Update: 2020-07-02 06:36 PM -0400


Folk Elements in Burmese Buddhism


Maung Htin Aung. Printed and published by U Myint Maung, Deputy Director, Regd: No (02405/02527) at the Religious Affairs Dept. Press. Yegu, Kaba-Aye P.O., Rangoon, BURMA. 1981.

Copied, set in HTML, and edited by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA), and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

index.htm | Top

Contents of this page


Preface - Dr. Htin Aung
Foreword - Prof. U Po Tha
The aim of my study of this book - UKT
Looking west towards the Indian subcontinent - UKT 

UKT notes
Doggie's Tale : copy & paste

Contents of this page


- by Dr. Htin Aung, Rector of University of Rangoon

Chapters 2 to 8 were originally given as lectures to the Burma Research Society, Rangoon, at its annual meetings from 1952 to 1957. They have, of course, been rewritten, but traces of the spoken word remain here and there, and occasionally the same facts given in an earlier chapter are repeated in a later chapter, for which defects I crave the readers indulgence.

UKT 200629: I became a student at the Rangoon Univ. in May 1950. I graduated with a B.Sc. (Chemistry Honours) in 1955, and was immediately appointed an Assistant Lecture. My classmate Daw Than Than, aka Rosie Maung Gyi was also a student at the university, and was also a staff-member of the Chemistry department. I had attended many Dr. Htin Aung lectures to the Burma Research Society. Being  staff members of Rangoon University, both my wife and I, knew Dr. Htin Aung quite well, but not personally.

Saya U Po Tha, who wrote the Foreword below was our Professor. He noticed my studious nature - reading journals and advanced books (which were not part of the syllabus). Even as a student, I had looked at laboratory procedures from different angles. For example I would look at a procedure in Organic Chemistry from Physical Chemistry point of view, which became useful when I, as an examinee, challenged the examiner on a point in Organic Chemistry. It was during the final exam on the honours course in front of the whole Board of Examiners headed by Professor U Po Tha and Dr. Chowdury (Reader in Chemistry of the Calcutta University) as the external examiner. And, I won.

Even a student, I had written, for my own use, a laboratory instruction on Chemical Analysis. I had compiled the Periodic Table of Elements, looking at the physical properties of chemical compounds using data from various handbooks including the Handbook of Physics and Chemistry. All these U Po Tha had noticed and he became my mentor. I am writing all these not for my ego, but as a background. There are many points on which I will disagree with what Dr. Htin Aung had written. How I wish he is still alive to answer to my questions and chastise and educate me in the presence of U Po Tha who had been a teacher to both of us. It could not be: I am 86 and they had passed away long ago. I miss them both! 

I [Dr. Htin Aung] had promised my publishers, the Oxford University Press, to submit the manuscript of this book by June 1958, but other preoccupations intervened and some years passed before I could do so. I am grateful to them for their patience. In the meantime, I wrote an essay on the subject for Perspective of Burma in 1958. I am grateful to Intercultural Publications Inc., New York, for permission to reproduce that essay as Chapter 1 of this book.

Sd/ Maung Htin Aung

Contents of this page


- by U Po Tha, Professor and Head of Department of Chemistry (mentor of Maung Htin Aung as a first year college student, when the present university was still a college affiliated to Calcutta University)

One full moon day, some thirty years ago, I was attending the annual festival of a Jungle pagoda {tau:Bu.ra: pw:} some miles outside the town of Pegu {p:hku: mro.}. [UKT ]

The pagoda was reputed to be the place where the two monks Dhamma-zedi {shin Dm~ma.s-ti} and Dhammapala {shin Dm~ma.pa-la.} [one time friend of Dhamma-zedi who became his arch enemy when Dhamma-zedi became the crown prince], practiced magic, and the place was full of persons, mostly imposters, who claimed to be following the path of purity and endeavour, along which Dhamma-zedi had travelled before them. [UKT ]

UKT historical and cultural note: 130104, 200630:
#1. Being Theravada Buddhist Mon monks, the prefix to their names is {shin} (BEPS spelling), or, {rhin} (traditional spelling - phonetically wrong because the phoneme is /ʃ/ ).

#2. Though Theravada Buddhists in both southern Burma and northern Burma frowned on monks and nuns practicing magic, astrology, and medicine, many monks had practiced these "sciences". Thus we can hypothesize that both {shin Dm~ma.s-ti} and {shin Dm~ma.pa-la.} were not Nibbanic - not even Kammatic - in outlook, but were still Esoteric . They were still men-of-the-world in monks' robes. I base this analysis of mine on Paritta and Truth by Sao Htun Hmat Win, in TIL HD-PDF & SD-PDF libraries
- SaoHtunHmatWin-ElevenParittaPali-1991<> / Bkp<> (link chk 200630)

#3. Both {shin Dm~ma.s-ti} and {shin Dm~ma.pa-la.} helped the Mon Princess Shin Saw Pu who had become a minor queen of King Ava (Bamah kingdom in northern Burma). The Ava-king had cherished the Mon princess, who had been widowed once before, had died and a new king was ruling. The Mon princess, was now no better than a hostage. She planned to escape northern Burma, and return to her Mon territory in southern Burma. She sought out the help of two Mon monks, {shin Dm~ma.s-ti} and {shin Dm~ma.pa-la.}, who were studying in Ava. She, with their help, escaped. The monks had to use their esoteric (magic) powers to delude the pursuing Bamah forces.

#4. Princess Shin Saw Pu became Sovereign Queen of the Mons once she arrived in Hanthawaddy (Pegu) {hn-a-wa.ti.} Kingdom. She had been widowed twice and had grown-up daughters. She had seen too much warfare between the Bamahs and the Mons, and between the Mons themselves. She planned to retire from ruling the country. She decided to have, one of the monks who had helped her, disrobe voluntarily. She held a lottery - unknown to the monks - and the lot fell to {shin Dm~ma.s-ti}. He disrobed and became the son-in-law of the Sovereign Queen, and was appointed Crown prince much to the anger of {shin Dm~ma.pa-la.}.

Thus resulted the magical battle between the two ex-friends. Crown prince {Dm~ma.s-ti} with his princely powers sought out the secret hiding place of {shin Dm~ma.pa-la.}. It was from this place that {shin Dm~ma.pa-la.} had carried out the magical attacks on the Crown prince and the Sovereign Queen.

Equally powerful as {Dm~ma.s-ti}, {shin Dm~ma.pa-la.} would have to possess more power. The attacks ceased for some days and the Crown prince at once knew, what his ex-friend would be doing. He must be seeking more power - by using the practice of being buried alive for a number of days in a grave yard. In his "grave" he would have only limited air to breathe, no nutrients and no water. I believe it is possible when one has enough control over his bodily activities, such as lowering the breathing rate leading to lowering of blood pressure and going into a trance-state because of Tha'ma'hta {a.ma.hta.} practice.

UKT personal note 200701: I've tried this method myself - though not being buried. I did this, because of being angered by a dear one. I drove to my mother's house and on my bed without telling any body, I began the practice. My mother called the family doctor. He took my blood pressure which had become quite low - I had willed myself to slow down my breathing rate and so the doctor found I was barely breathing. He thought I must have taken poison and sent me to Rangoon General Hospital where the receiving doctor concluded that I was barely alive. It was now several hours since my mother had sent for the family doctor. My mother sent for my sister Mi Phyu. Seeing that I had made several people - my mother, my wife, my children and now my sister - I willed myself back to normal. It was the first and the last time I'd done the practice.

So Crown prince {Dm~ma.s-ti} had his spies and soldiers checked out every burial ground, no matter how small, looking for the attendant who would be watching over the burial site.

At last the attendant was found on the very last day of stipulated period. The "grave" was dug and opened disrupting the procedure, killing the monk inside it. The monk {Dm~ma.pa-la.}, with an angry look on his face was found dead still clutching the sword with which he had intended to kill {Dm~ma.s-ti}. This story is still told in Esoteric circles, and {Dm~ma.s-ti} is worshipped as a Waizzar {waiz~za} by his followers. It is this annual festival of a Jungle pagoda {tau:Bu.ra: pw:} which my professor U Po Tha was writing about. Here, I must make a side-note: magic can only influence the mind of the victim making him mad at the most - the magician still need a sword to kill.

#5. Dhamma-zedi {Dm~ma.s-ti} (14121492) eventually became the King of the Kingdom of Hanthawaddy (Pegu - where Mon speech - Peguan dialect - was spoken). He succeeded the throne in 1472 when his mother-in-law Sovereign-queen Shin Saw-bu (daughter of King Razadharit) transferred the throne to him. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dhammazedi 130109

#6. Mon speech had at least three different dialects, and the main dialect is dubbed in this study as the Peguan. My Mon-ancestors came from the ancient city of Dalla {da.la. mro.han:} - which extended over 20 miles from the present-day Twent Town {twn-t:} to Kungyangon Town {kwam:hkn-koan:}. The latter town is where I was born 86 years ago. How I wish I could speak Peguan - the dialect of my maternal great grandmother Daw M Ma.

I [U Po Tha] watched with some amusement a white-clad and bearded figure walking by, surrounded by a crowd of devotees, but I stopped smiling when I saw an incongrous figure among them, namely a young student, wearing a brand-new college blazer. My surprise turned into shock when I recognized him to be young Maung Htin Aung who had just entered University College, Rangoon, with a very brilliant academic record behind him. [UKT ]

I was by then a lecturer in chemistry, and shouted to him rather angrily, What do you think you are doing here? and he replied, I am doing research, sir, in unnatural science. I hope you will publish a thesis on it, I said with due sarcasm, and he replied, I will, sir, if you will please write the introduction. Years passed, he became my colleague on the University staff, and in 1946 he became the Rector. He had by then published his Burmese Drama and his Burmese Folk-Tales and I reminded him of our encounter at the Jungle pagoda and suggested that he should now write his thesis on unnatural science. Sir, please do not remind me of a mis-spent youth, he replied. But a few weeks later, he came to me with a handful of Burmese alchemic compounds and discussed their composition.

The account of the pre-Buddhist religious cults which are contained in the following pages was originally given as lectures by Dr. Htin Aung to the annual meetings of the Burma Research Society during the period 1952 to 1958, in his capacity, first as Vice-President, then as President, and finally as Past President of the Society. I had the honour and the privilege of listening to all the lectures, and I can still remember the excitement and the controversy that followed his first lecture in the series, which was on Burmese Initiation Ceremonies. [UKT]

Some members of the audience were shocked at his defence of the Ari {a.r:} monks, and the one-hour lecture was followed by a heated discussion which lasted for some three hours. The following year, his lecture on the Nine Gods {Bu.ra: ko:hsu} resulted not only in controversy, but also in resentment against him for endeavouring to show that the ceremony was not really Buddhistic in origin. However, as further lectures followed, his audiences came to appreciate his findings.

UKT 200630: Here I must emphasize that by "Buddhistic", both U Po Tha and Dr. Htin Aung meant Theravada Buddhism that is now practiced in Myanmarpr. It is the Theravada Buddhism very much influence by the SriLankan Buddhism, and Pali-Lankan language. Dr. Htin Aung thinks that the Burmese Nine Gods puja {Bu.ra: ko:hsu} is Brahmanic Hinduism in origin.

I must disagree. It is very different from Navagraha Puja - the Hindu practice. See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Navagraha 200630. - "Navagraha are nine heavenly bodies (as well as deities) that influence human life on Earth in Hinduism and Hindu astrology. [1] The term is derived from nava (नव "nine") and graha (ग्रह "planet, seizing, laying hold of, holding"). [2]  "

The second point I must make is that, culturally and linguistically, northern Burma with its very ancient capital, Ta'gaung {ta.kan: pr} had been in contact with {ma-ga.Da. ma.ha-za.na.pa.da.} in north-eastern India long before Gautama Buddha was born. The contact had always been overland - across the mountains. So what the ancient people of Ta'gaung {ta.kan: pr} must have practiced is anything but  Buddhism of Gautama Buddha. For lack of a name, I would call it a Folk Religion.

Could it have been Buddhism of another Buddha? According to tradition there was Kasspa Buddha before Gautama. See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kassapa_Buddha 200701

From: Dictionary of Noble Words of Lord Buddha by U Myat Kyaw & U San Lwin, MLC (Myanmar Language Commission), 2002
Kassapa - n. . name of one of the five Buddhas to spread enlightenment in this world, who after practising austerities for 7 days achieved enlightenment under a banyan tree and lived a total of 20,000 years. . name of a Mahāthera under whose auspices the First Great Council was convened; Venerable Mahā Kassapa. 029-5

We must note that unlike Gautama, Kasspa Buddha is not a historical figure, but then there was a Vedic rishi with a similar name. See:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kashyapa 200701
"Kashyapa kaśyapa is a revered Vedic sage of Hinduism. [1] He is one of the Saptarishis, the seven ancient sages of the Rigveda, [note 1] numerous Sanskrit texts and Indian mythologies. [4] [5] He is the most ancient rishi listed in the colophon verse in the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad. [6] ... In Buddhist Pali canonical texts such as Digha Nikaya, Tevijja Sutta describes a discussion between the Buddha and Vedic scholars of his time. The Buddha names ten rishis, calls them "early sages" and makers of ancient verses [Mantra - which are not meant to be sung like common songs] that have been collected and chanted in his era, and among those ten rishi is Kassapa (the Pali spelling of Kashyapa in Sanskrit). [22] [note 2] "

Could the Folk Religion practiced the by the people of Tagaung be the religion of Vishvamitra Rishi {wai~a mait~ta. ra..} the composer of Gayatri Mantra - the most important or one of the most important Mantra in the first layers of Vedic Religion .
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gayatri_Mantra 200702

It is important to note that when the Braahmin Poannars recite the Gayarti Mantra, they look at the Sun, in early morning. It is similar to the Peacock (Buddha in one his previous less-developed existences) directing his prayer to the Sun once in the morning to the rising Sun, and in the evening to the setting Sun. I opine that the Gayatri Mantra, and Mora (Peacock) Sutta are the same in essence.

Vedas has undergone many changes by later Rishis not revered by Gautama Buddha. In the first layers of Rig Veda, the principal gods were Indra, Agni, and Soma. In later versions, the principal gods had become Brahma, Vishnu and Siva (the Creator, Administrator, and Police chief) in

I opine that when Tagaung was founded the Folk Religion was a conglomerate of the religions of Kassapa, Vishvamitra, and local Mother goddesses. Folk Religion of Tagaung was not Hinduism as understood by Dr. Htin Aung and Prof. U Po Tha

The first ancient capital of northern Burma is not Pagan {pu.gn} but Tagaung {ta.kan:} further north 
See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tagaung,_Mandalay 20071
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tagaung_Kingdom 200701

Even when Buddhism of Gautama Buddha spread to Ta'gaung, the old Folk Religion must have been practiced side-by-side with Buddhism (which had not split into Theravada and Mahayana.). This Burmese Folk Religion could not have been Brahmanic Hinduism, because when King Abhiraza {a.Bi.ra-za mn:} founded Ta'gaung, Brahmanic Hinduism, with its male gods, had just taken its foothold on the border of north-western India. So what we must look for is the founding date of {ta.kan: pr}, which I hope to find only in archeological findings such as radio-dating.

I [U Po Tha] have no hesitation in saying that Dr. Htin Aung has rendered again a signal service to Burmese studies in publishing his lectures in book form. Apart from his academic attainments, Dr. Htin Aung is specially qualified to write on the subject of the pre-Buddhist religion of the Burmese, because he combines in his person a deep understanding and faith in Theravada Buddhism and a sympathy and appreciation of the aspirations of the Burmese astrologer and the Burmese alchemist. [UKT ]

Belonging to a family one of whose ancestors is listed among the Thirty-seven Nats {nt}, he was kidnapped as a child by a village headman and initiated into the cult of the were-tiger; this background will perhaps explain his sympathetic attitude towards the folk elements in Burmese Buddhism. [UKT ]

UKT 200630: The listed female Nat {nt} ancestor of Dr. Htin Aung is a Pyu Nat who is among the Seven Household guardians of the average Bur-Myan family. She hailed from Mindon region in which the Pyus took refuge after the Mons attacked southern Burma. There are 7 guardian nats: 2 Bamah and 5 Pyu.

Just as his Burmese Drama and his Burmese Folk-Tales placed on permanent record many Burmese oral traditions that have now completely disappeared even from the remotest village, this book puts on permanent record the oral lore of the pre-Buddhist cults, which has never been collected before, even in the Burmese language.

U Po Tha
Professor of Chemistry, and
Dean of the Faculty of Engineering
University of Rangoon,
1st October, 1959.

UKT note: I did not realize that this forward was dated a few months before the death of Professor U Po Tha. At the time of U Po Thas death, I had already come back from the United States. He insisted that I rejoin my old post in the Chemistry Department, University of Rangoon: he had great concern for me because I was without a job, but had a wife (Daw Than Than - was a demonstrator in his department) and a two-year old son. One day in December 1959, as a sort of a farewell, he wished me well as he passed me by -- I was going into a lecture and he was going home for his lunch. Before I had finished my lecture, I was called to his home to assist in his funeral preparations: embalming his body.

Contents of this page

The Aim of my study of this book

-- UKT, 2008, 130110, 200702

There are several reasons why I have chosen to digitize and study this book. Among the many is my interest in linguistics. In what languages were the historical characters in this book speaking to each other. For example, in what language would King Anawratha {a.naw-ra.hta mn:}, presumably Burmese, speak to Shin Arahan {shin-a.ra.hn}, presumably Mon.

Burmese and Mon are different languages and usually a Burmese speaker, even now, would not understand Mon. Of course, the present-day Mons of Myanmarpr are largely bilingual in Mon and Burmese, but not the other around. This is because the dominant language in Myanmarpr is Burmese speech written in Myanmar script (Bur-Myan). Mon ethnics on the other-hand speak Mon speech written in Myanmar script. Though the two ethnics use the same script Myanmar script used all over Myanmarpr, they could not understand each other because they belong to different linguistic groups: Burmese to Tibeto-Burman (Tib-Bur), and Mon to Austro-Asiatic (Aus-Asi).

In the days of Anawratha and Shin Arahan, at least the religious and administrative personals seems to be bilingual. And there were the Pyus with their own language which would be more similar to Burmese than to Mon. Pyu is also a Tib-Bur language. It is believed that the Pyu language is now extinct or has been incorporated into Burmese.

However because of common culture and religion - Theravada Buddhism - Burmese and Mons could be unified because of common script - the script used all over the country except in Chin and Kachin areas which are using the Latin script.

This book by Dr. Htin Aung can therefore be an introduction to Myanmar culture and religion. It may throw some light on the lost history of the Pyus, who were the indigenous people of Myanmarpr since the time before Gautama Buddha. See radio-carbon dates given by Bob Hudson on the inset map.

U Kyaw Tun aka Joe Tun
Singapore 080827, Deep River 130110, Yangon 200702

Contents of this page

Looking west towards the Indian subcontinent

-- UKT, 130124

Though I have flown over the Indian subcontinent of the present-day, Bangladesh-India-Pakistan-SriLanka, I have not set foot on the ground except for a few hours at Karachi airport in 1957 which could hardly be called a visit. It was in August, and as soon as I stepped out of the plane, I felt like going into an oven. I had never imagined that the air could be that hot in any part of the world except in the Arabian desert which we think is the nearest desert to Myanmarpr.

The Thar desert {hta: :kn~ta-ra.} of the subcontinent usually do not register in our minds whenever we hear the term "desert". Even when we do come to read the name of the Indian desert, we usually pronounce it as {a:}. We do not realize that it is pronounced as {hta:}. This is because we usually rely on the English transcriptions that are used in Myanmarpr. Those of you who read and write Skt-Dev would realized that if only we had taken the English transcriptions (such as IAST) as used in India, we would be in no better position, for then we would be pronouncing it as {Sa:}.

A piece of history I will need:

I have not looked across the land boundary to the west except as a child from Pauk during WWII. Of course, I have looked across the sea from the Arakan coast. We usually think of surface travel to the subcontinent as a sea-journey, completely forgetting that there are land routes which at least are useable during some parts of the year.

I was in Pauk, west of Pakkokku in early 1942 together with my father U TunPe and my mother Daw HlaMay. I need the following dates to time the events that I remember well even though I was still a child under 10.

02/04/1942 - British retreat from Prome, upper Burma.

UKT: The British troops being surrounded by the BIA forces under BoYanaing at Shwdaung (very near Prome) had to fight their way out. They retreated through Pauk followed by the BIA. There were no Japanese except one liaison officer with the BIA troops under BoYanNaing.

In Pauk, my father, the Public Health Inspector from Kungyangon, Hanthawaddy Dist., now incorporated into Greater Yangon, was contacted the British who asked my father for medicines. My father emptied the family medicine box which he had brought along from Kungyangon and gave everything to the British troops. Without any medicine we lost two members of the family some time later to cholera. As soon as the British left, with sappers and miners taking up the rear, the BIA troops entered Pauk just a couple of hours later.

My father and his elder brother U Kyi Zin, and a younger one U ThaHsin were arrested by the BIA, for not surrendering their guns. Luckily, the second youngest brother, U Aung Myin, happened to be college-friends with BoYanaing, and not only the brothers were released, they became friends with the senior officers of the BIA.

From that very time onwards, as long as the BIA stayed in Pauk, the BIA officers were our dinner guests. Bo YanNaing as a college student was Ko Tun Shein. There were two others with the name Tun Shein and were known as Max TunShein and Beiktha TunShein.

Among the senior officers was BoThura, who lost most of the troops under his direct command at Shwdaung, and had one star on his shoulder dropped. BoThura died sometime later in Rangoon during a British air-raid. He is commemorated by a street name in Kemmendine. 

03/04/1942 - Japanese aircraft bombed Mandalay in central Burma, killing 2,000.
They met no opposition from the RAF as all its aircraft had by now been withdrawn to India.

UKT: My father was in Mandalay before the bombing raid. He had gone from Pauk to Mandalay through Monywa to report to his headquarters of Hanthawaddy District Health Officer which was temporarily stationed in Mandalay.

He had to draw his salary for a few months in crisp British issued "legal-tender in Burma only" notes.

09/04/1942 - Mahatma Gandhi arrested in India.
10/04/1942 - British negotiations in India break down.

12/04/1942 - Japanese troops capture Migyaungye in Burma, which exposes the western flank of 1st Burma Corps at put the oilfields at Yenangyuang under threat.

15/04/1942 - The British begin to destroy the oil wells at Yenangyuang.
The 1st Burma Division with the help of the 38th Chinese Division, manages to extricate itself from a pocket south of Yenangyuang, before being completely surrounded.

23/04/1942 - Churchill tells the House of Commons of disasters in Japanese war.

I had looked towards the Poandaung-Poannhya range, towards Mt. Victoria, to the west. From the place where my father and I had stood, across the almost dry bed of the stream, was the cemetery where we had buried the two family members we had lost. My father showed me the direction the British had taken and had we joined them which we ourselves would have taken. As a parting reward for the services my father had rendered to them,  the British troops had offered to take my father, my mother, and me, with them because they saw the danger my father would be in when they had left.

I remember my father having a war-council with my mother, because the family had increased due to my mother's sister-in-law and her grown-up children had come to join us. They had come to my mother for protection, when she herself was now with my father's brothers. If she were to go they would be simply among strangers who were Burmese. My mother's sister-in-law was not only pure Chinese born in China, but was suffering from insanity.

We did not go west with the British troops, but I have seen the route we would taken, where there were no regular roads, just along the dry beds of streams, through which the waters would come rushing down. Now that I have seen movie clips of the Elephant Man, I realized what we would have been in. See: http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/asia/wwii-elephant-man-rescue-revealed-on-film-2122153.html).


Contents of this page

UKT notes

Doggie's Tale

-- UKT 130613

Mnemonic The Doggie Tale:  
Little doggie cringe in fear -- ŋ (velar),
  Seeing Ella's flapping ears -- ɲ (palatal)
  And, the Shepard's hanging rear -- ɳ (retroflex).
Doggie so sad he can't get it out
  What's that Kasha क्ष when there's a Kha ख ?
  And when there's Jana ज्ञ what I am to do with Jha झ?
On top of all there're husher and hisser, Sha श /ʃ/ and Ssa ष /s/,
  when I am stuck with Theta स /θ/ !" 
Little Doggie don't be sad,
  You are no worse than a Celtic Gnome
  Losing G in his name, he is just a Nome!


Note to digitizer: you can copy and paste the following: 
Ā ā ă ấ  Ē ē ĕ ế  Ī ī ĭ  Ō ō ŏ  Ū ū ŭ ː
Ḍ ḍ Ḥ ḥ Ḷ ḷ Ḹ ḹ Ṁ ṁ Ṃ ṃ
Ṅ ṅ Ṇ ṇ ɴ Ṛ ṛ Ṝ ṝ Ś ś Ṣ ṣ Ṭ ṭ ɕ ʂ
Book marks: * star, dagger (alt0134), double dagger (alt0135).
Bur-Myan: for {gna.}-onset use c ċ (U010B) - unfortunately ċ is non-ASCII

Instead of Skt-Dev ः {wic~sa.} use "colon" :
Avagraha ऽ use apostrophe
Repha spelling: exemplified by
  dharma: ध र ् म --> धर्म 
  spota: ष ् प र ् श ा ः --> ष्पर
Root sign √ ; approx ≅
IAST Dev: भ आ इ ई उ ऊ
  ऋ ऌ ऍ ऎ ए ऐ ऑ ऒ ओ औ
  च ca छ cha  श ś [ɕ] /ʃ/ ; ष ṣ [ʂ] /s/; स s [s] /θ/ ; ऋ {iRi.} & ॠ {iRi},
  viram ् , rhotic ऋ ृ
Skt-Dev Row #3: ट ठ ड ढ ण ; conjunct ट ् ठ = ट्ठ
Skt-Dev numbers, 0-9:  ०  १  २  ३  ४  ५  ६  ७  ८  ९ 
IAST Dev: Repha & Viram-position, e.g. तर्ज tarj [ targ ] = त र ् ज
Skt-Dev special phonemes: Ksa क ् ष = क्ष
Undertie in Dev transcription: ‿ U203F
Using ZWNJ (ZeroWidthNonJoiner), e.g. , क्‌ष (code: क्&zwnj;ष)
  See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zero-width_non-joiner 150630
IPA-, Pali- & Sanskrit nasals: ŋ ṅ ṅ ,  ɲ , ɳ ṇ ṇ, n n n , m m m
  Pali- & Skt {::tn}: aṁ , aṃ 
IPA symbols:
 ɑ ɒ ə ɛ ɪ ɯ ʌ ʊ ʃ ʧ ʤ θ ŋ ɲ ɳ ɴ ɔ ɹ ħ ʔ /ˌ / /ʰ/ /ʳ/ /ː/
  <king> /kɪŋ/ (DJPD16-300) 
  <kick> /kɪc/ (DJPD16-299 gives /kik/) and <kiss> /kɪs/ (DJPD16-301)
  <church> /ʧɜːʧ/ (DJPD16-097)
  <success> /sək'ses/ (DJPD16-515)
  <thin> /θɪn/ (DJPD16-535), <thorn> /θɔːn/ (DJPD16-535)
  circumflex-acute :
  ấ U+1EA5 , ế U+1EBF
  upsilon-vrachy  ῠ 
  small-u-breve  ῠ ŭ
Subscripts: ₀ ₁ ₂ ₃ ₄ : CO₂

Go back Dog-note-b

 Contents of this page

End of TIL file