Update: 2014-12-22 06:05 PM -0500

TIL

TIL English Grammar

01. Parts of Speech (2)

c01Pts-Speech3.htm

A compilation by U Kyaw Tun and staff of TIL (Tun Institute of Learning, http://www.tuninst.net ). Not for sale.

In the United States, periods and commas go inside quotation marks regardless of logic.
In the United Kingdom, Canada, and islands under the influence of British education, punctuation around quotation marks is more apt to follow logic. In American style, then, you would write: My favorite poem is Robert Frost's "Design." But in England you would write: My favorite poem is Robert Frost's "Design".

 

 E4M-indx.htm | Top
TIL-Gram-indx.htm

Contents of this page

UKT: To keep the file size down, I have split up the original folder into three:
Verb
Noun, and Pronoun;
Adjective, Adverb, Preposition, Conjunction, and Interjection. Both the files are in the same folder.

Continued from Parts of Speech - c01Pts-Speech2.htm

01.05. What Is An Adjective?
01.05.01. Possessive Adjective
01.05.02. Demonstrative Adjective
01.05.03. Interrogative Adjective
01.05.04. Indefinite Adjective

01.06. What is an Adverb?
01.06.01. Conjunctive Adverb

01.07. What is a Preposition?
   Prepositional phrase

01.08. What is a Conjunction?
01.08.01. Coordinating Conjunction
01.08.02. Subordinating Conjunction
01.08.03. Correlative Conjunction

01.09. What is an Interjection?

01.rev. Review: Parts of Speech

UKT notes
adjective emoticon home birth preposition

Contents of this page

01.05. What Is An Adjective?

See UKT note on adjective .

An adjective modifies a noun or a pronoun by describing, identifying, or quantifying words. An adjective usually precedes the noun or the pronoun which it modifies. In the following examples, the highlighted words are adjectives:

The truck-shaped balloon floated over the treetops.

Mrs. Morrison papered her kitchen walls with hideous wall paper.

The small boat foundered on the wine dark sea.

The coal mines are dark and dank.

Many stores have already begun to play irritating Christmas music.

A battered music box sat on the mahogany sideboard.

The back room was filed with large, yellow rain boots.

An adjective can be modified by an adverb, or by a phrase or clause functioning as an adverb. In the sentence :

My husband knits intricately patterned mittens.
-- the adverb "intricately" modifies the adjective "patterned".

Some nouns, many pronouns, and many participle phrases can also act as adjectives. In the sentence

Eleanor listened to the muffled sounds of the radio hidden under her pillow.
-- both highlighted adjectives are past participles.

Grammarians also consider articles ( the , a , an ) to be adjectives.

Contents of this page

01.05.01. Possessive Adjective

A possessive adjective (my, your, his, her, its, our, their ) is similar or identical to a possessive pronoun; however, it is used as an adjective and modifies a noun or a noun phrase, as in the following sentences:

I can't complete my assignment because I don't have the textbook.
-- In this sentence, the possessive adjective "my" modifies "assignment" and the noun phrase "my assignment" functions as an object.

Note that the possessive pronoun form "mine" is not used to modify a noun or noun phrase.

What is your phone number ?
-- Here the possessive adjective "your" is used to modify the noun phrase "phone number"; the entire noun phrase "your phone number" is a subject complement.

Note that the possessive pronoun form "yours" is not used to modify a noun or a noun phrase.

The bakery sold his favourite type of bread.
-- In this example, the possessive adjective "his" modifies the noun phrase "favourite type of bread" and the entire noun phrase "his favourite type of bread" is the direct object of the verb "sold".

After many years, she returned to her homeland.
-- Here the possessive adjective "her" modifies the noun "homeland" and the noun phrase "her homeland" is the object of the preposition "to".

Note also that the form "hers" is not used to modify nouns or noun phrases.

We have lost our way in this wood.
-- In this sentence, the possessive adjective "our" modifies "way" and the noun phrase "our way" is the direct object of the compound verb "have lost".

Note that the possessive pronoun form "ours" is not used to modify nouns or noun phrases.

In many fairy tales, children are neglected by their parents.
-- Here the possessive adjective "their" modifies "parents" and the noun phrase "their parents" is the object of the preposition "by".
[UKT: the fairy tales mentioned above are those from the West. However, in Myanmar and many places in the East, children are treasures to their parents, and many parents would rather go hungry than neglect their children.]

Note that the possessive pronoun form "theirs" is not used to modify nouns or noun phrases.

The cat chased its ball down the stairs and into the backyard.
-- In this sentence, the possessive adjective "its" modifies "ball" and the noun phrase "its ball" is the object of the verb "chased".

Note that "its" is the possessive adjective and "it's" is a contraction for "it is".

Contents of this page

01.05.02. Demonstrative Adjective

The demonstrative adjectives this , these , that , those , and what are identical to the demonstrative pronouns, but are used as adjectives to modify nouns or noun phrases, as in the following sentences:

When the librarian tripped over that cord, she dropped a pile of books.
-- In this sentence, the demonstrative adjective "that" modifies the noun "cord" and the noun phrase "that cord" is the object of the preposition "over".

This apartment needs to be fumigated.
-- Here "this" modifies "apartment" and the noun phrase "this apartment" is the subject of the sentence.

Even though my friend preferred those plates, I bought these.
-- In the subordinate clause, "those" modifies "plates" and the noun phrase "those plates" is the object of the verb "preferred". In the independent clause, "these" is the direct object of the verb "bought".

Note that the relationship between a demonstrative adjective and a demonstrative pronoun is similar to the relationship between a possessive adjective and a possessive pronoun, or to that between a interrogative adjective and an interrogative pronoun.

Contents of this page

01.05.03. Interrogative Adjective

An interrogative adjective ("which" or "what") is like an interrogative pronoun, except that it modifies a noun or noun phrase rather than standing on its own (see also demonstrative adjectives and possessive adjectives):

Which plants should be watered twice a week?
-- Like other adjectives, "which" can be used to modify a noun or a noun phrase. In this example, "which" modifies "plants" and the noun phrase "which paints" is the subject of the compound verb "should be watered":

What book are you reading?
-- In this sentence, "what" modifies "book" and the noun phrase "what book" is the direct object of the compound verb "are reading".

 

Contents of this page

01.05.04. Indefinite Adjective

An indefinite adjective is similar to an indefinite pronoun, except that it modifies a noun, pronoun, or noun phrase, as in the following sentences:

Many people believe that corporations are under-taxed.
-- The indefinite adjective "many" modifies the noun "people" and the noun phrase "many people" is the subject of the sentence.

I will send you any mail that arrives after you have moved to Sudbury.
-- The indefinite adjective "any" modifies the noun "mail" and the noun phrase "any mail" is the direct object of the compound verb "will send".

They found a few goldfish floating belly up in the swan pound.
-- In this example the indefinite adjective modifies the noun "goldfish" and the noun phrase is the direct object of the verb "found":

The title of Kelly's favourite (Am sp - favorite) game is "All dogs go to heaven". 
-- Here the indefinite pronoun "all" modifies "dogs" and the full title is a subject complement.

 

Contents of this page

01.06. What is an Adverb?

An adverb can modify a verb, an adjective, another adverb, a phrase, or a clause. An adverb indicates manner, time, place, cause, or degree and answers questions such as how , when , where , how much .

While some adverbs can be identified by their characteristic "-ly" suffix, most of them must be identified by untangling the grammatical relationships within the sentence or clause as a whole. Unlike an adjective, an adverb can be found in various places within the sentence. In the following examples, each of the highlighted words is an adverb:

The seamstress quickly made the mourning clothes.
-- In this sentence, the adverb "quickly" modifies the verb "made" and indicates in what manner (or how fast) the clothing was constructed.

The midwives waited patiently through a long labour (Am sp - labor).
-- Similarly in this sentence, the adverb "patiently" modifies the verb "waited" and describes the manner in which the midwives waited.

The boldly-spoken words would return to haunt the rebel.
-- In this sentence the adverb "boldly" modifies the adjective "spoken".

We urged him to dial the number more expeditiously.
-- Here the adverb "more" modifies the adverb "expeditiously".

Unfortunately, the bank closed at three today.
-- In this example, the adverb "unfortunately" modifies the entire sentence.

 

Contents of this page

01.06.01. Conjunctive Adverb

You can use a conjunctive adverb to join two clauses together. Some of the most common conjunctive adverbs are:
   also , consequently , finally , furthermore , hence ,
   however , incidentally , indeed , instead , likewise ,
   meanwhile , nevertheless , next , nonetheless , otherwise ,
   still , then , therefore ,
and thus .
A conjunctive adverb is not strong enough to join two independent clauses with the aid of a semicolon. The highlighted words in the following sentences are conjunctive adverbs:

The government has cut university budgets; consequently, class sizes have been increased.

He did not have all the ingredients the recipe called for; therefore, he decided to make something else.

The report recommended several changes to the ways the corporation accounted for donations; furthermore, it suggested that a new auditor be appointed immediately.

The crowd waited patiently for three hours; finally, the doors to the stadium were opened.

Batman and Robin fruitlessly searched the building; indeed, the Joker had escaped through a secret door in the basement.

Contents of this page

01.07. What is a Preposition?

See UKT note preposition. Burmese-Myanmar uses post-position instead of preposition, e.g.
the equivalent of The book is on the table is {sa-oap th sa:pw: pau-mha rhi. th} .
That is: on the table is {sa:pw: pau-mha}, where the preposition on has become the post-position {pau-mha}.

A preposition links nouns, pronouns and phrases to other words in a sentence. The word or phrase that the preposition introduces is called the object of the preposition.

A preposition usually indicates the temporal, spatial or logical relationship of its object to the rest of the sentence as in the following examples:

The book is on the table.

The book is beneath the table.

The book is leaning against the table.

The book is beside the table.

She held the book over the table.

She read the book during class.

In each of the preceding sentences, a preposition locates the noun "book" in space or in time.

A prepositional phrase is made up of the preposition, its object and any associated adjectives or adverbs. A prepositional phrase can function as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. The most common prepositions are:
   about , above , across , after , against ,
   along , among , around , at , before ,
   behind , below , beneath , beside , between ,
   beyond , but , by , despite , down ,
   during , except , for , from , in ,
   inside , into , like , near , of ,
   off , on , onto , out , outside ,
   over , past , since , through , throughout ,
   till , to , toward , under , underneath ,
   until , up , upon , with , within ,
  
and without .

Each of the highlighted words in the following sentences is a preposition:

The children climbed the mountain without fear.
-- In this sentence, the preposition "without" introduces the noun "fear". The prepositional phrase "without fear" functions as an adverb describing how the children climbed.

There was rejoicing throughout the land when the national football team won the championship. [UKT: the original has been changed.]
-- Here, the preposition "throughout" introduces the noun phrase "the land". The prepositional phrase acts as an adverb describing the location of the rejoicing.

The spider crawled slowly along the banister.
-- The preposition "along" introduces the noun phrase "the banister" and the prepositional phrase "along the banister" acts as an adverb, describing where the spider crawled.

The dog is hiding under the porch because it knows it will be punished for chewing up a new pair of shoes.
-- Here the preposition "under" introduces the prepositional phrase " under the porch", which acts as an adverb modifying the compound verb "is hiding".

The screenwriter searched for the manuscript he was certain was somewhere in his office.
-- Similarly in this sentence, the preposition "in" introduces a prepositional phrase "in his office", which acts as an adverb describing the location of the missing papers.

 

Contents of this page

01.08. What is a Conjunction?

Types of conjunctions:

1. coordinating conjunction
2. subordinating conjunction
3. correlative conjunction

You can use a conjunction to link words, phrases, and clauses, as in the following example:

I ate the pizza and the pasta.

Call the movers when you are ready.

Contents of this page

01.08.01. Coordinating Conjunction

You use a coordinating conjunction ( and , but , or , nor , for , so , or yet ) to join individual words, phrases, and independent clauses. Note that you can also use the conjunctions "but" and "for" as prepositions.

In the following sentences, each of the highlighted words is a coordinating conjunction:

Lilacs and violets are usually purple.
-- In this example, the coordinating conjunction "and" links two nouns.

This movies is particularly interesting to feminist film theorists, for the screenplay was written by Mae West.
-- In this example, the coordinating conjunction "for" is used to link two independent clauses.

Daniel's uncle claimed that he spent most of his youth dancing on rooftops and swallowing goldfish.
-- Here the coordinating conjunction "and" links two participle phrases ("dancing on rooftops" and "swallowing goldfish") which act as adverbs describing the verb "spends".

 

Contents of this page

01.08.02. Subordinating Conjunction

A subordinating conjunction introduces a dependent clause and indicates the nature of the relationship among the independent clause(s) and the dependent clause(s).

The most common subordinating conjunctions are:
   after , although , as , because , before ,
   how , if , once , since , than ,
   that , though , till , until , when ,
   where , whether ,
and while .

Each of the highlighted words in the following sentences is a subordinating conjunction:

After she had learned to drive, Alice felt more independent.
-- The subordinating conjunction "after" introduces the dependent clause After she had learned to drive .

If the paperwork arrives on time, your cheque (Am sp - check) will be mailed on Tuesday.
-- Similarly, the subordinating conjunction "if" introduces the dependent clause If the paperwork arrives on time  .

Gerald had to begun his thesis over again when his computer crashed.
-- The subordinating conjunction "when" introduces the dependent clause when his computer crashed .

Midwifery advocates argue that home births are safer because the mother and baby are exposed to fewer people and fewer germs.
-- In this sentence, the dependent clause  because the mother and baby are exposed to fewer people and fewer germs  is introduced by the subordinating conjunction "because".

 

Contents of this page

01.08.03. Correlative Conjunction

Correlative conjunctions always appear in pairs -- you use them to link equivalent sentence elements. The most common correlative conjunctions are:
   both . . . and
   either . . . or
   neither . . . nor
   not only . . . but also
   so . . . as
  and
   whether . . . or

(Technically correlative conjunctions consist simply of a coordinating conjunction linked to an adjective or adverb.)

The highlighted words in the following sentences are correlative conjunctions:

Both my grandfather and my father worked in the steel plant.
-- In this sentence, the correlative conjunction "both . . . and" is used to link the two noun phrases that act as the compound subject of the sentence: "my grandfather" and "my father".

Bring either a Jello salad or a potato scallop.
-- Here the correlative conjunction "either . . . or" links two noun phrases: "a Jello salad" and "a potato scallop".

Corinne is trying to decide whether to go to medical school or to go to law school.
-- Similarly, the correlative conjunction "whether . . . or" links the two infinitive phrases "to go to medical school" and "to go to law school".

The explosion destroyed not only the school but also the neighbouring pub.
-- In this example the correlative conjunction "not only . . . but also" links the two noun phrases ("the school" and "neighbouring pub") which act as direct objects.

Note: some words which appear as conjunctions can also appear as prepositions or as adverbs.

Contents of this page

01.09. What is an Interjection?

An interjection is a word added to a sentence to convey emotion. It is not grammatically related to any other part of the sentence.

You usually follow an interjection with an exclamation mark. Interjections are uncommon in formal academic prose, except in direct quotations. The highlighted words in the following sentences are interjections:

Ouch, that hurt!

Oh no, I forgot that the exam was today.

Hey! Put that down!

I heard one guy say to another guy, "He has a new car, eh?"

I don't know about you but, good lord, I think taxes are too high!

UKT: Now that email and electronic text-messaging are in common use means such as "emoticons" have been introduced to express emotions.

Contents of this page

01.rev. Review: Parts of Speech

UKT: Review sections reformatted: questions, answers, and explanations.

Question: Identify the part of speech of the highlighted word in each of the following sentences. Choose one of the following answers: Verb, Noun, Pronoun, Adjective, Adverb, Preposition, Conjunction, Interjection :

Q01. The clown chased a dog around the ring and then fell flat on her face.
Ans:  Noun

Q02. The geese indolently waddled across the intersection.
Ans:  Adverb

Q03. Yikes! I'm late for class.
Ans:  Interjection

Q04. Bruno's shabby thesaurus tumbled out of the book bag when the bus suddenly pulled out into traffic.
Ans: Adjective

Q05. Mr. Frederick angrily stamped out the fire that the local hooligans had started on his verandah.
Ans: Verb

Q06. Later that summer, she asked herself, "What was I thinking of?"
Ans:  Pronoun

Q07. She thought that the twenty zucchini plants would not be enough so she planted another ten.
Ans: Verb

Q08. Although she gave hundreds of zucchini away, the enormous mound left over frightened her.
Ans: Conjunction

Q09. Everywhere she went, she talked about the prolific veggies.
Ans:  Pronoun

Q10. The manager confidently made his presentation to the board of directors.
Ans:  Adverb

Q11. Frankenstein is the name of the scientist, not the monster.
Ans:  Verb

Q12. Her greatest fear is that the world will end before she finds a comfortable pair of panty-hose.
Ans:  Preposition

Q13. That suitcase is hers.
Ans:  Pronoun

Q14. Everyone in the room cheered when the announcement was made.
Ans:  Pronoun

Q15. The sun was shining as we set out for our first winter camping trip.
Ans:  Verb

Q16. Small children often insist that they can do it by themselves.
Ans:  Adjective

Q17. Dust covered every surface in the locked bedroom.
Ans: Noun

Q18. The census taker knocked loudly on all the doors but nobody was home.
Ans:  Adverb

Q19. They wondered if there truly was honour among thieves.
Ans: Preposition

Q20. Exciting new products and effective marketing strategies will guarantee the company's success.
Ans: Conjunction

Contents of this page

UKT notes

adjective

by UKT

We usually think an adjective must be a word. In other words, we think only a word can act as an adjective. It is not so. A phrase can also act as an adjective:

We saw Peter dashing across the quadrangle.

Here the participle phrase "dashing across the quadrangle" acts as an adjective describing the proper noun "Peter".
See: The Function of Phrases.

Go back adj-note-b

Contents of this page

emoticon

From Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emoticon 081222

An emoticon is a symbol or combination of symbols used to convey emotional content in written or message form. The word is a portmanteau of the English words emotion (or emote) and icon. In web forums, instant messengers and online games, text emoticons are often automatically replaced with small corresponding images, which came to be called emoticons as well. Examples of well known emoticons are the smiley face :) or the frowny face :(

Early emoticons go back to the 1800s and commonly arose when casual/humorous writing was common. The emoticons on the Internet can largely be traced back to a proposal by Scott Fahlman in a message of 19th September 1982.

UKT: More in the original article.

Go back emoticon-note-b

Contents of this page

Home birth

From Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Home_birth 081224

Home birth occurs when a woman labors and delivers a child at home, rather than the labor and delivery ward of a hospital or birthing center. Home births are generally attended by a midwife, but are sometimes attended by general practitioners, other medical professionals or doulas. Some mothers choose to give birth without any medical professional present this is generally known as an "unassisted home birth" or "freebirth."

UKT: CAUTION: Restricted because a nudity scene is involved.

In choosing home birth, the mother generally has more control over her surroundings, and can eat and move around, sleep and do anything she pleases - activities which may be discouraged in a hospital setting. Midwives generally view birth as a natural process, and therefore keep their intervention and any other sort of medical intervention to a minimum.

During a homebirth there is no access to pharmaceutical pain relief or pharmaceutical labor induction, nor equipment for emergency delivery (such as forceps, vacuum extraction, or surgery). Births necessitating these interventions would require transfer to a hospital. Depending on the midwifery practice, transfer rates can range anywhere from 5% to 40%, but most studies cite a transfer rate of about 16%.

In many Western countries, home birth declined over the 20th century due to migration to urban centers and increased accessibility of hospitals. However, the WHO (World Health Organization) has released statements urging the use of more naturalistic, small-scale methods of childbirth, rather than the large-scale units now prevalent in developed countries .

International Home Birth Rates
There was a revival of midwifery, the practice supporting a natural approach to birth, in the United States in the 1970s. However, although there was a steep increase in midwife-attended births between 1975 to 2002 (from less than 1.0% to 8.1%), most of these births occurred in the hospital and the US rate of out-of-hospital birth has remained steady at 1% of all births since 1989 with 27.3% of these in a free-standing birth center and 65.4% in a residence. Hence, the actual rate of home birth in the United States has remained remarkably low (0.65%) over the past twenty years.

Home birth in the United Kingdom has also received some press over the past few years as there has been a movement, most notably in Wales, to increase home birth rates to 10% by 2007. Between 2005 to 2006, there was an increase of 16% of home birth rates in Wales, but the total home birth rate is still 3% even in Wales (double the national rate) and in some other counties of Great Britain the home birth rate is still under 1%.

In the Netherlands, an opposite trend has taken place: in the 1965, two-thirds of Dutch births took place at home, but currently, that figure has dropped to less than a third about 30%.

UKT: More in the original article.

Go back home-birth-note-b

Contents of this page

preposition

UKT: There are two words with the same spelling "preposition" but with different meaning -- homonym.

From: www.psc.edu/~burkardt/wordplay/equivocal_words.html
"An equivocal word can be pronounced in two different ways, meaning two different things. This is a concept that is the opposite of a homonym, or perhaps an opposite. ... The OED and the Encyclopedia Brittanica say that a homonym is a pair of words with the same spelling and different pronunciation! Webster's Second International Dictionary prefers two words with different spelling and the same pronunciation. Webster's Third says that it's two words with the same spelling and pronunciation, but different meanings! / William S Huff, a professor of architecture at SUNY Buffalo, tried to categorize the possibilities in terms of same or different spelling, pronunciation, and meaning. In his system, the words we are talking about are heterophonic homonyms. It is claimed that he had found 392 pairs of examples."

From AHTD:
preposition 1 n. Abbr. prep. Grammar 1. In some languages, a word placed before a substantive and indicating the relation of that substantive to a verb, an adjective, or another substantive, as English at, by, in, to, from, and with. 2. A word or construction similar in function to a preposition, such as in regard to or concerning.
Usage Note: The doctrine that a preposition may not be used to end a sentence was first promulgated by Dryden, probably on the basis of a specious analogy to Latin, and was subsequently refined by 18th-century grammarians. The rule has since become one of the most venerated maxims of schoolroom grammatical lore. But sentences ending with prepositions can be found in the works of most of the great writers since the Renaissance. In fact, English syntax allows and sometimes requires final placement of the preposition. Such placement is the only possible one in sentences such as We have much to be thankful for or That depends on what you believe in. Efforts to rewrite such sentences to place the preposition elsewhere will have comically stilted results; for example: We have much for which to be thankful or That depends on that in which you believe. Even sticklers for the traditional rule can have no grounds for criticizing sentences such as I don't know where she will end up or It's the most curious book I've ever run across. In these examples, up and across are used as adverbs, not prepositions, as demonstrated by the ungrammaticality of sentences such as I don't know up where she will end and It's the most curious book across which I have ever run.
preposition 2 also pre-position v. tr. To position or place in position in advance: artillery that was prepositioned at strategic points in the desert.

Go back preposition-note-b

Contents of this page

End of TIL file