Update: 2008-03-08 03:45 PM -0500


A History of English Language Teaching


A. P. R. Howatt. Oxford University Press. 1984, 2001.

Scanned from the printed book and edited by U Kyaw Tun, M.S. (I.P.S.T., U.S.A.). Not for sale. Prepared for staff and students of TIL Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR

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05. Spread of English language teaching in Europe
¤ Teaching of English in India and Myanmar

APR notes 05

UKT notes
digraphEast India CompanyFigures 12 to 14George I of Great BritainHuguenotteaching of foreign languages in Myanmar 

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05. Spread of English language teaching in Europe

The teaching of English as a foreign language was a rather less common activity in Britain during the eighteenth century than it had been in the seventeenth. The religious and political upheavals which had brought large numbers of foreigners to Britain during the two periods of Huguenot exile did not occur again until the arrival of the emigrés in the aftermath of the French Revolution in the 1790s. The interest abroad in English philosophy and literature that had prompted the grammars of writers like John Wallis continued to grow, but the textbooks needed to teach the language were no longer written by native speakers. Wallis and his contemporaries had written in Latin and its decline as a scholastic lingua franca left their successors without a generally recognized means of communication with foreign readers. There was, however, a shift of interest among grammarians themselves and a growing demand for mother tongue grammars to meet the needs of the new English Schools which were expanding in competition with the traditional Latin Schools (see Chapter 10).

None of this meant a slackening of interest in learning English abroad, however. It grew, slowly at first and rather more quickly after the middle of the century , spreading out from Britain in a kind of 'ripple effect'. First there were the countries immediately bordering the Channel: France, the Netherlands, Denmark, and Germany, all of which had examples of locally-produced English grammars before 1700. Then came the 'outer circle' of the Mediterranean and Baltic countries, finishing in the late eighteenth century with Russia, and in 1797 the first non-European textbook for teaching English appeared in Serampore in Bengal. The map (Fig. 10) illustrates this pattern clearly, though the fact that it is based on publications (derived from the Alston Bibliography) may well mask earlier local activity.

English as a foreign language, for speakers of:
     1. Before 1600 -- French, Low-Dutch, Flemish
     2. 1600 - 1700 -- German, Danish, Norwegian
     3. 1700 - 1750 --  Italian, Swedish, Portuguese
     4. 1750 - 1800 -- Spanish, Russian
Dates based on earlier locally produced textbooks mentioned
in R. C. Alston (ed.) Bibliography, Vol. II (1967)

As we have already seen, the teaching of English outside Britain had begun in the Netherlands and the tradition had continued strongly throughout the seventeenth century reflecting the closeness, if not always the amity, between the two nations. Alston mentions, for instance, the Elizabethan-sounding English Schoolmaster published anonymously in Amsterdam in 1646, a manual by François Hillenius called Den Engelschen ende Ne'erduitschen Onderrichte... The  [{p062begin}]  English and Low-Dutch Instructor (Rotterdam 1664, and reissued five times before 1686), J. G. van Heldoran's Een nieuwe en gemakkelijke Engelsche Spraakkonst ... A new and easy English Grammar (Amsterdam 1675) and, in the eighteenth century, a very popular book reissued many times called Korte Wegwyzer der Engelsche Taale ... A Compendious Guide to the English Language by William Sewell published in Amsterdam in 1705.

France was the only other European country besides the Netherlands with a history of English language teaching before 1600. The seventeenth-century textbooks such as Festeau's Nouvelle Grammaire Angloise of 1672 and Miège's Nouvelle Méthode of 1685 were both reissued in the form of double-grammars, Festeau with Mauger in 1693 and Miège with Boyer in 1718. Both were successful, particularly the latter which came out for the first time in the Netherlands, an important printing centre, and was republished in Paris in 1745. [{p063begin}]

Figure 11. (Ref.05.01):


In the second half of the century the two most successful courses were V. J. Peyton's Elements of the English Language, explained in a new, easy, and concise manner, by way of dialogue (1761, and sixteen editions before the end of the century including one in Philadelphia in 1792), and Siret's Élémens de la Langue Angloise, ou méthode pratique pour apprendre facilement cette langue (originally published in Paris in 1773). Siret's course appeared in eighteen editions before 1800 and the last edition mentioned in Alston was as late as 1877. Like Peyton, Siret was also published in Philadelphia in 1792.

Many learners of English acquired the language through the medium of French. It was the language of the Enlightenment, spoken by the largest and most powerful nation on the continent. Most important works originally written in English found their way into a French translation and thus gained a wider audience. However, for some people, this was an inadequate and unsatisfactory way of studying English philosophy and literature and they attempted to learn the language so that they could read it at first-hand. Also, as we have already seen in discussing the work of Comenius and Wallis, England was regarded among 'progressive' theological and intellectual circles as a country of more than usual interest from which challenging new ideas in divinity and philosophy could be expected. After the Restoration and the failure of the Puritan experiment, this interest may have waned a little, but the development of the Baconian tradition of pragmatic philosophy in the work of John Locke and, later, David Hume, continued to attract the interest of foreigners. Britain was in some respects a political maverick, even vaguely 'subversive' in a century of hierarchies and absolute monarchs. After a 'glorious' revolution that resolved itself in the creation of a constitutional curiosity, the joint-monarchy of William and Mary, and a dynastic switch that had passed off with scarcely a murmur of dissent, Britain was the object of some envy among those frustrated by the claims of continental absolutism. King George I's benign lack of both charisma and English proved positively beneficial and new forms of state power and patronage began to emerge round the ministers of the Crown, providing the romantic House of Stuart with very little hope of success outside the Catholic-Celtic fringe. Green (1964) describes this fascination with things English among members of the French intelligentsia as 'Anglomania' and it prompted a healthy trade in French translations of English books printed in the Netherlands and smuggled over the border into France.

UKT: It should be noted that George I of Britain was German to boot. He was imported from Germany to be placed on the British throne. At age 54 he was too old to learn the language of his subjects, but his accession to the British throne and events leading to it would have raised an interest in the English language in Europe especially in France and Germany.

The real breakthrough for the English language came towards the end of the century in Germany where an interest, almost an obsession, grew up round the dramatic works of English literature, and particularly Shakespeare. As the map shows, there was a regular pattern of interest in English among Germans throughout the century and then a sudden [{p065}] explosion of publications in the last twenty years. Among the earlier works was Henry Offelen's Double-Grammar for Germans to Learn English and for Englishmen to Learn the German Tongue (1687), a book discussed in a bicentenary article by Vietor in Englische Studien in 1887. (Ref.05.02)  Johann Konig's Volkommener Englischer Wegweiser für Hoch-Teutsche (1706) is of some interest since it was later translated into Danish and also Swedish, and therefore counts as one of the earliest English courses in use in Scandinavia. König (who liked to anglicize his name to John King) was a teacher of German in London and the Wegweiser , as the name suggests, is a practical guide to the language including everyday dialogues and model letters. It also provides a City Guide to London for travellers and visitors. Theodor Arnold's Grammatica Anglicana Concentrata, oder Kurz-gefasste englische Grammatik (Summary of English Grammar) (1718) is another course that achieved a considerable number of new editions during the century. When the Germans turned from the formal classicism of French drama and its measured Alexandrines to the free-wheeling lyricism and passionate romanticism of Shakespeare and other English dramatists, interest in learning the language quickened and it even began to earn a place for itself in the schools towards the end of the century. There was a strong interest among German textbook writers in English phonology and prosody which reflected these concerns, for example Ebers' Englische Sprachlehre fur die Deutschen (1792) has the subtitle 'following Sheridan's and Walker's basic rules', and Alston lists a large number of smaller works devoted to stress and rhythm in English. As well as new editions of older works by men like. König and Arnold, grammars appeared in large numbers from about 1780 onwards, by Sammer (1783), Moritz (1784), Canzler (1787), Ebers (1792), Köhler (1799) and Fick (1793 ) , who wrote the first of the new grammar-translation method courses which we shall look at in more detail later.

Denmark completed the 'inner circle' of neighbouring countries with a grammar by Frideric Bolling in 1678. Moving to the 'outer circle', interest is evident first in Italy with a grammar called Gramatica Inglese per gl'Italiani by Ferdinando Altieri, published in Livorno in 1728. Altieri was a teacher of Italian in London, his principal customers being young noblemen about to set out on the Grand Tour. Another Italian teacher was one Evangelista Palermo who wrote a particularly entertaining textbook called The Amusing Practice of the Italian Language (1779). The first part consists of 'a choice Collection of humorous Stories, Bon-Mots, smart Repartees, etc.' in which 'are inserted some well-digested Grammatical Notes'. In the second part there are Italian stories to translate into English and in the third part 'some very pretty Novels' to translate into Italian. In addition, there are thirty-six 'familiar Dialogues', mainly to do with travelling and ensuring social success during the trip to Italy. It is nice to see the Florionian [{p066begin}] touch is still alive: 'Two Gentlemen admire the Beauty of a Lady' is one dialogue; others include 'Two Gentlemen in a Coffee House' and 'Between an Italian Master and a Young Lady his Scholar'. Ironically, many of Palermo's pupils will have been well-bred young girls who would never have gone off on Italian adventures like the heroes in the dialogues. The travelling sounds pretty tough going sometimes, what with lazy postilions and bumpy roads. The most successful English course in eighteenth-century Italy was a dialogue textbook called Nuova e Facile Grammatica della Lingua Inglese (New and Easy English Course) (1766) by a Carmelite priest called Eduardo Barker.

Still on the 'outer circle', Portugal showed an interest in English earlier than Spain, possibly because of its status as 'our oldest ally', with Jacob de Castro's Grammatica Lusitano-Anglica, a double-grammar published in London in 1731. The earliest grammar for Spanish speakers mentioned by Alston was written by an expatriate native speaker called Thomas Connelly and appeared in Madrid in 1784. There had, however, been a much earlier publication in both Portuguese and Spanish brought out in 1662 by James Howell to coincide with the marriage of Charles II to Catherine of Braganza called A New English Grammar prescribing certain Rules as the language will bear for Foreigners to learn English. It contains practical dialogue material, including 'a perambulation of Spain and Portugal, which may serve for a direction how to travel through both countries'.

Apart from the early grammar by Bolling (1678) already mentioned, there appear to have been few, if any, original English textbooks in Scandinavia until the 1740s (though a translation of König's course had appeared in Stockholm around 1730). Et Kort och Tydeliget Begrep af en Engelsk Grammatica (A Short and Clear Outline of an English Grammar) by Lorents Jul. Kullin was published in Stockholm in 1744, followed four years later by Ifvar Kraak's Essay on a Methodical English Grammar for the Swedes (Gothenburg, 1748). In Denmark Carl Bertram produced Rudimenta Grammaticae Anglicanae (1749) followed by a reader in 1751 and the Royal English-Danish Grammar in 1753. Textbooks continued to appear during the rest of the century, but they were mainly small-scale studies and practice manuals of specific features of English rather than major courses and grammars.

Finally, there was Russia, which was in some respects a special case. The country veered between a determined self-sufficiency in which foreigners were unwelcome, and 'openings to the West', when they were invited in large numbers. French was, of course, the principal foreign language and approached the status of a second language among the aristocracy and nobility, a tradition of Francophilia that lasted for a long time. It is interesting to read, in Sweet for instance, that the Russians had the reputation of being particularly 'good at languages', rather as the Scandinavians and Dutch do today. However, as Sweet said [{p67begin}] 'the Russians were obliged to be good linguists, partly because their retarded civilization obliged them to be imitative and adaptive with regard to the older civilizations of Western Europe, partly because the newness and inaccessibility of their own language prevented foreigners from acquiring it', and he concluded, 'we may safely prophesy that as the national life of the Russians develops, they will become worse and worse linguists'. (Ref.05.03)

The principal role of English was in naval affairs and the earliest books for teaching the language were written for the cadets at the Naval Academy for Young Noblemen in St. Petersburg. The first course mentioned by Alston is a translation from an unknown English original made by Mikhail Permskii in 1766 called Prakticheskaya Angliskaya Grammatika (Practical English Grammar) followed by Prokhov Ivanovich Zhdanov's Angliska Grammatika (1772), both authors being members of staff of the Academy. Zhdanov was obviously a leading author since he produced a second course four years later, also a translation, this time from an original by Thomas Dilworth called New Guide to the English Tongue (1751). Intended for young learners, it contains a number of everyday phrases and dialogues as well as more descriptive material. Finally, there was a rather more academic approach by Vasilii Stepanovich Kryazhev in two grammars, Rukovodstvo k aglinskomu yazyku (Handbook of English Grammar) (1791) and Aglinskaya Grammatika (English Grammar) {1795). These textbooks were written for 'pupils of noble birth at the pension of the Imperial University of Moscow' and used a catechistic technique of question-and-answer:


Presumably the slightly curious list of exceptions includes the names of  foreign teachers at the university.

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¤ Teaching of English in India and Myanmar

I should like to close this survey of the spread of English language teaching in the eighteenth century on a completely different note with a book that was not produced in Europe at all but in India. Published in Serampore in 1797 and printed by the author John Miller himself, The Tutor is possibly the earliest example of a book written to teach English in what would today be called the Third World. It is one of Alston's most fascinating discoveries, the only known copy being in the library of Calcutta University. [{See my note on teaching of foreign languages in Myanmar .}]

The Tutor, or a New English and Bengalee Work, well adapted to [{p068begin}] teach the natives English, to give Miller's book its full title, begins, as one would expect, with the English alphabet, but also includes features that only a printer's professional eye would notice, namely the special digraphs used for fi, fl, and so on. [{See my note on digraph.}] Next it moves on to the teaching of pronunciation and uses a technique which is unusual for the time, a kind of phonic practice which Miller may possibly have experienced as a child learning to read at home. He provides extensive lists of phonetically contrastive sets, for example, lip, nip, pip, rip, sip, and so on, and includes 'nonsense syllables' for further practice. The following list is particularly interesting. It shows quite clearly that Miller was working phonetically, and not orthographically, as most of his more academically educated contemporaries would have done:

chur, scur, spur, ker, fir, stir, bur, cur, hur, pur, blur, tlur, spur , (Ref.05.05)

Miller's vocabulary list, which follows next, is also remarkable for the period in that it avoids all the 'worthy' and 'over-literate' words which other authors of the time would almost certainly have included as evidence of their own erudition and to 'improve' the natives. ¶UKT

UKT: The time line of Miller's book must be taken into account in drawing conclusions. It was in the days of East India Company, an infamous company, which was instrumental in bringing Britain and Myanmar into military conflicts in the 19th Century which culminated in the final annexation of Myanmar country by Britain in 1887.

Miller's word-list is amazingly modern and practical as a result. It is arranged in alphabetical order with Bengali translation equivalents. Here is part of the list for the letter T : tin, trip, them, then, try, thy, that, thus, tar, trap, and thin. (Ref.05.06)  The inclusion of thy betrays the only area of language teaching where Miller's self-confidence and commonsense deserts him, the grammar. Presumably he was trying to recall what he had been taught at school and he provides some rather curious paradigms and lists. For example, he has a list of 'Verbs Neuter' which includes to me, to you, to him, to us, to her, and to it, which is an oddly-named set, and also omits to them. Under 'Active Verbs' he gives the past tense of be but not the present. His paradigm for to speak seems to be traditional enough, but includes the arcane he speaketh, as well as thou speakest. The inclusion of thou is understandable since it provided a parallel form for the Bengali, but speaketh had been dropped from even the most old-fashioned English grammars by the end of the eighteenth century .

The grammar, however, is incidental to the main content of the book which is a set of practical dialogues relating to river-boat trading (see Fig.13).

At the end of the book there is some handwriting practice based on a rather nostalgic set of sampler sentences that Miller must have recalled from early childhood:

Delight and some care,
  will make us write fair
Good manners in a lad,
  will make his parents glad
Fraud in childhood,
  will become knavery in manhood
and so on (see Fig.14). ¶UKT

UKT: See my notes on the Figures 12 to 14.

After the straightforward practicality of the vocabulary lists and the dialogues, these copperplate mottoes seem strangely inappropriate, but perhaps they served their purpose well enough.

The appearance of Miller's Tutor is an appropriate place at which to [{p069begin to p071begin}] bring this part of the story to a close. Prom this point on, the history of English language teaching forks into two streams which, for over a century, have little if anything to do with each other. One follows the path of imperial expansion and traces the role that English was destined to play in the development of education in the Empire. This is a vast subject that requires a separate series of studies in its own right. The other, to which we shall return in Part Three, is more limited in scope and is primarily concerned with the response of language teaching methodology to educational and social change in nineteenth-century Europe.

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APR notes 05

Ref.05.01 Source: Alston (1967). Ref05-01b

Ref.05.02 Englische Studien, X, 1887,361-6. Ref05-02b

Ref.05.03  Sweet (1899/1964: 81). Ref05-03b

Ref.05.04. Kryazhev (1795: 72). The original is in Russian. He also used a semi-phonetic transcription not reproduced in the text. See Alston (1967), II, Plate CXVLI. Ref05-04b

Ref.05.05 Miller (1797: 11). Ref05-05b

Ref.05.06 Ibid.: 33. Ref05-06b

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UKT notes


by UKT

digraph n. 1. A pair of letters representing a single speech sound, such as the ph in pheasant or the ea in beat. 2. A single character consisting of two letters run together and representing a single sound, such as Old English æ. digraphic adj. -- AHTD

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East India Company

• Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_East_India_Company 080308
   UKT: The Wikipedia's article is quite extensive. I have taken only the parts that are relevant to events relating to Ava Kingdom (Myanmar) in the 18th and 19th centuries.

The Honourable East India Company (HEIC), often colloquially referred to as "John Company", and simply as the East India Company or the "Company Bahadur" in India, was an early joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). It was granted an English Royal Charter by Elizabeth I on December 31, 1600, with the intention of favouring trade privileges in India. The Royal Charter effectively gave the newly created HEIC a 21 year monopoly on all trade in the East Indies. The Company transformed from a commercial trading venture to one that virtually ruled India and other Asian colonies as it acquired auxiliary governmental and military functions, until its dissolution in 1858 following the events of the Indian Rebellion of 1857.

... ... ...

At this time, Britain and France became bitter rivals. Frequent skirmishes between them took place for control of colonial possessions. In 1742, fearing the monetary consequences of a war, the British government agreed to extend the deadline for the licensed exclusive trade by the Company in India until 1783, in return for a further loan of £1 million. The skirmishes did escalate to the feared war. Between 1756 and 1763, the Seven Years' War diverted the state's attention towards consolidation and defence of its territorial possessions in Europe and its colonies in North America. The war also took place on Indian soil, between the Company troops and the French forces. In 1757, the Law Officers of the Crown delivered the Pratt-Yorke opinion distinguishing oversease territories acquired by conquest from those acquired by private treaty. The opinion asserted that, while the Crown of Great Britain enjoyed sovereignty over both, only the property of the former was vested in the Crown.

... ... ...

The Seven Years' War (1756 – 1763) resulted in the defeat of the French forces and limited French imperial ambitions, also stunting the influence of the industrial revolution in French territories. Robert Clive, the Governor General, led the Company to an astounding victory against Joseph François Dupleix, the commander of the French forces in India, and recaptured Fort St George from the French. The Company took this respite to seize Manila in 1762. By the Treaty of Paris (1763), the French were allowed to maintain their trade posts only in small enclaves in Pondicherry, Mahe, Karikal, Yanam, and Chandernagar without any military presence. ... the Company, fresh from a colossal victory, and with the backing of a disciplined and experienced army, was able to assert its interests in the Carnatic from its base at Madras and in Bengal from Calcutta, without facing any further obstacles from other colonial powers.

UKT: It was the British forces under Earl Amherst (Governor General , Aug 1823 to Mar 1828) that fought Ava forces under Bandula who fell in battle culminating in the British taking over the Arakan and Tanassarim coasts from Myanmar. The town of Kyaik-hka-mi, in the conquered Tenasserim was named Amherst. (historical events needs to be checked.).
(Dates relating to Amherst, including title 'Earl' from: http://rajbhavankolkata.nic.in/PDF/CHAPTERVI.pdf 080308)
The following is from Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Amherst,_1st_Earl_Amherst 080308

William Pitt Amherst, 1st Earl Amherst GCH (1773-1857), was Governor-General of India. He was the nephew of Jeffrey Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst, and succeeded to his title in 1797 by the remainder provided when the letters patent was renewed in 1788.

... ... ...

Amherst held the office of Governor-General of British India from August 1823 to February 1828. The principal event of his government was the first Burmese war of 1824, resulting in the cession of Arakan and Tenasserim to the British Empire.

... ... ...

... Not willing to lose face in a time of Burmese territorial aggression, when a territorial dispute that he inherited from John Adam, acting Governor-General prior to his arrival, involving the Anglo-Burmese border on the Naaf River spilled over into violence on Sep 24, 1823, he ordered the troops in.

The war was to take two years, with 15,000 killed on the British side and cost 13 million pounds, contributing to an economic crisis in India. It was only due to the efforts of powerful friends such as George Canning and the Duke of Wellington that he was not recalled in disgrace at the end of the war. The war significantly changed Amherst's stance on Burma, now adamantly refusing to annex Lower Burma, but did not repair his reputation entirely, and he was replaced in 1828.

He was created Earl Amherst, of Arracan in the East Indies, and Viscount Holmesdale, in the County of Kent, in 1826. On his return to England he lived in retirement till his death in March 1857.

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Figures 12 to 14

UKT: Text in italics are from Howatt. The rest are mine. -- 080308

Figure 12. Title-page from John Miller's The Tutor, printed by the  author in Serampore in Bengal in 1797. It is possibly the earliest textbook for the teaching of English in what today would be called the Third World.  

Figure 13. An extract from one of the dialogues from Miller's The Tutor, depicting the work of river traders in the Ganges delta. Presumably, these commercial activities were important in the lives of his students.

UKT: Miller was presumably training Bengali clerks in the employ of the East India Company which was engaged in the Indian trade. The company had very little interest in the lives of the people of the so-called Third World. Rice trade was one of the activities of the company. The company was also actively stirring up political trouble with a view to getting monopolistic rights in trade from the then independent Indian kings or Rajas, including the one in Assam and Manipur where tea was grown, and the Burmese kingdom in Ava. It was the very tea-trade that resulted in the Boston Tea Party in North America. Eventually, it was the East India Company that was running the opium trade in China culminating in the Opium Wars.

Figure 14. A set of sentences for handwriting practice from Miller's The Tutor. Uncharacteristically, Miller did not attempt to adjust the content of the sentences to local interests and conditions.

UKT: The modern reader reading the handwriting should note the way in which <s> is written in the line "Delight and some care". This is the kind of handwriting, clerks in the service of the British Raj had been trained to write especially on certificates such as the degree certificate that I have received from Rangoon University in 1955. The certificate in my hand was written on parchment paper. Incidentally the very certificate was written by my own uncle U Ba Myaing, though a Burmese, was trained by Bengali clerks before the Second World War.

UKT: It would be fair to comment that Miller was not actually teaching English to Bengalis, whom the British Raj found to be very meticulous in handwriting and arithmetic. The Bengalis imported into Burma during the British rule were employed as clerks, and government departments such as the Office of the Auditor General and the Office of Accountant General (AG) were staffed by Bengalis. Even after the independence from Britain, the Burmese Government was obliged to retain the services of the Bengalis in AG, and in the Rangoon University accounts department. I had the chance to work as a clerk in AG Pension department, where I met one Bengali office superintendents. Since all those who had served the British Raj were still drawing their pensions, there was close cooperation between the Bengal AG of the Government of India. I, as a lower-division clerk in the Burmese AG had the chance to play very small parts in pension cases being handled jointly by the Bengal AG and the Burma AG in 1951-1952.

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George I of Great Britain

From Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_I_of_Great_Britain 080308

George I (George Louis, 1660-1727) was King of Great Britain and Ireland, from 1714 until his death. He was also a Prince-Elector of the Holy Roman Empire.

Born in Germany, he eventually inherited control of a large swathe of Lower Saxony, and his domains expanded during his lifetime as the result of a succession of European wars. At the age of 54 [{to old to learn English}], he ascended the British throne as the first monarch of the House of Hanover. Though many aspirants to the throne bore a closer relationship to his predecessor, Queen Anne, his mother, Sophia, had been designated heir by the Act of Settlement 1701 because of her Protestant faith. Sophia predeceased Anne by a matter of weeks, leaving the Protestant succession to George. The Jacobites attempted to depose George and replace him with Anne's Catholic half-brother, James, but their attempts failed.

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From: Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Huguenot 080307

From the 16th to the 18th century the name Huguenot was applied to a member of the Protestant Reformed Church of France, historically known as the French Calvinists.

Used originally as a term of derision, the derivation of the name Huguenot remains uncertain. It may have been a French corruption of the German word Eidgenosse, meaning a Confederate, perhaps in combination with a reference to the name Besançon Hugues (d 1532). Geneva was John Calvin's adopted home and the center of the Calvinist movement. In Geneva, Hugues was the leader of the "Confederate Party," so called because it favored an alliance between the city-state of Geneva and the Swiss Confederation. This theory of origin has support from the alleged fact that the label Huguenot was first applied in France to those conspirators (all of them aristocratic members of the Reformed Church) involved in the Amboise plot of 1560: a foiled attempt to transfer power in France from the influential House of Guise, a move which would have had the side-effect of fostering relations with the Swiss. Thus, Hugues plus Eidgenosse becomes Huguenot, with the intention of associating the Protestant cause with some very unpopular politics

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teaching of foreign languages in Myanmar

by UKT
See Sangermano's The Burmese Empire a hundred years ago . First published 1833. Reprinted: 1995 ISBN 974-89219-2-1, published by White Orchid Press, Thailand. Edited and set in html by UKT and TIL staff in 2004. on TIL website. http://www.tuninst.net/Myanmar/Hist_Sangermano/indx-sanger.htm#Top

One is tempted to find out what was the situation of teaching foreign languages in Myanmar during the time when John Miller was printing his book The Tutor in India in 1797. We know that a very able missionary named Father Sangermano was in the country and he had established a college in Yangon (Rangoon) and a few Myanmar graduates of this school went to continue their studies in Italy. Surely, there must have been books written for teaching of foreign languages. The following is an excerpt from A Description of the Burmese Empire by Father Sangermano, translated by Tandy, W. (Susil Gupta, London), 5th ed. 1966, pp.311: 

"Sangermano’s residence in Ava and Rangoon from 1783 to 1806 (23 years) while the Burman monarchy was in full power and undismembered, enabled him to understand the Burman and Talaing nations. He was one of the earliest types of Christian missionaries who, in order to influence the people, set themselves to study their languages, literatures and institutions. ... I may add to what is said of Sangermano’s life in the Prefaces to the two earlier editions the notice of him written by Major Symes: "Among the foreigners who came to pay their respects to the English gentleman was an Italian missionary, named Vincentious Sangermano, who had been deputed to this country, about twenty years before, by the Society de Propaganda: he seemed a very respectable and intelligent man, spoke and wrote the Birman language fluently, and was held in high estimation by the natives for his exemplary life and inoffensive manners. His congregation consisted of the descendants of former Portugese colonists, who, though numerous, are in general very poor; they, however, had erected a neat chapel, and purchased for their pastor a piece of ground a mile from the town, on which a neat, comfortable dwelling was built and a garden enclosed. He is indebted for his subsistence to voluntary contributions of his flock; in return for their charity he educates their children, instructs them in the tenets of the Romish faith, and perform mass twice a day at the chapel. ... " It seems to be the fact that Symes and Sangermano went into matters of learning in their talks. ... He (Sangermano) is treated as an authority by Bigandet and every writer on Burma. He is cited also by Dr. Kern and most historians of Buddhism. ..."

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