Update: 2020-07-03 06:33 PM -0400


Folk Elements in Burmese Buddhism


Maung Htin Aung. Printed and published by U Myint Maung, Deputy Director, Regd: No (02405/02527) at the Religious Affairs Dept. Press. Yegu, Kaba-Aye P.O., Rangoon, BURMA. 1981.

Copied, set in HTML, and edited by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA), and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

Note: This is an extensive work, and each section is updated on different dates.

index.htm | Top

Contents of this page

00. Preface | Foreword - ch00pre-for.htm
------ update 170731, 200702 
01. Folk Elements in Buddhism : dissension - ch01.htm
------ update 170731
  01.01. Paritta as Esoteric Buddhism - ch01-1.htm - update 170731
------ update 170731
  01.02. Paritta chants - ch01-2.htm
------ to be updated later 
02. Nine Gods - ch02.htm
  02.01. Nine Gods in 21st century - ch02-1.htm
   & construction of a banana-stem monastery
  02.02. Offerings - ch02-2.htm

- 200702: the following still to be linked
(The following are yet to be rewritten, Romabama checked, and HTML edited. Since it involves a lot of labour and time, I will have to leave it for another time. -- 130218)
   Ghoramanta (alias) Goravinda (a Burmese god?) - ghoramanta.htm (link chk 150826)
   Tiger - weretiger.htm - (link chk 150826)
I have lost the following files: links do not work anymore
   Thurathati-goddess - saras-thantun.htm link: folk elements/saraswati/saras-thantun.htm
   - saras-india.htm link: folk elements/saraswati/saras-india.htm
   - saras-japan.htm link: folk elements/saraswati/japan.htm
   Thurathati-river - where-mystery.htm link: folk elements/saraswati/where-mystery.htm

03. Feast of the New Year - ch03-new-yr.htm
  03.01. Feast of the New Year in Thailand - new-yr-thai.htm

04. Cult of Alchemy - ch04-alchem.htm
  04.01. Metallurgy - metal.htm | iron-Pagan.htm
05. Cult of Magus - ch05-magus.htm
  05.01. Cult of Runes (part of ch05-magus.htm)
   Masters of the Buddhist Occult: the Burmese Weikzas - weikza.htm
   (UKT: Though this work is full of mistakes, I am including it, to show how a scholarly article can be misleading.)
   I am preparing an article "Weikzas of the Right-hand Path and Kaw of the Left-hand Path", from:
   Soans and Bilus , see: MC-indx.htm > MCc1pp-indx.htm > p072R.htm

06. Lord of the Great Mountain - ch06-1-mahagiri.htm - update 170731 
  06.01. Byatwi-Byatta - ch06-2-byat.htm - update 170731
  06.02. Nat-lhaung Kyaung - nat-prison.htm - lost link
  06.03. Festivals of Lights, from appendex - ch06a-lightfest.htm - update 170731
07. Thirty-seven Lords: list  - ch07-nat-list.htm
  07.01. Thirty-seven Lords: - ch07-0408.htm
  07.02. Thirty-seven Lords: - ch07-0922.htm
  07.03. Thirty-seven Lords: - ch07-2333.htm
  07.04. Analysis of 36-Lords (except Thagyamin) - ch07-anal36.htm
  07.05. Images of 37-Nats according to R. C. Temple - RC-Temple37.htm
      UKT 140719: I may add Cult of Mdaw with excerpts
      from Goddesses in Ancient India by P. K. Agrawla,
      Bennaras Hindu Univ., Abhinav Publications, 1st. ed. 1984, pp.145
  07.06. Cult of Naga - ch07-cult-naga.htm
08. Initiation Ceremonies - 08-initia.htm
09. Ari Monks and the Introduction of Buddhism - ch09-ari.htm
10. Bibliography (part of ch09-ari.htm)

"A Half-full glass" and "An Half-empty glass",
though in reality are the same
is not the same to the hearer.
What Dr. Htin Aung has written,
and my review on his work, a dissension,
are bound to effect the reader differently.
I present my views, on my bended knees, to my respected elder,
and our common teacher Professor U Po Tha :
they are no longer living, yet they still do in my humble heart. -- UKT130218

Note to myself: I have split MYANMAR into 5 folders.
Folk Elements in Buddhism -- you are in this folder now.
General -- myn-indx.htm
Geography & Geology -- geo-indx.htm
Prehistory -- prehist-indx.htm
Unified Myanmarpr before the British incursion -- sanger-indx.htm
Some files which were attached to Dr.HtinAung's book before the split
are still to be to attached.
Libray index - not included in the internet version - LibRBM4M.htm
Collected papers in the library of RBM4M.
CD versions of RBM4M contains a library of resources which is excluded from the internet version to protect the copyrights of the authors.


UKT notes
- 130110: Myanmar spellings in both Myanmar script and in Romabama and are included. Romabama spellings are within { }, and words within < > are regular English words. Whenever a paragraph in an original  text appears to be unnecessarily long, or when there is a need to insert a lengthy explanation, I have split up the paragraph marking the place with the mark, [UKT ] .
   Now that I know just a wee bit of Sanskrit language written in Devanagari script (Skt-Dev), I will give the Skt-Dev words which are supposed to be Pali-Myanmar by people of Myanmarpr. Those who speak Hindi and Sanskrit must take care that they do not use the IAST (International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration), and the IPA (International Phonetic Assoc.) transcription, but use only the Romabama transcription (which is very close to pronunciation).
Doggie's Tale : copy & paste

Contents of this page


- in Bur-Myan (Burmese-Myanmar)
Ancient Myanmar History,
   Dr. Than Tun, {ma.ha-da.gaon sa-p htoat-w-r:}, Yangon, 1969
   Klein, W, Apa Productions (HK) Ltd, 1981
Early History of Nat-worship in Myanmar
   by Min Si Thu, (in Burmese), 2nd printing, {shw-daung:taung sa-p}, Yangon, 2004.
Glass-Palace - The Glass Palace Chronicles,
   written in 1819 to 1837, repub. by Min. of Info., Myanmar Gov., 4th reprint in Bur-Myan, in 3 volumes.
The Glass Palace Chronicle, Mandalay Royal Printing Press, 1829. 4th printing in 1993 by Information Ministry, Myanmar.
Historical Pagan Pagodas, U Than Hsw, {sa-p-bi-maan} Press, Yangon, 1975
Maha Razawin Gyi
   U Kalar, Hanthawaddy Press 4th printing 1962
Method of Nine-god Puja
   U Sein Pe, {shw-t-sa-p-teik}, Yangon, 1982
MMDict - MLC Travelling Pocket Myanmar Dictionary, 
   Bur-Myan to Bur-Myan)  by MLC, 1999, pp 401.
MOrtho - MLC Myanmar Orthography,
   U Tun Tint editor, Myanmar Language Commission (MLC), 1986, pp292
ModPMDict - Modern Pali-Myanmar Dictionary
   by {a.rhing Dam~math~tha-mi-Bi.wn-tha.}, Yangon, 2005, pp938 - in Bur-Myan
PMDict - Compendium Pali Dictionary {pa-Li. a.Bi.Daan-hkyoap},
   by {l-ti-paN~i.ta.} U Maung Gyi, Rangoon, 1966, pp.524 - in Bur-Myan
Myanmar Razawin (approved school text}
   by U Ba Than, 1st printing 1929, 8th printing by {eis~hsa-tha.ya.} press, 1964
Myanmar Thudda, vol. 1 to 5 in Bur-Myan, Text-book Committee,
   Basic Edu., Min. of Edu., Myanmar, ca. 1986
Pali-thak-Dict - Pali-derived terms {pa-Li.thak wau:ha-ra. a.Bi.Daan}
  U Tun Myint, assist. editor, Universities Translation and Publication No.31, 1968
"Pali Lessons" Module {a.ra.}-111{ka.}, (in Burmese) Univ. of Distance Education, 1999.
"Pali Lessons" Module {a.ra.}-1001 Pali grammar, (in Burmese)
   Yangon Univ. of Distance Education, 2003
Than Tun, Dr. - Professor and Head of Department of History, Mandalay University
     (my associate during my university service in Mandalay) - an authority on Pagan
Thirty-seven Kings (in Burmese)
     U Po Kya, 1st printing 1937, 2nd printing by {pa-ra.mi sa-p} 1999, pp.146
Thirty-seven Nat Puja (in Burmese)
     by Min Rama U Ohn Maung, {a.theing:a.wun: sa-p}, Yangon, 1992
Traditional Nat Cult , 2nd ed. (in Burmese),
     by U Khin Maung Than, {ping-wa:ron sa-p}, Yangon, 2001
Tun Tint, U - editor (retd.), MLC
     (my close friend and advisor on matters relating to Myanmar literature, culture and history)
UHS-PaliDict - {pa.dat~hta.mi-tha} Pali-Myanmar Dictionary - U Hoke Sein, 1999, pp1180

- in Bur-Myan and English-Latin
MEDict - MLC Myanmar English Dictionary - MLC, 1993, pp 635
UHS-Dict - Universal Burmese-English-Pali Dictionary - U Hoke Sein, First edition, 1980, pp1064 .
UML-USL-Dict - A Pali-Myanmar-English Dictionary of the Noble Words of the Lord Buddha,
  - U Myat Kyaw and U San Lwin, 2002, pp306

- in Skt-Dev (Sanskrit speech written in Devanagari script)
A. A. Macdonell A Practical Sanskrit dictionary, 1893. MC-indx.htm - continuing work
Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English dictionary, 1899. MW-indx.htm - complete
TIL Sanskrit dictionary (in akshara-order) -- SED-indx.htm

- in English-Latin
AHTD. American Heritage Talking Dictionary
Burmese Grammar and Grammatical Analysis (Lonsdale 1899)
by A. W. Lonsdale, Education Department, Burma. British Burma Press, Rangoon, 1899, pp. 459.
Photocopy available in TIL library. Original from which the photocopy was taken is in the library of
my brother-in-law U Ba Khin an avid book collector
Childers - Dictionary of Pali Language, R. C. Childers, 1909
DJPD16. - Daniel Jones, English Pronouncing Dictionary, 16 ed,
   Cambridge University Press 2003.
Narada - Ven. Narada Thera, An Elementary Pali Course,
   Buddha Dhamma Association, Inc. (Sri Lanka)  www.buddhanet.net
Htin Aung - Maung Htin Aung, Folk Elements in Burmese Buddhism,
   Religious Affairs Department Press, Yegu, Kaba Aye P.O., Rangoon, Burma, 1981.
PTS (Pali Text Soc.) - Pali-English Dictionary, ed. Rhys Davids and W. Stede,
   reprint 1999 (1st publ. 1921-1925)
Unicode Standard, Version 4.0, Unicode Consortium,
   Chapter 9, http://www.unicode.org/versions/Unicode4.0.0/ch9.pdf
   Chapter 10, http://www.unicode.org/versions/Unicode4.0.0/ch10.pdf

Contents of this page

Dr. Htin Aung

by U Kyaw Tun: 200629

Dr. Htin Aung, Ph.D., D.Litt., Associate Fellow, St. Antony's College, University of Oxford, was the Rector and Vice-Chancellor, University of Rangoon, 1946-59. He had also served the Rangoon University as the professor and head of department of English. During his tenure as the rector, he founded the Anthropology department in which he served as the professor and head of department. He was also the Burmese Ambassador to Ceylon, 1959-63. Dr. Htin Aung was well loved by his staff and students. Myanmars held him in high esteem because of his learning and academic abilities.

Dr. Htin Aung, or as Maung Htin Aung as he would like to call himself was the son of U Hpein {U:hpain:}. U Hpein was a deputy commissioner in the service of the British colonial administration in Burma before the Second World War. I met U Hpein in Pauk town, near Pakokku in 1942. I was a child then aged 7. He was also very short in stature just like his son.

Dr. Htin Aung was the rector of the Rangoon University when I joined the institution first as a student (1950 to 1955), and then as an assistant lecturer in chemistry (1955) . Though I did not know him personally, I, as one of the students and then as a staff had met him almost daily.

When the annual graduation ceremony came around, he would hand out the certificates to the recent graduates in the presence of the whole university senate presided over by the chancellor. In those days, the rector was also the commanding colonel of the University Training Corps and the chancellor was the prime minister. Dressed in colonel uniform at the head of his troops, he would welcome the prime minister. There would be a military band, and as Dr. Htin Aung was quite short in stature even for a Burmese, and rather plump, the view was quite remarkable. Then, the prime minister would enter the Council Chamber attended by Colonel Dr. Htin Aung. Once inside, the colonel would disappear for a few minutes and return to the chamber in academic robes as the rector. During this time the prime minister had put on the chancellor robes and cap.

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UKT notes

Doggie's Tale

-- UKT 130613

Mnemonic The Doggie Tale:  
Little doggie cringe in fear -- ŋ (velar),
  Seeing Ella's flapping ears -- ɲ (palatal)
  And, the Shepard's hanging rear -- ɳ (retroflex).
Doggie so sad he can't get it out
  What's that Kasha क्ष when there's a Kha ख ?
  And when there's Jana ज्ञ what I am to do with Jha झ?
On top of all there're husher and hisser, Sha श /ʃ/ and Ssa ष /s/,
  when I am stuck with Theta स /θ/ !" 
Little Doggie don't be sad,
  You are no worse than a Celtic Gnome
  Losing G in his name, he is just a Nome!


Note to digitizer: you can copy and paste the following: 
Ā ā ă ấ  Ē ē ĕ ế  Ī ī ĭ  Ō ō ŏ  Ū ū ŭ ː
Ḍ ḍ Ḥ ḥ Ḷ ḷ Ḹ ḹ Ṁ ṁ Ṃ ṃ
Ṅ ṅ Ṇ ṇ ɴ Ṛ ṛ Ṝ ṝ Ś ś Ṣ ṣ Ṭ ṭ ɕ ʂ
Book marks: * star, dagger (alt0134), double dagger (alt0135).
Bur-Myan: for {gna.}-onset use c ċ (U010B) - unfortunately ċ is non-ASCII

Instead of Skt-Dev ः {wic~sa.} use "colon" :
Avagraha ऽ use apostrophe
Repha spelling: exemplified by
  dharma: ध र ् म --> धर्म 
  spota: ष ् प र ् श ा ः --> ष्पर
Root sign √ ; approx ≅
IAST Dev: भ आ इ ई उ ऊ
  ऋ ऌ ऍ ऎ ए ऐ ऑ ऒ ओ औ
  च ca छ cha  श ś [ɕ] /ʃ/ ; ष ṣ [ʂ] /s/; स s [s] /θ/ ; ऋ {iRi.} & ॠ {iRi},
  viram ् , rhotic ऋ ृ
Skt-Dev Row #3: ट ठ ड ढ ण ; conjunct ट ् ठ = ट्ठ
Skt-Dev numbers, 0-9:  ०  १  २  ३  ४  ५  ६  ७  ८  ९ 
IAST Dev: Repha & Viram-position, e.g. तर्ज tarj [ targ ] = त र ् ज
Skt-Dev special phonemes: Ksa क ् ष = क्ष
Undertie in Dev transcription: ‿ U203F
Using ZWNJ (ZeroWidthNonJoiner), e.g. , क्‌ष (code: क्&zwnj;ष)
  See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zero-width_non-joiner 150630
IPA-, Pali- & Sanskrit nasals: ŋ ṅ ṅ ,  ɲ , ɳ ṇ ṇ, n n n , m m m
  Pali- & Skt {::tn}: aṁ , aṃ 
IPA symbols:
 ɑ ɒ ə ɛ ɪ ɯ ʌ ʊ ʃ ʧ ʤ θ ŋ ɲ ɳ ɴ ɔ ɹ ħ ʔ /ˌ / /ʰ/ /ʳ/ /ː/
  <king> /kɪŋ/ (DJPD16-300) 
  <kick> /kɪc/ (DJPD16-299 gives /kik/) and <kiss> /kɪs/ (DJPD16-301)
  <church> /ʧɜːʧ/ (DJPD16-097)
  <success> /sək'ses/ (DJPD16-515)
  <thin> /θɪn/ (DJPD16-535), <thorn> /θɔːn/ (DJPD16-535)
  circumflex-acute :
  ấ U+1EA5 , ế U+1EBF
  upsilon-vrachy  ῠ 
  small-u-breve  ῠ ŭ
Subscripts: ₀ ₁ ₂ ₃ ₄ : CO₂

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End of TIL file