:kri: (nga.roat-hka:)}
• UHM 5: Se-ga-gyi

UKT: Since the local population tend to call any plant purported to have medicinal properties as {hsι:}, anything that tastes bitter as {hka:}, and anything "special" as {kri:}, the name derived from these three words {hsι:hka:kri:} can be any plant from any family and any genus. e.g.
• {hsι:hka:kri: (thοn~Bau:)} Swertis chirata fam.
Agri.Dept.2000 60-1600 listed the plant as Swertia chirata - Gentianaceae - {thοn~Bau: hsι:hka:kri:}, and Nagathein 4-391 relisted the plant as {thοn~Bau: hsι:hka:kri: (rham:hsι:hka:)} and referred to Nagathein 1-453 {hsι:hka:kri: (thοn~Bau:)}

Myanmar-Script Spelling
• {hsι:hka:kri:} --   -- MMDict101
• {hsι:hka:kri:} /|hsei: ga: gji:|/-- n. 1. bitter tonic and febrifuge prepared from the Andrographis paniculata -- MEDict133

Data above updated (070311) in Akshara index r2c2hsa.htm

Chklist data : 070308
• Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Wall. ex Nees . Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Kachin, Kayin, Magway, Mandalay, Sagaing . Common Names: King of bitters, Sega-gyi, Se-khar-gyi

Hindi:
• {kaal-mιG}
   -- Andrographis paniculata -- {hsι:hka:kri: (nga.roat-hka:)}
• {kyi.ra.ya.ta}
   -- Swertia chirata -- {hsι:hka:kri: (thin~Bau)}
Sanskrit:

English common name used in Myanmar :
• Agri2000 -- King of bitters
• Chklist:
• LSR : NL
• FAO -- NL
• KS-TMN -- Creat
• Nagathein --  Not given
• UHM -- Creat

 

Picture :
• Leader from Nagathein 1-452
• Leader, in color, LSR177
• Photos: left -- habit with flowers. right -- habit with fruits -- KS-TMN

 

Plant identification characters :

• A perennial herb; stems sharply quadrangular, solid, puberulent. Leaves opposite and decussate, simple; exstipulate; petiolate; laminae elliptic or lanceolate, the bases obtuse, the margins entire, the tips acute, unicostate, reticulate, glabrous. Inflorescences in axillary and terminal paniculate cymes; peduncle length about half the height of plant; bracts small, persistent. Flowers ebracteolate, pedicellate, bisexual, zygomorphic, pentamerous, hypogynous. Calyx synsepalous, 5-sect, the lobes linear-lanceolate, the outer surfaces pubscent with glandular hairs. Corolla synpetalous, deeply bilabiate, white, the upper lip 2-lobed, the lower lip 3-lobed, the inner surfaces with maroon coloured spots, pubescent. Androecium polyandrous, stamens 2, epipetalous, about the middle of corolla tube, the filaments ciliate upwards, white, the anthers dithecous, oblongoid, the bases bearded, connivent, dark purple, introrse, exserted, dehiscence longitudinal, annular nectiferous disc present. Pistil 1 , ovary ellipsoid, 2-carpelled, syncarpous, 2-loculed, the placentation axile, the ovule 1 in each locule, the style filiform, exserted, the stigma simple. Fruit a loculicidal capsule, ellipsoid, glabrous; seeds 4-5, subquadrate, rugose, non-endospermic. Flowering period: Flowers throughout the year. Fruiting period: Fruits throughout the year -- KS-TMN

• Nagathein and UKT's free translation.

Small plant, 1 to 3 feet in height. Some are of the opinion that two species that go by the name {rham:hsι:hka:kri:} (Hindi: {kyi.ra-ya.ta})and {hsι:hka:kri: (thin~Bau)} (Hindi: {ka-la.mι-Ga}) are the same. They are not. {hsι:hka:kri: (thin~Bau)} is less medicinally effective than {rham:hsι:hka:kri:}

• An erect branched annual, 1-3 feet with quadrangular stems base not pubescent; leaves 2½ by ½ - Ύ in., narrowed at both ends, ovate at base, paler beneath, flowers in racemes. -- UHM

 

Distribution in Myanmar:
• Grows wild throughout the plains. Also cultivated. -- KS-TMN
• Twante, Taunggyi reserved forest, Kalaw range (Southern Shan State), traces in Moulmein, Mudon, Rangoon, Hmawbi -- UHM

 

Part used and uses:
• Root, leaf, flower, fruit, seed -- Pediatric fevers - Diarrhoea; Head-ache; Indigestion. -- KS-TMN
• Leaves. Used as relieve griping, irregular stools, loss of appetite, general debility, dysentery, dyspepsia, febrifuge. -- UHM

 

Constituents :
1. Bitter principle Andrographolide 0.8 - 2.5 % (10) -- UHM

Contents of this page

Hygrophila phlomoides

• {mi.kyaung:kwam:hpat}

Family: Acanthaceae

Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
• Agri2000 43-1147: {mi.kyaung:kwam:hpat}
• Chklist: Burma linseed, Migyaung-kunbat
• LSR353: {mi.hkyaung:kwam:hpat}
• FAO : NL
• KS-TMN  :
• Nagathein 2-425: {mi.hkyaung:kwam:hpat}
• UHM : NL

 

Myanmar-Script Spelling
• {mi.kyaung:kwam:hpat} - MMDict232
• {mi.kyaung:kwam:hpat} /|mi. gjaun: kun: ba'|/ - n. herb, the seeds of which
   are steeped in water to make poultice. Hygrophila phlomoides -- MEDict339

Data above updated (070213) in Akshara index r5c5ma.htm

Chklist data : 070308
• Hygrophila phlomoides Nees . Habit: Herb . Distribution: Bago, Taninthayi, Yangon . Common Names: Burma linseed, Migyaung-kunbat
• Hygrophila phlomoides var. roxburghii C.B. Clarke . Habit: Herb . Distribution: Bago, Mandalay, Taninthayi, Yangon . Common Names: Burma linseed, Mi-gyaung-kun-phut

Hindi :
Sanskrit :

 

English common name used in Myanmar :
• Chklist: Burma linseed, Migyaung-kunbat

 

Picture :
• Leader -- Nagathein
• Leader, colour -- LSR353

 

Plant identification characters :

 

Distribution in Myanmar :

 

Part used and uses / Constituents :

 

Contents of this page

Rhinacanthus nasutus
R. communis Nees

Family: Acanthaceae

Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcript names:
• Agri2000 30-0786: {htau-la.pat}
• Chklist: Htaw-labat
• LSR : NL
• FAO : NL
• KS-TMN 34 : R. nasuta (L.) Kurz -- Htaw-la-butt
• Nagathein 2-059 {htau-la.pat}
• UHM : NL

Myanmar-Script Spelling
• {htau:la.pat }- -- MMDict143
• {htau:la.pat} /|hto: laba'|/ - n. small shrub, the leaves of which are used in preparing shampoo, Rhinacanthus communis -- MEDict197

Data above updated (070311) in Akshara index r4c2hta.htm

Chklist data : 060730
• Rhinacanthus communis Nees. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Bago, Magway, Mandalay, Yangon. Common Names: Htaw-labat

Hindi:
• {pa-la.ka.gyu-ti} -- Nagathein
Sanskrit:

English common name used in Myanmar :
• Agri.Dept.2000 -- NG
• Chklist: NG
• LSR : NL
• FAO -- NL
• KS-TMN -- NG
• Nagathein --  NG
• UHM -- NL

 

Picture :
• Leader from Nagathein 2-060
• Leader, photo, KS-TMN
• Photos: left -- habit with flowers, right -- habit with fruits.  Click on the pictures to enlarge. -- KS-TMN
• Whole plant and flowers   http://home.hiroshima-u.ac.jp/shoyaku/photo/Thai/thai42.jpg

 

Plant identification characters :
• An undershrub; stems subterete or obscurely angled, glabrous. Leaves opposite, decussate, simple; exstipulate; petioles short; laminae elliptic-lanceolate or elliptic - lanceolate or elliptic-oblong, the bases tapering to acute, the margins entire, undulate, the tips acute, unicostate, reticulate, the surfaces glabrous or glabrescent. Inflorescences in paniculate cymes, terminal; bracts small, ovate-lanceolate, pubescent. Flowers sessile or shortly pedicellate, bracteolate, bisexual, zygomorphic, pentamerous, hypogynous. Calyx synsepalous, 5-partite, the lobes linear-lanceolate, subequal, tomentose. Corolla synpetalous, the tube long, narrow, cylindric, scarcely widened above, the limb 2-lipped, the upper lip shortly 2-lobed, erect, the lower broad, 3-lobed, the lobes oblong, obtuse, recurved, white. Androecium polyandrous, stamens 2, inserted, epipetalous on the throat of the corolla, the filaments short, the anthers dithecous, superposed, cupular nectiferous disc present. Pistil 1, ovary ovoid, 2-carpelled, syncarpous, 2-loculed, the ovules 2 in each locule, the style filiform, the stigma minutely 2-fid. Fruit a loculicidal capsule, clavate, contracted below into a long solid cylindric stalk, 4- seeded; seeds ovoid, slightly compressed, glabrous, obscurely rugose, non-endospermic. Flowering period: May - June. Fruiting period: May - June -- KS-TMN

• Nagathein and UKT's free translation:

Small plant about 3 feet in height. Round stem. Bluish in color. Leaves: opposite, about 4 inches in length by 2 inches in width. Flowers white producing a disagreeable smell when crushed.

 

Distribution in Myanmar :
• Grows wild and cultivated throughout Myanmar -- KS-TMN

 

Part used and uses :
• Leaf juice: Heals ringworm, pimples and freckles on the face  Root bark: Aphrodisiac; Ringworm; Herpes; Skin disease; Oedema; For dyeing hair; As hair shampoo; Promotes growth of eyebrows -- KS-TMN

• Nagathein and UKT's free translation:

Hot (Nagathein probably means "heat element".) The leaf-juice heals ringworm, {ρhing:} and {ting:teip} (freckles) on the face.  Cuts. Finely ground root bark mixed with alum and black pepper is an instant cure for ringworm. Root boiled in milk is an aphrodisiac. Root bark cures {rι-yoan} (herpes), skin diseases, Oedema. (UKT: leaves are traditionally used:) For hair dyeing and as a shampoo. Gives strength to hairs of the eye-brow.

• Rhinacantus nasutus (Acanthacae) ... is a small slender shrub, 1-2 m in height. ... leaves ... for various skin problems. In India R. nasutus L.) is used in poultice for the treatment of eczema and ringworm. In Thailand a tincture either with alcohol or vinegar is prepared to cure certain forms of ringworm. In Malay Peninsula the leaves are pounded with benzoin and sulphur and the paste is applied to the area infected by ringworm. In Philippines it is traditionally used either as a sap or a decoction . [1-3]
   It was found that as ethanolic extract of R. nasutus (L.) exhibited a potent dose dependent anti-fungal activity against Candida albicans and Trichophyton mentagorphytes along with substantial anti-fungal activity against all the fungal strains tested. An anti-bacterial activity of the plant is also observed against gram-positive bacteria, however, was ineffective against gram-negative bacteria used in this study. -- Evaluation of Anti-fungal and Anti-bacterial Activity of a Local Plant Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.), Munavvar Abdul Sattar, et. al. Journal of Biological Sciences 4 (4): 498-500, 2004, ISSN 1727-3048 © 2004 Asian Network for Scientific Information. www.ansinet.org/fulltext/jbs/jbs44498-500.pdf .
UKT: See the full pdf file in TIL archives.

 

Constituents :
• Notably 4-acetonyl-3, 5-dimethoxy-p-quinol, rhinacanthin-A, rhinacanthin-D, rhinacanthin-Q, rhinacanthone, dihydro-"-lapachone, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, methyl vanillate, syrengaldehyde, lupeol, wogonin, oroxylin A, (+)-praeruptorin, allantoin, $-amyrin, stigmasterol, sitosterolstigmasterol-4-en-3-one, 2-methylanthraquinone, 2, 4-dimethoxybenzoquinone, 2-methoxy-4-propionylphenol, syringic acid, vanillic acid . [4-8]  -- Evaluation of Anti-fungal and Anti-bacterial Activity of a Local Plant Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.), Munavvar Abdul Sattar, et. al. Journal of Biological Sciences 4 (4): 498-500, 2004, ISSN 1727-3048 © 2004 Asian Network for Scientific Information. www.ansinet.org/fulltext/jbs/jbs44498-500.pdf .
UKT: See the full pdf file in TIL archives.

Contents of this page

Barleria prionitis

Family: Acanthaceae

Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcripts:
• Agri2000 54-1431: {leip-hsu:rhwι}
• Chklist: Leik-su-ywe
• LSR415 : {leip-hsu:rhwι}; {leip-tha.rhwι a.wa}:
• FAO : NL
• KS-TMN 33: Leik-sa-ywe; Leik-tha-ywe
• Nagathein 3-271: {leip-hsu:rhwι a.wa}
   Nagathein listed 4 kinds of {leip-hsu} differentiated by colors.
• UHM : NL

Myanmar-Script Spelling
• {leip-hsu:rhwι} -- -- MMDict299
• {leip-sa.rwι} /|lei' sajwei|/ -- n. See {leip-hsu:shwι} -- MEDict454
• {leip-hsu:shwι} /|lei' hsu: shwei|/ -- n. kind of thorny shrub, Barleria prionitis -- MEDict454

Data above updated (070213) in Akshara index r6c3la.htm

Chklist data : 070308
• Barleria prionitis L. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Kachin, Magway, Mandalay, Sagaing, Yangon. Common Names: Leik-su-ywe

Hindi
• {pi-li-ka.kaT-sa.reik-ya} -- Nagathein
Sanskrit

English common name used in Myanmar :
• Agri.Dept.2000 -- Not given
• Chklist:
• LSR : NL
• FAO -- NL
• KS-TMN -- Not given
• Nagathein --  Not given
• UHM -- NL

Picture :
• Leader from Nagathein 3-270
• Leader from LSR415
• Photos: left -- habit with flowers, right -- habit with fruits -- KS-TMN

 

Plant identification characters :

• A much branched shrub, usually very prickly, rarely unarmed; younger stems cylindrical or obscurely quadrangular, glabrous. Leaves opposite and decussate, simple; exstipulate; petiolate; laminae elliptic to elliptic-oblong, the bases attenuate, the margins entire, the tips cuspidate, unicostate, reticulate, the upper surfaces glabrous, the lower tawny sericeous. Inflorescences axillary cymes, 1-to 3-flowered in the lower axils, becoming spicate above; bracts foliaceous, oblong-lanceolate, spinescent, persistent. Flowers bracteolate, bracteoles spinescent, sessile, zygomorphic, bisexual, tetramerous, hypogynous. Calyx synsepalous, 4-sect in opposite pairs, the outer pair much larger, oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, the inner pair or lobes linear-lanceolate, mucronate. Corolla synpetalous, infundibuliform, 5-lobed, bilabiate, the upper lip deeply 4- lobed, the lobes oblong-obovate, the tube elongate, twice the length of lobe, puberulent without, glabrous within, yellow. Androecium polyandrous, stamens 4, 2 fertile, 2 staminodes, epipetalous, the filaments of the fertile stamens longer, exserted, the anthers dithecous, oblongoid, dehiscence longitudinal;disc large, cupular, half embracing the ovary. Pistil 1, ovary ovoid, 2-carpelled, syncarpous, 2-loculed, the ovules 2 in each locule, the placentation axile-basal, the style long and slender, the stigma bifid. Fruit a loculicidal capsule, ovoid, with a long tapering solid beak, 2-seeded; seeds ovoid, much compressed, sericeous, hairs wavy, non-endospermic. Flowering period: October-November
Fruiting period: November - January. -- KS-TMN

• Nagathein and UKT's free translation.

A small shrub. There are 4 subspecies not very much different from one another in appearance. They are differentiated by the colour of the flowers: gray, red, white and yellow.

 

 

Plant 2 to 5 feet high. Many branches. Numerous small thorns along branches and stems. Fruits also have thorns. Fruits 3/4 to 1 inch long. Leaf tips pointed, 2 to 5 inches long, and 1 1/2 to 2 inches broad. Grows profusely during rainy season. Young fruits green turning blue on maturity. Two seeds per fruit.

 

 

 

Distribution in Myanmar :
• A weed, common in dry plains -- KS-TMN

 

Part used and uses :
• Roots, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds -- Infantile diarrhoea. Root: Cellulitis . Leaf: Pyrexia; Pruritis; Ringworm; Heals boils and carbuncles; Antidote for scorpion venom; Infantile coughs and fevers; Scabies; Gonorrhoea; Cough. Leaf and stem: Heal chronic sores and ulcers -- KS-TMN

 

Constituents

 

Contents of this page

Acanthus spp.

UKT: I have accessed Chklist and USDA-NRCS to find the various species of this genus just to serve as a format for checking with them in the future.

Results of search for 'Acanthus' in the Checklist of Plants of Myanmar, U.S. National Herbarium, 18 Apr 2006. http://persoon.si.edu/myanmar/index.cfm
• Acanthus ebracteatus Vahl. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Ayeyarwady, Rakhine, Taninthayi. Common Names: Kayar, Khaya
• Acanthus ilicifolius L. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Ayeyarwady, Rakhine, Taninthayi, Yangon. Common Names: Holly-leaved acanthus, Kaya-chon, Kha-yar, Kha-yar-chon, Sea holly
• Acanthus leucostachyus Wall. Habit: Climber/Creeper. Distribution: Kachin, Sagaing. Common Names: Kha-yar
• Acanthus longibracteatus Kurz. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Bago
• Acanthus longipetiolatus Kurz. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Reported from Myanmar
• Acanthus volubilis Wall. Habit: Climber/Creeper. Distribution: Ayeyarwady, Bago, Rakhine, Taninthayi. Common Names: Kha-yar-nwe

Contents of this page

Adhatoda spp.

Results of search for 'Adhatoda' in the Checklist of Plants of Myanmar, U.S. National Herbarium, 8 Mar 2007.
• Adhatoda oreophila Fischer. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Shan
• Justicia adhatoda L. Cited as: Adhatoda vasica Nees. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Wide. Common Names: Hitingra-hpraw, Htingra-hpraw, Malabar nut tree, Malabar nut tree, Mauk-salum, Mauk-salum, Maya-gyi, May-gyi, My-yar-gyi, Ye-magyi, Ye-magyi

Contents of this page

Andrographis spp.

Results of search for 'Andrographis' in the Checklist of Plants of Myanmar, U.S. National Herbarium, 8 Mar 2007.
• Andrographis echioides Nees. Habit: Herb. Distribution: Mandalay, Sagaing
• Andrographis hygrophiloides (T. Anders.) W.J. Kress & R.A. DeFilipps. Cited as: Haplanthus hygrophiloides T. Anders. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Reported from Myanmar
• Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Wall. ex Nees . Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Kachin, Kayin, Magway, Mandalay, Sagaing . Common Names: King of bitters, Sega-gyi, Se-khar-gyi
• Andrographis tenuiflora T. Anderson . Habit: Herb . Distribution: Taninthayi

Contents of this page

Barleria spp.

Results of search for 'Barleria' in the Checklist of Plants of Myanmar, U.S. National Herbarium, 8 Mar 2007.
• Barleria arnottiana Nees. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Reported from Myanmar
• Barleria cristata L. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Wide. Common Names: Leik-tha-ywe-pya
• Barleria polytricha Wall. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Bago, Mandalay, Mon, Sagaing, Taninthayi, Yangon. Common Names: Hnithi-pan, Pyo-ma-naing
• Barleria prionitis L. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Kachin, Magway, Mandalay, Sagaing, Yangon. Common Names: Leik-su-ywe
• Barleria stenophylla Kurz. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Reported from Myanmar
• Barleria strigosa Willd. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Wide

Contents of this page

Hygrophila spp.

Results of search for 'Hygrophila' in the Checklist of Plants of Myanmar, U.S. National Herbarium, 8 Mar 2007.
• Hygrophila auriculata (Schum.) Heine . Cited as: Hygrophila spinosa T. Anderson . Habit: Herb . Distribution: Bago . Common Names: Le-padu, Le-padu, Su-padaung, Su-padaung
• Hygrophila difformis (L. f.) Blume . Cited as: Cardanthera triflora (Roxb. ex Nees) Buch.-Ham. ex Voigt.  Habit: Herb. Distribution: Bago
• Hygrophila dimidiata Nees . Habit: Herb . Distribution: Taninthayi
• Hygrophila phlomoides Nees . Habit: Herb . Distribution: Bago, Taninthayi, Yangon . Common Names: Burma linseed, Migyaung-kunbat
• Hygrophila phlomoides var. roxburghii C.B. Clarke . Habit: Herb . Distribution: Bago, Mandalay, Taninthayi, Yangon . Common Names: Burma linseed, Mi-gyaung-kun-phut
• Hygrophila polysperma (Roxb.) T. Anderson . Habit: Herb . Distribution: Mon
• Hygrophila quadrivalvis Nees . Habit: Herb . Distribution: Taninthayi, Yangon
• Hygrophila salicifolia (Vahl) Nees . Habit: Herb . Distribution: Bago, Mandalay, Yangon . Common Names: Laipin-hka
• Hygrophila schulii (F. Hamilton) M.R. & S.M. Almeida . Habit: Herb . Distribution: Shan

Contents of this page

Justicia spp.

Results of search for 'Justicia' in the Checklist of Plants of Myanmar, U.S. National Herbarium, 10 Mar 2007.
• Justicia adhatoda L. Cited as: Adhatoda vasica Nees . Habit: Herb . Distribution: Wide . Common Names: Hitingra-hpraw, Htingra-hpraw, Malabar nut tree, Malabar nut tree, Mauk-salum, Mauk-salum, Maya-gyi, May-gyi, My-yar-gyi, Ye-magyi, Ye-magyi
• Justicia alternifolia C.B. Clarke . Habit: Shrub . Distribution: Taninthayi
• Justicia andrographioides C.B. Clarke . Habit: Shrub . Distribution: Taninthayi
• Justicia argyrostachya T. Anderson . Habit: Herb . Distribution: Bago, Kachin, Shan
• Justicia atkinsoni T. Anderson . Habit: Shrub . Distribution: Bago
• Justicia boerhaaviaefolia T. Anderson . Habit: Herb . Distribution: Mon, Taninthayi .
• Justicia brandisii T. Anderson . Habit: Herb . Distribution: Bago, Kayin
• Justicia burmanica C.B. Clarke . Habit: Shrub . Distribution: Wide
• Justicia caloneura Kurz . Habit: Herb . Distribution: Kayin, Taninthayi
• Justicia carnea Lindl. . Cited as: Jacobinia carnea (Lindl.) Nichols. . Habit: Herb . Distribution: Rakhine, Taninthayi, Yangon
• Justicia dasycarpa Kurz . Habit: Herb . Distribution: Bago, Mon, Taninthayi, Yangon
• Justicia decussata Roxb. . Habit: Shrub . Distribution: Wide . Common Names: Ma-yar-thein, Nat-pan, Tamase-kyan
• Justicia diffusa Willd. . Habit: Shrub . Distribution: Bago, Kachin, Magway, Shan, Yangon
• Justicia fasciculata Nees . Habit: Shrub . Distribution: Bago, Taninthayi
• Justicia flaccida Kurz . Habit: Shrub . Distribution: Bago .
• Justicia flagelliformis C.B. Clarke . Habit: Shrub . Distribution: Taninthayi
• Justicia flava Kurz . Habit: Herb . Distribution: Mon, Taninthayi
• Justicia fragilis Wall. . Habit: Shrub . Distribution: Mon, Taninthayi
• Justicia gendarussa Burm. f. . Habit: Shrub . Distribution: Bago, Kachin, Mandalay, Shan, Taninthayi, Yangon . Common Names: Bawanet, Htingra-hpraw, Pha-wa-net
• Justicia grandifolia T. Anderson . Habit: Herb . Distribution: Mon, Taninthayi
• Justicia grossa C.B. Clarke . Habit: Shrub . Distribution: Taninthayi
• Justicia helferi C.B. Clarke . Habit: Shrub . Distribution: Taninthayi
• Justicia kurzii C.B. Clarke . Habit: Shrub . Distribution: Bago, Magway
• Justicia montana Wall. . Habit: Shrub . Distribution: Shan
• Justicia neurantha Collett & Hemsl. . Habit: Herb . Distribution: Reported from Myanmar
• Justicia patentiflora Hemsl. . Habit: Herb . Distribution: Reported from Myanmar
• Justicia procumbens L. . Habit: Shrub . Distribution: Chin, Kachin, Sagaing . Common Names: Phet-ya, Phet-yar
• Justicia simplex D. Don . Habit: Herb . Distribution: Chin, Mandalay, Yangon
• Justicia vagans Collett & Hemsl. . Habit: Herb . Distribution: Reported from Myanmar
• Justicia valida Ridl. . Habit: Shrub . Distribution: Taninthayi
• Justicia valida var. glandulosa Ridley . Habit: Shrub . Distribution: Taninthayi
• Justicia vasculosa (Nees) T. Anderson . Habit: Shrub . Distribution: Chin, Kayin, Magway, Mon, Sagaing, Taninthayi
• Justicia vasculosa var. parishii C.B. Clarke . Habit: Shrub . Distribution: Kayin, Mon, Taninthayi, Unknown
• Justicia ventricosa Wall. . Habit: Shrub . Distribution: Bago, Taninthayi
• Justicia zollingeriana C.B. Clarke . Habit: Shrub . Distribution: Taninthayi

Contents of this page

Rhinacanthus spp.

Results of search for 'Rhinacanthus' in the Checklist of Plants of Myanmar, U.S. National Herbarium, 30 Jul 2006.
• Rhinacanthus calcaratus Nees. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Rakhine
• Rhinacanthus communis Nees. Habit: Shrub. Distribution: Bago, Magway, Mandalay, Yangon. Common Names: Htaw-labat

Contents of this page

Entry format: Botanical name / Family / Ref. Burmese-Myanmar transcripts • Agri.Dept.2000 : • Chklist: • LSR : • FAO : • KS-TMN: • Nagathein : • UHM :/ Myanmar-Script Spelling ( • Official Myanmar Dictionaries : - TravPo-M-Dict - Myan-Engl-Dict - Myan-Ortho / Chklist data / Hindi / Sanskrit / English common name used in Myanmar / Picture / Plant identification characters / Distribution in Myanmar / Part used and uses / Constituents /
End of TIL file