Update: 2012-11-24 07:11 AM +0630

TIL

TIL Grammar Glossary

P02.htm

Compiled by U Kyaw Tun (UKT), M.S. (I.P.S.T., U.S.A.), and staff of TIL (Tun Institute of Learning, http://www.tuninst.net ), from various sources. Prepared for students of TIL Computing and Language Center, Yangon, Myanmar. Not for sale.

index.htm | |Top
GramGloss-indx.htm

Contents of this page
Grammar Glossary - P (divided into two files on 080821)

• palindrome • paragraph • parallelism • paraphrase • parataxis • parenthetical citation • parenthetical expression • participial phrase • participle • particle • parts of speech • pasquinade • passive • Passive Index • passive voice • past continuous • past participle • past perfect • past perfect continuous • past perfect tense • past simple • path • patterns of development
• perfect • perfect aspect • perfect tense • periodic sentence • person • personal pronoun • personification • philologist • phone • phoneme • phonetic alphabet • phonetics • phrasal verb • phrase • pidgin • plagiarism • plain case • plain form • planning • plot • plural
UKT notes: parataxis • participial phrase • particle • phoneme

• pocket dictionary • poetry • point of view • polysemy • polysyllabic • portmanteau word • positive degree • possessive • possessive adjective • possessive case • possessive pronoun • postmodifier • precedent • predicate • predicate adjective (predicative adjective) • predicate noun (predicate nominative) • prefix • premise • premodifier • preposition • prepositional phrase • prescriptive grammar • present continuous • present participle • present perfect • present perfect continuous • present perfect tense • present simple • present tense • pretentious writing • primary source • principal clause • principle parts • problem-solution organization • process analysis • progressive aspect • progressive tense • pronominal • pronoun • pronoun case • proofreading • proper adjective • proper noun • prose • prosody • protocol • punctuation • purpose

UKT Notes
• Preposition and postposition • Voice communication phonetic alphabet

Contents of this page

pocket dictionary

From UseE
A pocket dictionary is a small portable dictionary designed to be carried around. Consequently, they often have tough covers to withstand the perils of travelling.

Contents of this page

poetry

From UseE
Poetry is language where rhythm is an essential part of the communicative act, where words are used in a way similar to music to create an effect on the reader or listener. Language which does not use rhythm and other effects in this way is called prose.

Contents of this page

point of view 

From LBH
The perspective or attitude of the narrator or speaker in a work of literature.
See also • person. (See p. 797.)

Contents of this page

polysemy

From UseE
Polysemy refers to a word that has two or more similar meanings:

The house is at the foot of the mountains.
One of his shoes felt too tight for his foot.
Foot  here refers to the bottom part of the mountains in the first sentence and the bottom part of the leg in the second.

From AHTD
polysemous adj. Linguistics 1. Having or characterized by many meanings. [From Late Latin polysēmus from Greek polusēmospolu- poly- sēma sign] polysemy n.

Contents of this page

polysyllabic

From UseE
A polysyllabic word has three or more syllables :
[e.g.] • exciting •  wonderful • fantastic • irregular • unnecessarily • wickedly

UKT: The only way to know how many syllables there are in a word, is to refer to a pronouncing dictionary such as DJPD16.

Contents of this page

portmanteau word

From UseE
A portmanteau word is formed out of parts of other words. Oxbridge is made up from parts of the names of Oxford and Cambridge and refers to one of the two universities. 'Swatch' is a portmanteau word formed from SWiss wATCH, 'brunch' is formed from BReakfast and lUNCH.
     A 'chocoholic' has a problem with chocolate that is like the addiction of an alcoholic.

Contents of this page

positive degree 

See • comparison.

Contents of this page

possessive 

See • case.

Contents of this page

possessive adjective

From UseE 
My, your, his, her, its, our, and their are the English possessive adjectives, used with nouns to show possession or ownership.

That's my folder.
My is an adjective which shows that I am the owner of the folder.

My; your; his; her; its; our; and their are the possessive adjectives in English. They are used before a noun to show possession.

From AHTD
A pronominal adjective expressing possession.

Contents of this page

possessive case

See • case • genitive case
• Genitive is Not Always Possessive by Bob Cunningham in my notes in G01.htm

From DC 
The genitive case; the case of nouns and pronouns which expresses ownership, origin, or some possessive relation of one thing to another; as:

Homer's admirers 
the pear's flavor 
the dog's faithfulness 

Source: Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary, Š 1996, 1998 MICRA, Inc.

Contents of this page

possessive pronoun

From UseE
Mine
, yours, his, hers, its, ours, theirs are the possessive pronouns used to substitute a noun and to show possession or ownership.

This is your disk and that's mine.
Mine substitutes the word disk and shows that it belongs to me.

From AHTD
One of several pronouns designating possession and capable of substituting for noun phrases.

From DC
A pronoun denoting ownership as:
[e.g.]: • his name • her home • my book 
Source: Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary, Š 1996, 1998 MICRA, Inc.

Contents of this page

postmodifier

From UseE
A postmodifier is placed after the word that it modifies:

He was the man chosen for the job.
Here chosen modifies the word man by telling us which man it was and comes after the word it is modifying.

Contents of this page

precedent

UKT: "Precedent" is not used as a grammatical term. See • antecedent.

From AHTD
precedent
n. 1. a. An act or instance that may be used as an example in dealing with subsequent similar instances. b. Law A judicial decision that may be used as a standard in subsequent similar cases:

a landmark decision that set a legal precedent.

2. Convention or custom arising from long practice:

The President followed historical precedent in forming the Cabinet.

adj.  1. Preceding. [Middle English from Old French from Latin praecēdēnspraecēdent-, present participle of praecēdere to go before; See precede ]

From WDProj  
adj. Going before; anterior; preceding; antecedent; as, precedent services.
  Shak.
A precedent injury." Bacon. Condition precedent
  (Law)
, a condition which precede the vesting of an estate, or the accruing of a right.

n.
  1. Something done or said that may serve as an example to authorize a subsequent act of the same kind; an authoritative example.
     Examples for cases can but direct as precedents only. Hooker.
  2. A preceding circumstance or condition; an antecedent; hence, a prognostic; a token; a sign. [Obs.]
  3. A rough draught of a writing which precedes a finished copy. [Obs.] Shak.
  4. (Law) A judicial decision which serves as a rule for future determinations in similar or analogous cases; an authority to be followed in courts of justice; forms of proceeding to be followed in similar cases. Wharton. Syn. -- Example; antecedent. -- An example in a similar case which may serve as a rule or guide, but has no authority out of itself. A precedent is something which comes down to us from the past with the sanction of usage and of common consent. We quote examples in literature, and precedents in law.

Contents of this page

predicate

See • intransitive verb • linking verb • transitive verb

From LBH
The part of a sentence that makes an assertion about the subject.
A predicate must contain a finite verb and may contain modifiers, objects of the verb, and complements.
The simple predicate consists of the verb and its helping verbs:

A wiser person would have made a different decision.

The complete predicate includes the simple predicate and any modifiers, objects, and complements:

A wiser person would have made a different decision.

(See pp. 255, 259–62.)
UKT: I've checked (online) this entry: the examples given "A wiser ..." are exactly the same for both simple and complete predicates. It shows that LBH is not as reliable as it ought to be!


From UseE

A simple sentence can be divided into two parts; the subject (S) and the predicate (P), which is the verb and any complement of the verb, which can include the object, adverbial, etc. :

She laughed.
[UKT: S = she ; P = laughed ]

She wrote a book.
[UKT: S = she ; P = wrote a book ]


From AHTD

n.1. Grammar One of the two main constituents of a sentence, modifying the subject and including the verb, objects, or phrases governed by the verb, as :

Jane opened the door .
opened the door
= predicate

The child is very sleepy .
is very sleepy
= predicate

2. Logic That part of a proposition that is affirmed or denied about the subject. For example, in the proposition

We are mortal.
mortal
= predicate

v. predicate predicated predicating predicates
v. tr.

1.
To base or establish (a statement or an action, for example):

He predicates his argument on the facts.

2. To state or affirm as an attribute or a quality of something:

The sermon predicated the perfectibility of humankind.

3.To carry the connotation of; imply.
4. Logic To make (a term or an expression) the predicate of a proposition.
5. To proclaim or assert; declare.
v. intr.

1. To make a statement or an assertion.
adj.
1. Grammar Of or belonging to the predicate of a sentence or clause.
2. Stated or asserted; predicated.  predication n. predicational adj. predicative adj. predicatively adv.


From GGW
A predicate is the completer of a sentence. The subject names the "do-er" or the "be-er" of the sentence; the predicate does the rest of the work.

• A simple predicate consists of only a verb, verb string, or compound verb:

The glacier melted.
The glacier has been melting.
The glacier melted, broke apart, and slipped into the sea.

• A compound predicate consists of two (or more) such predicates connected:

The glacier began to slip down the mountainside
and eventually crushed some of the village's outlying buildings
.

• A complete predicate consists of the verb and all accompanying modifiers and other words that receive the action of a transitive verb or complete its meaning.

The following description of predicates comes from The Longman Handbook for Writers and Readers (examples our own):
With an intransitive verb, objects and complements are included in the predicate.

The glacier is melting.

With a transitive verb, objects and object complements are said to be part of the predicate:

The slow moving glacier wiped out an entire forest.
It gave the villagers a lot of problems.

With a linking verb, the subject is connected to a subject complement.

The mayor doesn't feel good

Contents of this page

predicate adjective 

See • complement .

From GGW
A predicate adjective follows a linking verb and tells us something about the subject:

Ramonita is beautiful.
His behavior has been outrageous.
That garbage on the street smells bad.

From UseE  
A predicative adjective comes after a copula verb and not before a noun.

Contents of this page

predicate noun (predicate nominative) 

See • complement.

From GGW
A predicate nominative follows a linking verb and tells us what the subject is:

Dr. Couchworthy is acting president of the university.
She used to be the tallest girl on the team.

Contents of this page

prefix 

See • affix • suffix • English Roots in my notes in  A01.htm

From LBH
A letter or group of letters (such as sub-, in-, dis-, pre- ) that can be added at the beginning of a root or word to create a new word:

sub + marine = submarine
dis +grace = disgrace

Contrast • suffix. (See pp. 597–98.)

From UseE
Prefixes are groups of letters that can be placed before a word to modify its meaning.

impossible
(the prefix im- modifies the meaning to produce a negative sense)

From AHTD
An affix, such as dis- in disbelieve, put before a word to produce a derivative word or an inflected form.

Contents of this page

premise 

From LBH
Generally, a claim or assumption basic to an argument. In a deductive syllogism, one premise applied to another leads logically to a conclusion.
See also • syllogism. (See pp. 166–69.)

Contents of this page

premodifier

From UseE
A premodifier is a word that is placed before the word it modifies:

It's a fat cat.
Here 'fat' modifies the word 'cat' that comes after it.

Contents of this page

preposition 

See • Preposition and postposition in my notes

From LBH
A word that forms a noun or pronoun (plus any modifiers) into a prepositional phrase:

about love 
down the steep stairs

The common prepositions include these as well as:
 • after • before • by • for • from • in • on • to , and many others.
(See pp. 266–67.)

From UseE
A preposition is a word that links a noun, pronoun or gerund to other words. They can have a variety of meanings:

Direction:
He's going TO the shops.

Location:
It's IN the box.

Time:
He left AFTER the lesson had finished

Possession:
The Government OF Italy.

Some prepositional phrases can function like single word prepositions; next to, in front of, etc..

From AHTD
1.
In some languages, a word placed before a substantive and indicating the relation of that substantive to a verb, an adjective, or another substantive:
[e.g.] • at • by • in • to • from • with
2. A word or construction similar in function to a preposition, such as:
[e.g.]  • in regard to  • concerning 

Usage Note from AHTD: The doctrine that a preposition may not be used to end a sentence was first promulgated by Dryden, probably on the basis of a specious analogy to Latin, and was subsequently refined by 18th-century grammarians. The rule has since become one of the most venerated maxims of schoolroom grammatical lore. But sentences ending with prepositions can be found in the works of most of the great writers since the Renaissance. In fact, English syntax allows and sometimes requires final placement of the preposition. Such placement is the only possible one in sentences such as:

We have much to be thankful for.
That depends on what you believe in.

Efforts to rewrite such sentences to place the preposition elsewhere will have comically stilted results; for example:

* We have much for which to be thankful.
* That depends on that in which you believe.

Even sticklers for the traditional rule can have no grounds for criticizing sentences such as:

I don't know where she will end up.
It's the most curious book I've ever run across.

In these examples, up and across are used as adverbs, not prepositions, as demonstrated by the ungrammaticality of sentences such as:

* I don't know up where she will end.
* It's the most curious book across which I have ever run.

[UKT: I've added an * before the above sentences to show that they are wrong!

Contents of this page

prepositional phrase 

From LBH
A word group consisting of a preposition and its object, plus any modifiers.
A prepositional phrase usually functions as an adjective or adverb:

The boy in green stood up -- functions as adjective
He walked to the speaker's platform -- functions as adverb 

(See pp. 267–68.)

From UseE 
A prepositional phrase is the combination of a preposition and its complement:

She left early in order to get TO THE BANK.

From AHTD
A phrase that consists of a preposition and its object and has adjectival or adverbial value, such as:

the people in the house
in the house
= prepositional phrase

The book was written by him.
by him
= prepositional phrase

Contents of this page

prescriptive grammar

See • descriptive grammar

From UseE
A prescriptive grammar lays out rules about the structure of a language. Unlike a descriptive grammar it deals with what the grammarian believes to be right and wrong, good or bad language use; not following the rules will generate incorrect language. Both types of grammar have their supporters and their detractors, which in all probability suggests that both have their strengths and weaknesses.

Contents of this page

present continuous

From UseE
FORMATION: Simple Present of 'to be' + -ING
The Present Continuous (or progressive) is used for actions that have begun but not finished. It can also be used to talk about future arrangements.

Contents of this page

present participle 

See • participle • past participle

From UseE
Present Participles are used with the verb 'to be' to indicate an action that is incomplete:

I am reading ; I was reading
[UKT: am and was are forms of verb to be.]

They can also be used as an adjective; an interesting story, a fascinating woman, etc.

Contents of this page

present perfect

See • past perfect

From UseE
FORMATION: 'HAVE' + Past Participle

1.  For unfinished past actions:
   I've worked here for four years.

2.  For past actions when the time is not specified:
   Have you ever been to Rome?

3.  When a past action is relevant now:
   I've missed my flight.
   She's broken her leg and cannot go on holiday next week.

Contents of this page

present perfect continuous

From UseE
FORMATION: HAVE + BEEN + Present Participle
It is used to emphasise the duration of a recent past activity. It can also be used for actions that began in the past and are still going on now.

Contents of this page

present perfect tense 

See • tense.

Contents of this page

present simple

See •  past simple • tense

From UseE
• Actions that are repeated or habitual.
• States.
• Statements that are always true.

I get up at 9.00 am.
I like coffee.
The sun sets in the west.

The form of the verb is usually the same as the base form, but the third person singular adds -s. Some verbs change, like 'to be', which uses 'am', 'are' and 'is', and 'to have', where the third person is 'has'. The auxiliary verb 'to do' is used in a negative structure or a question:

Do you like tea?
Does she live nearby?
I don't like them.
She doesn't go to the theatre very often.

The third person returns to the base form when 'does' or 'doesn't' are used.

Contents of this page

present tense 

See • tense.

Contents of this page

pretentious writing 

See • Babu English .

From LBH   
Writing that is more elaborate than the writing situation requires, usually full of fancy phrases and showy words. (See p. 563.)

Contents of this page

primary source 

From LBH
Firsthand information, such as an eyewitness account of events; a diary, speech, or other historical document; a work of literature or art; a report of a survey or experiment; and one's own interview, observation, or correspondence. Contrast secondary source. (See p. 626.)

Contents of this page

principal clause

See • apodosis • clause • main clause

From LBH
A main or independent clause.

Contents of this page

principal parts of a verb

See • verb forms .

From LBH
The plain form, past-tense form, and past participle of a verb.
(See pp. 301–02.)
[E.g.] go (plain form or dictionary form is the present tense) , went (past-tense) , gone (past participle)

Contents of this page

problem-solution organization 

From LBH
The arrangement of material to state and explain a problem and then to propose and explain a solution. (See pp. 44, 85.)

Contents of this page

process analysis 

From LBH
The explanation of how something works or how to do something. (See pp. 28, 103.)

Contents of this page

progressive aspect

See • stative verb

From UseE
The progressive, or continuous, aspect is formed with the auxiliary verb 'to be' + -ing, the present participle. It shows that an action or state, past, present, or future, was, is or will be unfinished at the time referred to:

I'm reading Nelson Mandela's autobiography.
(action unfinished now)

She was having a shower when the phone rang.
(action unfinished at the time the phone rang)

Contents of this page

progressive tense 

See • tense.

Contents of this page

pronominal

From AHTD
pronominal
adj. Abbr. pron. pronom. Grammar
1. Of, relating to, or functioning as a pronoun.
2.
Resembling a pronoun, as by specifying a person, place, or thing, while functioning primarily as another part of speech.
     His
in his choice is a pronominal adjective.

Contents of this page

pronoun 

From AHTD
One of a class of words that function as substitutes for nouns or noun phrases and designate persons or things asked for, previously specified, or understood from the context.

From UseE
A pronoun is a word that substitutes a noun or noun phrase. There are a number of different kinds of pronouns in English:

1. Demonstrative Pronoun :
   • this • that • these • those

2. Personal Pronoun :
   • I • you • he • she , etc..

3. Possessive Pronoun :
   • mine • yours • his , etc..

4. Reflexive Pronoun :
   • myself • yourself , etc..

5. Interrogative Pronoun :
   • who • what • where , etc..

6. Negative Pronoun :
  • nothing • no • nobody , etc..

7. Reciprocal pronoun :
   • each other , etc..

8. Relative Clause :
   • who • whose • which • that , etc..

9. Quantifier :
   • some • any • something • much • many • little , etc.

From LBH
A word used in place of a noun. There are eight types of pronouns:

1. Personal pronouns : refer to a specific individual or to individuals:
   • I • you • he • she • it • we • they. (See p. 293.)

2. Indefinite pronouns : do not refer to specific nouns:
   • everybody • some
   Everybody speaks.
(See p. 357.)

3. Relative pronouns : relate groups of words to nouns or pronouns:
   • who• whoever • which • that
   The book that won is a novel.
(See pp. 276–77, 293.)

4. Interrogative pronouns : introduce questions:
   • who • whom • whose • which • what
   Who will contribute?

5. Intensive pronouns : emphasize a noun or other pronoun:
   • personal pronouns plus -self or -selves
   He himself asked that question.

6. Reflexive pronouns : have the same form as intensive pronouns.
   They indicate that the sentence subject also receives the action of the verb:
   They injured themselves.

7. Demonstrative pronouns : identify or point to nouns:
   • this • that • such
   This is the problem.

8. Reciprocal pronouns : are used as objects of verbs when the subjects are plural:
    • each other • one another
   They loved each other.

Contents of this page

pronoun case

See • case • subject case

Contents of this page

proofreading 

From LBH
Reading and correcting a final draft for misspellings, typographical errors, and other mistakes. (See pp. 63–64.)

Contents of this page

proper adjective 

See • adjective.

Contents of this page

proper noun 

See • noun.

From UseE
Proper nouns are the names of individual people, places, titles, calendar times, etc..
[E.g.] • Janet • Simon • London • The President • Tuesday
Proper nouns are always written with a capital letter. Nouns which are not written with a capital letter do not refer to the name of an individual person or thing and are called common nouns.

Contents of this page

prose

From UseE
Language can be divided into two basic categories; prose and poetry. The latter is characterised by its use of rhythm, and the former by not using a regular rhythm, which is the case for the vast majority of spoken and written language.

ontents of this page

prosody

From UseE
Prosody is the study of the various rhythms used in poetry.

Contents of this page

protocol 

See • uniform resource locator (URL).

Contents of this page

punctuation

From UseE
The symbols used in written language to indicate the end of a sentence or a clause, or to indicate that it is a question, etc., are the punctuation.
     . / , / ; / : / ? / ! / ' / - / " " / ( )
are the symbols most commonly used in English.

Contents of this page

purpose 

From LBH
For a writer, the chief reason for communicating something about a topic to a particular audience. Purposes are both general (usually explanation or persuasion) and specific (taking into account the topic and desired outcome). (See pp. 15–17.)

Contents of this page

UKT notes

Preposition and postposition

From: Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Preposition 080611

In grammar, a preposition is a part of speech that introduces a prepositional phrase. For example, in the sentence "The cat sleeps on the sofa", the word "on" is a preposition, introducing the prepositional phrase "on the sofa". In English, the most used prepositions are "of", "to", "in", "for", and "on". Simply put, a preposition indicates a relation between things mentioned in a sentence.

Linguists sometimes distinguish between a preposition, which precedes its phrase, a postposition, which follows its phrase, and as a rare case a circumposition, which surrounds its phrase. Taken together, these three parts of speech are called adpositions. In more technical language, an adposition is an element that, prototypically, combines syntactically with a phrase and indicates how that phrase should be interpreted in the surrounding context. Some linguists use the word "preposition" instead of "adposition" for all three cases. (prp-fn01).

In linguistics, adpositions are considered to be members of the syntactic category "P". " PPs" (prp-fn02), consisting of an adpositional head and its complement phrase, are used for a wide range of syntactic and semantic functions, most commonly modification and complementation. The following examples illustrate some uses of English prepositional phrases [either as a modifier or a complement]:

as a modifier to a verb
• sleep throughout the winter
• danced atop the tables for hours

as a modifier to a noun
• the weather in April
• cheeses from France with live bacteria

as the complement of a verb
• insist on staying home
• dispose of unwanted items

as the complement of a noun
• a thirst for revenge
• an amendment to the constitution

as the complement of an adjective or adverb
• attentive to their needs
• separately from its neighbors

as the complement of another preposition
• until after supper
• from beneath the bed

Adpositions perform many of the same functions as case markings, but adpositions are syntactic elements, while case markings are morphological elements.

Definition
Adpositions form a heterogeneous class, with fuzzy boundaries that tend to overlap with other categories (like verbs, nouns, and adjectives). It is thus impossible to provide an absolute definition that picks out all and only the adpositions in every language. The following features, however, are often required of adpositions.

• An adposition combines syntactically with exactly one complement phrase, most often a noun phrase (or, in a different analysis, a determiner phrase). (In some analyses, an adposition need have no complement. See below.) In English, this is generally a noun (or something functioning as a noun, e.g., a gerund), called the object of the preposition, together with its attendant modifiers.

• An adposition establishes the grammatical relationship that links its complement phrase to another word or phrase in the context. In English, it also establishes a semantic relationship, which may be spatial (in, on, under, ...), temporal (after, during, ...), or logical (via, ...) in nature.

• An adposition determines certain grammatical properties of its complement (e.g. its case). In English, the objects of prepositions are always in the objective case. In Koine Greek, certain prepositions always take their objects in a certain case (e.g., εν always takes its object in the dative), and other prepositions may take their object in one of several cases, depending on the meaning of the preposition (e.g., δια takes its object in the genetive or in the accusative, depending on the meaning).

• Adpositions are non-inflecting (or "invariant"); i.e., they do not have paradigms of forms (for different tenses, cases, genders, etc.) in the same way as verbs, adjectives, and nouns in the same language. There are exceptions, though, for example in Celtic languages (see Inflected preposition).

Properties
The following properties are characteristic of most adpositional systems.

• Adpositions are among the most frequently occurring words in languages that have them. For example, one frequency ranking for English word forms (prp-fn03) begins as follows (adpositions in bold):
   the, of, and, to, a, in, that, it, is, was, I, for, on, you, …

• The most common adpositions are single, monomorphemic words. According to the ranking cited above, for example, the most common English prepositions are:
   of, to, in, for, on, with, as, by, at, from, …

• Adpositions form a closed class of lexical items and cannot be productively derived from words of other categories.

Standing
Preposition stranding, sometimes called "P-stranding", is the syntactic construction in which a preposition appears without an object. (The preposition is then described as "stranded" or "hanging".) This construction is widely found in Germanic languages, including English and the North Germanic languages (Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, Icelandic); whether or not German and Dutch exhibit legitimate preposition stranding is debatable. P-stranding is also found in languages outside the Germanic family, such as Vata and Gbadi, two languages in the Niger-Congo family, and certain dialects of French spoken in North America.

In English, some grammarians frown upon preposition stranding; see Disputes in English grammar.

Classification
Adpositions can be organized into subclasses according to various criteria. These can be based on directly observable properties (such as the adposition's form or its position in the sentence) or on less visible properties (such as the adposition's meaning or function in the context at hand).

Simple and Complex
Simple adpositions consist of a single word, while complex adpositions consist of a group of words that act as one unit. Some examples of complex prepositions in English are:

• in spite of, with respect to, except for, by dint of, next to

The boundary between simple and complex adpositions is not clear-cut. Many simple adpositions are derived from complex forms (e.g. with + in within, by + sidebeside) through grammaticalization. This change takes time, and during the transitional stages the adposition acts in some ways like a single word, and in other ways like a multi-word unit. For example, current German orthographic conventions recognize the indeterminate status of the following adpositions, allowing two spellings (prp-fn04):

• anstelle / an Stelle ("instead of"), aufgrund / auf Grund ("because of"), mithilfe / mit Hilfe ("thanks to"), zugunsten / zu Gunsten ("in favor of"), zuungunsten / zu Ungunsten ("to the disadvantage of"), zulasten / zu Lasten ("at the expense of")

The boundary between complex adpositions and free combinations of words is also a fuzzy one. For English, this involves structures of the form "preposition + (article) + noun + preposition". Many sequences in English, such as in front of, that are traditionally regarded as prepositional phrases are not so regarded by linguists (prp-fn05). The following characteristics are good indications that a given combination is "frozen" enough to be considered a complex preposition in English:

• It contains a word that cannot be used in any other context: by dint of, in lieu of.

• The first preposition cannot be replaced: with a view to but not *for/without a view to

• It is impossible to insert an article, or to use a different article: *on an/the account of, for the/*a sake of

• The range of possible adjectives is very limited: in great favor of , but not *in helpful favor of

• The number of the noun cannot be changed: by virtue/*virtues of

• It is impossible to use a possessive determiner: in spite of him, not *in his spite

Complex prepositions develop through the grammaticalization of commonly-used free combinations. This is an ongoing process that introduces new prepositions into English (prp-fn06).

Classification by position
The surface position of an adposition with respect to its complement allows us to define the following subclasses:

• A preposition precedes its complement to form a prepositional phrase.
   German: auf dem Tisch,
   French: sur la table,
   Polish: na stole ("on the table")

• A postposition follows its complement to form a postpositional phrase.
   Mandarin: 桌子 zhuōzi shŕng (lit. "table on")

These two terms are in fact much more commonly used than the more general adposition. Whether a language has primarily prepositions or postpositions is seen as an important aspect of its typological classification, correlated with many other properties of the language according to research into linguistic universals.

It is usually straightforward to say whether an adposition precedes or follows its complement, but in some cases, the complement may not appear in its "normal" position. For example, in preposition stranding constructions, the complement appears somewhere to the left of the preposition:

• {How much money} did you say the guy wanted to sell us the car for?

• She's going to the Bahamas? {Who} with?

In other cases, the complement of the adposition is missing altogether:

• I'm going to the park. Do you want to come with?

• French: Il fait trop froid, je ne suis pas habillée pour. ("It's too cold, I'm not dressed for [this situation].")

The adpositions in these examples are generally still considered to be prepositions, because when they form a phrase with the complement (in more ordinary constructions), they must appear first.

Some adpositions can in fact appear on either side of their complement; these might be called ambipositions (Libert 2006):

• He slept {through the whole night}/{the whole night through}.
   German: {meiner Meinung nach}/{nach meiner Meinung} ("in my opinion")

An ambiposition may have distinct meanings, and it may govern distinct cases, depending on its position.

Another logical possibility is for the adposition to appear on both sides of its complement:

• A circumposition has two parts, which surround the complement to form a circumpositional phrase.
   English: from now on
   Dutch: naar het einde toe ("to the end", lit. "to the end to")
   Mandarin: 冰箱 里cóng bīngxīang ("from out of the refrigerator", lit. "from refrigerator inside")
   French: ŕ un détail prčs ("except for one detail", lit. "at one detail near")

"Circumposition" can be useful as a descriptive term, although on closer inspection, most circumpositional phrases can be broken down into a more hierarchical structure, or given a different analysis altogether. For example, the Mandarin example above could be analyzed as a prepositional phrase headed by cóng ("from"), taking the postpositional phrase bīngxīang lǐ ("refrigerator inside") as its complement. Alternatively, the cóng may be analyzed as not being a preposition at all (see the section below regarding coverbs).

• An inposition is an adposition between constituents of a complex complement (prp-fn07).

• Ambiposition is a term sometimes used for an adposition that can function as either a preposition or a postposition (prp-fn08).

Melis (2003) proposes the descriptive term interposition for adpositions in the structures such as the following:

• mot ŕ mot ("word for word"), coup sur coup ("one after another, repeatedly"), page aprčs page ("page upon page")

These phrases do require special attention, but the term "interposition" cannot be taken literally to mean that the adposition appears inside its complement (because the two nouns do not form a single phrase *mot mot or *page page). Genuine examples of "interposed" adpositions can be found in Latin (e.g. summa cum laude, lit. "highest with praise"), but these are always related to a more basic prepositional structure.

Classification by complement
Although noun phrases are the most typical complements, adpositions can in fact combine with a variety of syntactic categories, much like verbs.

• noun phrases: It was on {the table}.

• adpositional phrases: Come out from {under the bed}.

• adjectives and adjective phrases: The scene went from {blindingly bright} to {pitch black}.

• adverb or adverb phrases: I worked there until recently

• infinitival or participial verb phrases: Let's think about solving this problem.

• interrogative clauses: we can't agree on {whether to have children or not}

• full sentences (see Conjunctions below)

Also like verbs, adpositions can appear without a complement; see Adverbs below.

Some adpositions could be described as combining with two complements:

• {With Sammy president}, we can all come out of hiding again.

• {For Sammy to become president}, they'd have to seriously modify the Constitution.

It is more commonly assumed, however, that Sammy and the following predicate first forms a small clause, which then becomes the single complement of the preposition. (In the first example above, a word (such as as) may be considered to be ellided, which, if present, would clarify the grammatical relationship.)

Semantic classification
Adpositions can be used to express a wide range of semantic relations between their complement and the rest of the context. The following list is not an exhaustive classification:

• spatial relations: location (inclusion, exclusion, proximity), direction (origin, path, endpoint)

• temporal relations

• comparison: equality, opposition, price, rate

• content: source, material, subject matter

• instrument, manner

• cause, purpose, agent

Most common adpositions are highly polysemous, and much research is devoted to the description and explanation of the various interconnected meanings of particular adpositions. In many cases a primary, spatial meaning can be identified, which is then extended to non-spatial uses by metaphorical or other processes.

In some contexts, adpositions appear in contexts where their semantic contribution is minimal, perhaps altogether absent. Such adpositions are sometimes referred to as functional or case-marking adpositions, and they are lexically selected by another element in the construction, or fixed by the construction as a whole.

• English: dispense with formalities, listen to my advice, good at mathematics

• Russian: otvechat' na vopros (lit. "answer on the question"), obvinenie v obmane ("accusation in [i.e. of] fraud")

• Spanish: sońar con ganar el título ("dream with [i.e. about] winning the title"), consistir en dos grupos ("consist in [i.e. of] two groups")

It is usually possible to find some semantic motivation for the choice of a given adposition, but it is generally impossible to explain why other semantically motivated adpositions are excluded in the same context. The selection of the correct adposition in these cases is a matter of syntactic well-formedness.

Subclasses of spatial adpositions
Spatial adpositions can be divided into two main classes, namely directional and static ones. A directional adposition usually involves motion along a path over time, but can also denote a non-temporal path. Examples of directional adpositions include to, from, towards, into, along and through.

• Bob went to the store. (movement over time)
• a path into the woods (non-temporal path)
• The fog extended from London to Paris (non-temporal path)

A static adposition normally does not involve movement. Examples of these include at, in, on, beside, behind, under and above.

• Bob is at the store.

Directional adpositions differ from static ones in that they normally can't combine with a copula to yield a predicate, though there are some exceptions to this, as in Bob is from Australia, which may perhaps be thought of as special uses.

• Fine: Bob is in his bedroom. (in is static)

• Bad: *Bob is to his bedroom. (to is directional)

Directional spatial adpositions can only combine with verbs that involve motion; static prepositions can combine with other verbs as well.

• Fine: Bob is lying down in his bedroom.
• Bad: *Bob is lying down into/from his bedroom.

When a static adposition combines with a motion verb, it sometimes takes on a directional meaning. The following sentence can either mean that Bob jumped around in the water, or else that he jumped so that he ended up in the water.

• Bob jumped in the water.

In some languages, directional adpositions govern a different case on their complement than static ones. For example, in German, directional adpositions govern accusative while static ones govern dative. Adpositions that are ambiguous between directional and static interpretations govern accusative when they are interpreted as directional, and dative when they are interpreted as static.

• in seinem Zimmer (in his-DATIVE room) "in his room" (static)

• in sein Zimmer (in his-ACCUSATIVE room) "into his room" (directional)

Directional adpositions can be further divided into telic ones and atelic ones. To, into and across are telic: they involve movement all the way to the endpoint denoted by their complement. Atelic ones include towards and along. When telic adpositions combine with a motion verb, the result is a telic verb phrase. Atelic adpositions give rise to atelic verb phrases when so combined (prp-fn09).

Static adpositions can be further subdivided into projective and non-projective ones. A non-projective static adposition is one whose meaning can be determined by inspecting the meaning of its complement and the meaning of the preposition itself. A projective static adposition requires, in addition, a perspective or point of view. If I say that Bob is behind the rock you need to know where I am in order to know on which side of the rock Bob is supposed to be. If I say that your pen is to the left of my book you also need to know what my point of view is. No such point of view is required in the interpretation of sentences like your pen is on the desk. Projective static prepositions can sometimes take the complement itself as "point of view," if this provides us with certain information. For example, a house normally has a front and a back, so a sentence like the following is actually ambiguous between two readings: one has it that Bob is at the back of the house; the other has it that Bob is on the other side of the house, with respect to the speaker's point of view.

• Bob is behind the house.

A similar effect can be observed with left of, given that objects that have fronts and backs can also be ascribed lefts and rights. The sentence, My keys are to the left of the phone, can either mean that they are on the speaker's left of the phone, or on the phone's left of the phone (prp-fn10).

Classification by grammatical function
Particular uses of adpositions can be classified according to the function of the adpositional phrase in the sentence.

• Modification
- adverb-like
    The athlete ran {across the goal line}.
- adjective-like
    attributively
      A road trip {with children} is not the most relaxing vacation.
    in the predicate position
      The key is {under the plastic rock}.

• Syntactic functions
- complement
Let's dispense with the formalities.
Here the words dispense and with complement one another, functioning as a unit to mean forego, and they share the direct object (the formalities). The verb dispense would not have this meaning without the word with to complement it.
- subject (impossible in many languages)
{In the cellar} was chosen as the best place to hide the bodies.
- object of the verb (rare or impossible in English, but very common e.g. in Koine Greek)

Adpositional languages typically single out a particular adposition for the following special functions:

• marking possession
• marking the agent in the passive construction
• marking the beneficiary role in transfer relations

Overlap with other categories
[with •adverbs • conjunctions • coverbs • case affixes ]

Adverbs
We observe many similarities in form between adpositions and adverbs. Some adverbs are transparently derived from the fusion of a preposition and its complement, and some prepositions have adverb-like uses with no complement:

• down the stairs --> downstairs, • under the ground --> underground.
• inside (the house) • aboard (the plane) • underneath (the surface)

It is possible to treat all of these adverbs as intransitive prepositions, as opposed to transitive prepositions, which select a complement (just like transitive vs intransitive verbs). This analysis (prp-fn11) could also be extended to other adverbs, even those that cannot be used as "ordinary" prepositions with a nominal complement:

• here, there, abroad, downtown, astray, …
• today, tomorrow, yesterday, soon, afterwards, someday, …
• recently, carefully, honestly, …

A more conservative approach is to say simply that adverbs and adpositional phrases share many common functions.

Phrasal verbs in English are composed of a verb and a "particle" that also looks like an intransitive preposition. The same can be said for the separable verb prefixes found in Dutch (and German).

• give up, look out, sleep in, carry on, come to
• Dutch: opbellen ("call up"), aanbieden ("offer"), voorstellen ("present")

Although these elements have the same lexical form as prepositions, in many cases they do not have relational semantics, and there is no "missing" complement whose identity can be recovered from the context.

Conjunctions
The set of adpositions overlaps with the set of subordinating conjunctions (or complementizers):

• (preposition) before/after/since the end of the summer
• (conjunction) before/after/since the summer ended
• It looks like another rainy day (preposition) / it's going to rain again today (conjunction).

All of these words can be treated as prepositions if we extend the definition to allow clausal complements. This treatment could be extended further to conjunctions that are never used as ordinary prepositions:

• unless they surrender • although time is almost up • while you were on the phone

Coverbs
In some languages, the role of adpositions is served by coverbs, words that are lexically verbs, but are generally used to convey the meaning of adpositions.

For instance, whether prepositions exist in Chinese is sometimes considered an open question. Coverbs are often referred to as prepositions because they appear before the noun phrase they modify. However, unlike prepositions, coverbs can sometimes stand alone as main verbs. For instance, in Standard Mandarin, dŕo can be used in a prepositional or a verb sense:

• ("to travel") is the main verb: 我北京去。dŕo Běijīng qů. ("I travel to Beijing.")
• dŕo ("to arrive") is the main verb: 我了。dŕo le. ("I have arrived.")


Case affixes
From a functional point of view, adpositions and morphological case markings are strikingly similar. An adpositional phrase in one language often corresponds directly to a case-marked noun phrase in another language. For example, the agentive noun phrase in the passive construction in English is introduced by the preposition by, while in Russian it is marked by the instrumental case. Sometimes this can be observed within a single language. For example, in certain uses the genitive case in German is interchangeable with a von prepositional phrase.

Despite this functional similarity, adpositions and case markings are distinct grammatical categories:

• Adpositions combine syntactically with their complement phrase. Case markings combine with a noun morphologically.
• Two adpositions can usually be joined with a conjunction and share a single complement, but this is normally not possible with case markings:

{of and for the people} vs. (Latin) populi et populo, not *populi et -o ("people-genitive and -dative")

• One adposition can usually combine with two coordinated complements, but this is normally not possible with case markings:

of {the city and the world} vs. (Latin) urbis et orbis, not *urb- et orbis ("city and world-genitive")

• Case markings combine primarily with nouns, whereas adpositions can combine with phrases of many different categories.
• A case marking usually appears directly on the noun, but an adposition can be separated from the noun by other words.
• Within the noun phrase, determiners and adjectives may agree with the noun in case (case spreading), but an adposition only appears once.
• A language can have hundreds of adpositions (including complex adpositions), but no language has this many distinct morphological cases.

Still, it can be difficult to draw a clear boundary between case markings and adpositions. For example, the post-nominal elements in Japanese and Korean are sometimes called case particles and sometimes postpositions. Sometimes they are analysed as two different groups because they have different characteristics (e.g. ability to combine with focus particles), but in such analysis, it is unclear which words should fall into which group.

• Japanese: 電車  (densha de, "by train")
• Korean: 한국 (Hangug-e, "to Korea")

Turkish and Finnish have both extensive case-marking and postpositions, and here there is evidence to help distinguish the two:

• Turkish: (case) sinemaya (cinema-dative, "to the cinema") vs (postposition) sinema için ("for the cinema")
• Finnish: (case) talossa (house-inessive, "in the house") vs (postposition) "talon edessä (house-gen in-front, "in front of the house")

In these examples, the case markings form a word with their hosts (as shown by vowel harmony, other word-internal effects and agreement of adjectives in Finnish), while the postpositions are independent words.

Word choice
In ambiguous cases, there is not always a clear rule which adposition is appropriate, and different languages and regional dialects may have different conventions. Learning the conventionally preferred word is a matter of exposure to examples. For example, most dialects of American English have "to wait in line", but some have "to wait on line". It is for this reason that prepositions are one of the most difficult aspects of a language to learn for non-native speakers. In some cases, the preposition is not translated from one language into another, and is thus omitted. Those learning English may have difficulty distinguishing between the prepositions on, in, and at, as other languages may use only one or two prepositions for the equivalent of three in English. On the other hand, speakers of English learning Spanish or Portuguese have difficulty distinguishing between the prepositions por and para, as both frequently mean for in English.

Wikipedia footnotes [on prepositions]
prp-fn01  An example is Huddleston & Pullum (2002) ("CGEL"), whose choice of terms is discussed on p. 602. prp-fn01b
prp-fn02  Although seemingly appropriate, the term adpositional phrase is little used. CGEL, p. 602. prp-fn02b
prp-fn03  WordCount website prp-fn03b
prp-fn04  Duden: Neue Rechtschreibung Crashkurs (Regel 11). prp-fn04b
prp-fn05  CGEL, p. 618ff; Pullum (2005). prp-fn05b
prp-fn06  Quirk and Mulholland (1964). prp-fn06b
prp-fn07  Haspelmath, "Adpositions"; citing Martin Haspelmath et al., eds, World Atlas of Language Structures (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005). prp-fn07b
prp-fn08  Haspelmath, "Adpositions". prp-fn08b
prp-fn09  Zwarts, Joost. 2005. "Prepositional Aspect and the Algebra of Paths." Linguistics and Philosophy 28.6, 739–779. prp-fn09b
prp-fn10  Creswell, Max. 1978. "Prepositions and points of view." Linguistics and Philosophy, 2: 1–41. prp-fn10b
prp-fn11  Notably that of CGEL, pp. 612–16. prp-fn11b

Wikipedia biblography  
• Bennett, David C. (1975)
   Spatial and Temporal Uses of English Prepositions: An Essay in Stratificational Semantics
. London: Longman.
• Emonds, Joseph E. (1985)
   A Unified Theory of Syntactic Categories
. Dordrecht: Foris.
• Haspelmath, Martin. (2003)
   "Adpositions". International Encyclopedia of Linguistics. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-513977-1.
• Huddleston, Rodney, and Geoffrey K. Pullum.
   (2002) The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-43146-8.
• Jackendoff, Ray S. (1973)
   "Base Rules for PPs". In S. R. Anderson and P. Kiparsky (eds), A Festschrift for Morris Halle, pp. 345–356.
   New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.
• Koopman, Hilda. (2000)
   "Prepositions, postpositions, circumpositions, and particles". In The Syntax of Specifiers and Heads, pp. 204–260. London: Routledge.
• Libert, Alan R. (2006)
   Ambipositions
. LINCOM studies in language typology (No. 13). LINCOM. ISBN 3-89586-747-0.
• Maling, Joan. (1983)
   "Transitive adjectives: A case of categorial reanalysis".
   In F. Heny and B. Richards (eds), Linguistic Categories: Auxiliaries and Related Puzzles, Vol. 1, pp. 253–289. Dordrecht: Reidel.
• Melis, Ludo. (2003)
   La préposition en français
. Gap: Ophrys.
• Pullum, Geoffrey K. (2005)
   "Phrasal Prepositions in a Civil Tone." Language Log. Accessed 9 September 2007.
• Quirk, Randolph, and Joan Mulholland. (1964)
   "Complex Prepositions and Related Sequences". English Studies, suppl. to vol. 45, pp. 64–73.
• Rauh, Gisa. (1991)
   Approaches to Prepositions
. Tübingen: Gunter Narr.

Go back pre-postposition-note-b

Contents of this page

Voice communication phonetic alphabet

- by UKT with reference to: Phonetic Alphabets
http://montgomery.cas.muohio.edu/meyersde/PhoneticAlphabets.htm 2001March

A person spelling out an English word over the telephone or wireless uses a system of words where the first letter represents a letter of the alphabet. For example, "Able", "Baker", and "Charlie" stand for A, B, and C. Such systems are regularly used by the police and the military in English speaking countries. The website I am referring to gives an extensive list of Phonetic Alphabets used in countries using the Latin alphabet for voice communication.  Whenever, I am asked to spell out my name TUN over the phone I usually joked: T for Totally, U for Useless, N for No-good -- Totally Useless No-good,  and laughed it off which usually made the hearer chuckle. The following is from the website.

01. English - Allied Services (1945)
A
ble, Baker, Charlie, Dog, Edward, Fox, George, How, Item, Jig, King, Love, Mike,
   N
an, Oboe, Peter, Queen, Roger, Sugar, Tape, Uncle, Victor, William, X-Ray, Yoke, Zebra 

02. English - Amateur Radio Unofficial (3 versions)
#1.America, Boston, Canada, Denmark, England, France, Germany, Honolulu, Ida, Japan, Kilowatt, London, Mexico,
   N
orway, Ontario, Pacific, Q, Radio, Santiago, Tokyo, United, Victoria, Washington, X-ray, Yokohama, Zanzibar 
#2. America, Brazil, Canada, Denmark, England, France, Greece, Honolulu, Ida, Japan, King, London, Mexico,
   Norway, Ocean, Pacific, Q, Russia, Spain, Tokyo, United, Victoria, Washington, Yokohama, Zanzibar
#3.Amsterdam, Baltimore, Chile, Egypt, Finland, Geneva, Guatemala, Hawaii, Italy, Kentucky, Luxembourg, Montreal,
   Nicaragua, Portugal, Romania, Sweden, Texas, Uruguay, Venezuela, Washington, Yokohama, Zanzibar 

03. English - American Radio Relay League (1945)
Able, Baker, Charlie, Dog, Easy, Fox, George, How, Item, Jig, King, Love, Mike,
   Nan, Oboe, Peter, Queen, Roger, Sugar, Tare, Uncle, Victor, William, X-Ray, Yoke, Zebra

04. English - American Radio Relay League (1948)
Adam, Baker, Charlie, David, Edward, Frank, George, Henry, Ida, John, King, Lewis, Mary,
   Nancy, Otto, Peter, Queen, Robert, Susan, Thomas, Union, Victor, William, X-ray, Young, Zebra 

05. English - Analogy Alphabet, Kenyan
Alfred, Benjamin, Charlie, David, Edward, Frederick, George, Harry, Isaac, Jack, King, London, Mary,
   Nellie, Oliver, Peter, Queen, Robert, Samuel, Tommy, Uncle, Victor, William, X-ray, Zebra

06. English - Book, Complete Morse Instructor, The (1944)
A
ble, Baker, Charlie, Dog, Easy, Fox, George, How, Item, Jig, King, Love, Mike,
   Nan, Oboe, Peter, Queen, Roger, Sugar, Tare, Uncle, Victor, William, X-Ray, Yoke, Zebra 

07. English - Book, English Phrase, Spanish/Italian
A
ndrew, Benjamin, Charlie, David, Edward, Frederick, George, Harry, Isaac, Jack, King, Lucy, Mike,
   Nellie, Oliver, Peter, Queen, Robert, Sugar, Tommy, Uncle, Victor, William, Xmas, Yellow, Zebra 

08. English - Book, French Business, International Alphabet
A
msterdam, Baltimore, Casablanca, Denmark, Edison, Florida, Gallipoli, Havana, Italy, Jerusalem, Kilogram, Liverpool, Madagascar,
   New-York, Oslo, Paris, Quebec, Roma, Santiago, Tripoli, Uppsala, Valencia, Washington, Xantippe, Yokohama, Zürich 

09. English - Book, German Business, International Alphabet
A
msterdam, Baltimore, Casablanca, Danemark, Edison, Florida, Gallipoli, Havana, Italy, Jerusalem, Kilogram, Liverpool, Madagaskar,
   New-York, Oslo, Paris, Québec, Roma, Santiago, Tripoli, Upsala, Valencia, Washington, Xanthippe, Yokohama, Zürich 

10. English - Book, Phrase, Indonesian
Alfa, Bravo, Coca, Delta, Echo, Foxtrot, Golf, Hotel, India, Juliet, Kilo, Lima, Metro,
   Nectar, Oscar, Papa, Quebec, Romeo,Siera, Tango, Union, Victor, Whisky, Extra, Yankee, Zulu

11. English - Book, Vocabulary, French/German
Andrew, Benjamin, Charlie, David, Edward, Frederick, George, Harry, Isaac, Jack, King, Lucy, Mike,
   Nellie, Oliver, Peter, Queen, Robert, Sugar, Tommy, Uncle, Victor, William, Xmas, Yellow, Zebra

12. English - British Armed Forces (1904)
Ack, Beer, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, Emma,
   N, O, Pip, Q, R, eSses, Toc, U, Vic, W, X, Y, Z

13. English - British Armed Forces (1927)
Ack, Beer, Charlie, Don, Edward, Freddy, George, Harry, Ink, Johnnie, King, London, Monkey,
   Nuts, Orange, Pip, Queen, Robert, Sugar, Toc, Uncle, Vic, William, X-ray, Yorker, Zebra 

14. English - British Armed Forces (1952)
Able, Baker, Charlie, Dog, Easy, Fox, George, How, Item, Jig, King, Love, Mike,
   Nan, Oboe, Peter, Queen, Roger, Sugar, Tare, Uncle, Victor, William, X-Ray, Yoke, Zebra 

15. English - British Police
Alpha, Bravo, Charlie, Delta, Echo, Foxtrot, Golf, Hotel, Indigo, Juliet, Kilo, Lima, Mike,
   November, Oscar, Papa, Quebec, Romeo, Sierra, Tango, Uniform, Victor, Whiskey, X-ray, Yankee, Zulu 

16. English - British Royal Air Force (1924-1942)
Ac, Beer, Charlie, Don, Edward, Freddie, George, Harry, Ink, Johnnie, King, London, Monkey,
   Nuts, Orange, Pip, Queen, Robert, Sugar, Toc, Uncle, Vic, William, X-ray, Yorker, Zebra 

17. English - British Royal Air Force (1942-1943)
A
pple, Beer, Charlie, Dog, Edward, Freddy, George, Harry, In, Jug, King, Love, Mother,
   Nuts, Orange, Peter, Queen, Roger, Sugar, Tommy, Uncle, Vic, William, X-ray, Yoke, Zebra

18. English - British Royal Air Force (1942-1943)
Apple, Beer, Charlie, Dog, Edward, Freddy, George, Harry, In, Johnny, King, Love, Mother,
   Nuts, Orange, Peter, Queen, Robert, Sugar, Tommy, Uncle, Vic, William, X-ray, Yorker, Zebra

19. English - British Royal Air Force (1943-1956)
Able, Baker, Charlie, Dog, Easy, Fox, George, How, Item, Jig, King, Love, Mike,
   Nab, Oboe, Peter, Queen, Roger, Sugar, Tare, Uncle, Victor, William, X-Ray, Yoke, Zebra

20. English - British Royal Air Force (1943-1956)
Afirm, Baker, Charlie, Dog, Easy, Fox, George, How, Interrogatory, Johnny, King, Love, Mike,
   Negat, Oboe, Prep, Queen, Roger, Sugar, Tare, Uncle, Victor, William, X-Ray, Yoke, Zebra 

21. English - British Royal Navy (1917)
Apples, Butter, Charlie, Duff, Edward, Freddy, George, Harry, Ink, Johnnie, King, London, Monkey,
   Nuts, Orange, Pudding, Queenie, Robert, Sugar, Tommy, Uncle, Vinegar, Willie, Xerxes, Yellow, Zebra

22. English - British-A
A
msterdam, Baltimore, Casablanca, Denmark, Edison, Florida, Gallipoli, Havana, Italia, Jerusalem, Kilogramme, Liverpool, Madagascar,
   New-York, Oslo, Paris, Quebec, Roma, Santiago, Tripoli, Uppsala, Valencia, Washington, Xantippe, Yokohama, Zurich 

23. English - Dictionary Of Slang And Unconventional English, Icao Alphabet
Alfa, Bravo, Charlie, Delta, Echo, Foxtrot, Golf, Hotel, India, Juliett, Kilo, Lima, Mike,
   November, Oscar, Papa, Quebec, Romeo, Sierra, Tango, Uniform, Victor, Whiskey, X-Ray, Yankee, Zulu

24. English - Dictionary, Collins Polish
A
ndrew, Benjamin, Charlie, David, Edward, Frederick, George, Harry, Isaac, Jack, King, Lucy, Mary,
   Nellie, Oliver, Peter, Queen, Robert, Sugar, Tommy, Uncle, Victor, William, Xmas, Yellow, Zebra

25. English - Dictionary, Norwegian
Andrew, Benjamin, Charlie, David, Edward, Frederick, George, Harry, Isaac, Jack, King, Lucy, Mary,
   Nellie, Oliver, Peter, Queen, Robert, Sugar, Tommy, Uncle, Victory, William, Xerxes, Yellow, Zebra 

26. English - German Army Handbook (1990/1991)
Alfa, Bravo, Charly, Delta, Echo, Foxtrott, Golf, Hotel, India, Juliett, Kilo, Lima, Mike, November, Oscar, Papa, Quebec, Romeo, Sierra, Tango, Uniform, Victor, Whiskey, Xray, Yankee, Zulu 

27. English - Italian Army Handbook (1990/1991)
Alfa, Bravo, Charly, Delta, Echo, FoxTrot, Giuliet, Hotel, India, Juliett, Kilo, Lima, Mike, November, Oscar, Papa, Quebec, Romio, Sierra, Tango, Uniform, Victor, Wisky, X-Ray, Yankee, Zulu 

28. English - NATO Alphabet, Cambridge Encyclopedia Of Language (1955)
A
lpha, Bravo, Charlie, Delta, Echo, Foxtrot, Golf, Hotel, India, Juliet, Kilo, Lima, Mike, November, Oscar, Papa, Quebec, Romeo, Sierra, Tango, Uniform, Victor, Whiskey, Xray, Yankee, Zulu 

29. English - Police In Nassau County, Long Island, New York
A
dam, Boston, Chicago, Denver, Edward, Frank, George, Henry, Ida, John, King, Lincoln, Mary, Nancy, Ocean, Peter, Queen, Robert, Sam, Thomas, Union, Victor, William, X-ray, Young, Zebra

30. English - Police In Hutchinson, Kansas
Adam, Boy, Charles, David, Edward, Frank, George, Henry, Ida, John, King, Lincoln, Mary, Nora, Ocean, Paul, Q, Robert, Sam, Tom, Union, Victor, William, X-ray, Yankee, Zebra

31. English - Police In New York City, New York 
Adam, Boy, Charlie, David, Edward, Frank, George, Henry, Ida, John, King, Lincoln, Mary, Nora, Ocean, Peter, Queen, Robert, Sam, Tom, Union, Victor, William, X-ray, Young, Zebra

32. English - Police In San Diego, California
Adam, Boy, Charles, David, Edward, Frank, George, Henry, Ida, John, King, Lincoln, Mary, Nora, Ocean, Paul, Queen, Robert, Sam, Tom, Unit, Victor, William, Xray, Yellow, Zebra

33. English - Telephone Book, Santa Fe, Argentina (1955)
Amsterdam, Baltimore, Casablanca, Dinamarca, Edison, Florida, Gallipoli, Habana, Italia, Jerusalén, Kilogramo, Liverpool, Madagascar, Nueva-York, Ńandubay, Oslo, Paris, Quebec, Roma, Santiago, Tripoli, Upsala, Valencia, Wáshington, Xantipo, Yokoama, Zurich 

34. English - Telephone Directory, Azores (1966)
Amsterdam, Baltimore, Casablanca, Danemark, Edison, Florida, Gallipoli, Havana, Itália, Jerusalém, Kilogramme, Liverpool, Madagascar, New-York, Oslo, Paris, Québec, Roma, Santiago, Tripoli, Upsala, Valencia, Washington, Xantippe, Yokoham, Zurich

35. English - Telephone Directory, Bombay (1962) 
Army, Brother, Cinema, Doctor, English, Father, Gold, Hotel, India, Jam, King, Lady, Mother, Navy, Orange, Paper, Queen, Raja, Sister, Table, Uncle, Victory, Water, X-ray, Yellow, Zero

36. Telephone Directory, British, Telecom-B Alphabet 
Alfred, Benjamin, Charles, David, Edward, Frederick, George, Harry, Isaac, Jack, King, London, Mary, Nellie, Oliver, Peter, Queen, Robert, Samuel, Tommy, Uncle, Victor, William, X-ray, Yellow, Zebra 

37. English - Telephone Directory, Dutch
Alfred, Benjamin, Charles, David, Edward, Frederick, George, Harry, Isaac, Jack, King, London, Mary, Nellie, Oliver, Peter, Queen, Robert, Samuel, Tommy, Uncle, Victor, William, Xray, Yellow, Zebra

38. English - Telephone Directory, Dutch, International Alphabet
Amsterdam, Baltimore, Casablanca, Danemark, Edison, Florida, Gallipoli, Havana, Italia, Jerusalem, Kilogramme, Liverpool, Madagascar, New-York, Oslo, Paris, Quebec, Roma, Santiago, Tripoli, Uppsala, Valencia, Washington, Xantippe, Yokohama, Zurich 

39. English - Telephone Directory, Hungarian 
Alfred, Benjamin, Charles, David, Edward, Frederick, George, Harry, Isaac, Jack, King, London, Mary, Nellie, Oliver, Peter, Queen, Robert, Samuel, Tommy, Uncle, Victor, William, Xray, Yellow, Zebra

40. English - Telephone Directory, Hungarian, French Alphabet 
Amsterdam, Baltimore, Cassablanka, Danemark, Edison, Florida, Gallipoli, Havana, Italia, Jerusalem, Kilogramme, Liverpool, Madagascar, New-York, Oslo, Paris, Québec, Roma, Santiago, Tripoli, Upsala, Valencia, Washington, Xantippe, Yokohama, Zürich

41. English - Telephone Directory, Johannesburg (1965) 
Arthur, Betty, Charlie, David, Edward, Frederick, George, Harry, Isaac, Jane, Kate, Lucy, Mary, Nellie, Olive, Peter, Queen, Robert, Simon, Thomas, Union, Violet, William, X-Ray, York, Zero

42. English - Telephone Directory, Kenyan (1966) 
Africa, Bombay, Charlie, Durban, England, Freddie, George, Harry, India, Japan, Kenya, London, Mombasa, Nairobi, Orange, Peter, Queen, Robert, Sugar, Tanga, Uganda, Victory, William, X-Ray, Yellow, Zanzibar 

43. English - Telephone Directory, Malayan (1964) 
Australia, Bombay, China, Denmark, England, Fiji, Ghana, Hongkong, India, Japan, Kedah, London, Malacca, Norway, Osaka, Penang, Queensland, Russia, Singapore, Turkey, Uganda, Victoria, Wales, X-Ray, Yokohama, Zanzibar

44. English - Telephone Directory, Swedish 
Alfred, Benjamin, Charles, David, Edward, Frederick, George, Harry, Isaac, Jack, King, London, Mary, Nellie, Oliver, Peter, Queen, Robert, Samuel, Tommy, Uncle, Victor, William, Xray, Yellow, Zebra 

45. English - Telephone Directory, Swiss 
Andrew, Benjamin, Charlie, David, Edward, Frederick, George, Harry, Isaac, Jack, King, Lussy, Mary, Nellie, Oliver, Peter, Queenie, Robert, Sugar, Tommy, Uncle, Victor, William, Xray, Yellow, Zebra

46. English - Telephone Directory, Tanzanian (1966)
Africa, Bombay, Charlie, Durban, England, Freddie, George, Harry, India, Japan, Kenya, London, Mombasa, Nairobi, Orange, Peter, Queen, Robert, Sugar, Tanga, Uganda, Victory, William, X-Ray, Yellow, Zanzibar 

47. English - United States Army (1916) 
Able, Buy, Cast, Dock, Easy, Fox, George, Have, Item, Jig, King, Love, Mike, Nap, Opal, Pup, Quack, Rush, Sail, Tape, Unit, Vice, Watch, X-ray, Yoke, Zed 

48. English - United States Army/Navy (1941) 
Able, Baker, Charlie, Dog, Easy, Fox, George, How, Item, Jig, King, Love, Mike, Nan, Oboe, Peter, Queen, Roger, Sail, Tare, Uncle, Victor, William, X-Ray, Yoke, Zebra

49. English - United States Department Of Defense, Dictionary Of Military Terms
Alfa, Bravo, Charlie, Delta, Echo, Foxtrot, Golf, Hotel, India, Juliet, Kilo, Lima, Mike, November, Oscar, Papa, Quebec, Romeo, Sierra, Tango, Uniform, Victor, Whiskey, X-Ray, Yankee, Zulu

50. English - United States Navy (1940) 
Affirmative, Baker, Cast, Dog, Easy, Fox, George, Hypo, Interrogatory, Jig, King, Love, Mike, Negative, Option, Preparatory, Queen, Roger, Sail, Tare, Unit, Victor, William, Xray, Yoke, Zed

51. English - United States Navy Radio Alphabet Communications Handbook (1945) 
Able, Baker, Charlie, Dog, Easy, Fox, George, How, Item, Jig, King, Love, Mike, Nan, Oboe, Peter, Queen, Roger, Sugar, Tare, Uncle, Victor, William, X-Ray, Yoke, Zebra

52. English - Western Union
Adams, Boston, Chicago, Denver, Easy, Frank, George, Henry, Ida, John, King, Lincoln, Mary, New-York, Ocean, Peter, Queen, Roger, Sugar, Thomas, Union, Victor, William, X-ray, Young, Zero

Non-English Languages

001. Afrikaans - Telephone Directory, Johannesburg (1965)
Andries, Boetie, Christo, Dawid, Eva, Fanie, Gert, Hendrik, Isak, Jan, Karel, Lena, Marie, Nellie, Oom, Pieter, Queenie, Roos, Sannie, Tom, Unie, Venter, Willem, X-straal, Yster, Zoeloe

002. Chinese - Chinese Armed Forces Romanised Mandarin
Aiya, Boli, Ciqi, Desheng, Egu, Fuzhuang, Geming, Heping, I, Yifu, J, Keren, Leguan, Mofan, Nali, Ouyang, Polang, Q, Riguang, Sixiang, Tebie, U, Weida, V, Wudao, W, Wuzhuang, X, Yisheng, Zidian 

003. Croation - Unofficial
Adria, Biokovo, Cavtat, Dubrovnik, Europa, Frankopan, Gospic', Hrvatska, Istra, Jadran, Karlovac, Lika, Mostar, Novska, Osijek, Pula, Q, Rijeka, Split, Trogir, Uc~ka, Vukovar, W, X, Y, Zagreb 

004. Czech - Book, Phrase, Berlitz
Adam, Boz~ena, Cyril, David,D’umbier, Emil, Frantis~ek, Gustav, Helena, Ivan, Josef, Karel, Ludvík, L'ubochńa, Marie, Norbert, Oto, Petr, Quido, Rudolf, R~ehor~, Svatopluk, S~imon, Tomás~, T'eplá, Urban, Václav, dvojité_vé, Xaver, ypsilon, Zuzana, Z~ofie 

005. Danish - Air Traffic Control Official
Alpha, Aase, Aegir, Bravo, Charlie, Delta, Echo, Foxtrot, Golf, Hotel, India, Juliet, Kilo, Lima, Mike, November, Oscar, Oeresund, Papa, Quebec, Romeo, Sierra, Tango, Uniform,Victor,Whiskey, Xray, Yankee, Zulu 

006. Danish - Book, Phrase, Berlitz
Anna, Ĺase, Ćgir, Bernhard, Cecilia, David, Erik, Frederik, Georg, Hans, Ida, Johan, Karen, Ludvig, Marie, Nikolaj, Odin, Řeresund , Peter, Quintus, Rasmus, Soeren, Theodor, Ulla, Viggo, William, Xerxes, Yrsa, Zacharias 

007. Danish - Military Official
Alpha, Aase, Aegir, Bravo, Charlie, Delta, Echo, Foxtrot, Golf, Hotel, India, Juliet, Kilo, Lima, Mike, November, Oscar, Oedis, Papa, Quebec, Romeo, Sierra, Tango, Uniform,Victor,Whiskey, Xray, Yankee, Zulu 

008. Danish - Telephone Directory, Copenhagen
Anna, Ĺase, Ćgir, Bernhard, Cecilie, David, Erik, Frederik, Georg, Hans, Ida, Johan, Karen, Ludvig, Marie, Nikolai, Odin, Řeresund , Peter, Quintus, Rasmus, Soeren, Theodor, Ulla, Viggo, William, Xerxes, Yrsa, Zacharias 

009. Dutch - Book, Phrase, Berlitz
anna, bernard, cornelis, dirk, eduard, ferdinand, gerard, hendrik, izaak, jan, karel, lodewijk, marie, nico, otto, pieter, quadraat, rudolf, simon, teunis, utrecht, victor, willem, xantippe, ijmuiden, ypsilon, zaandam 

010. Dutch - Book, Phrase, Collins
Amsterdam, Bravo, Charlie, Dirk, Edam, Freddie, goed, help, Isaac, Jaap, kilo, lasso, moeder, Nico, Otto, paard, Quaker, Rudolf, suiker, tafel, uur, vogel, wind, xylofoon, Yankee, zout 

011. Finnish - Book, Phrase, Berlitz
Anna, äiti, Bertta, Cecilia, Daavid, Erkki, Faarao, Gabriel, Heikki, Iivari, Jaakko, Kalle, Lauri, Mikko, Niilo, Otto, öljy, ruotsalainen_o, Pekka, Quintus, Risto, Sakari, Tauno, Urho, Väinö, kaksin,  Xeres, Yrjö, Zeppelin 

012. Finnish - Unofficial
Aarne, Äks, äYrjö, Tseta, Ĺke Äiti, Bertta, Celsius, Daavid, Eemeli, Faarao, Gideon, Heikki, Iivari, Jussi, Kalle, Lauri, Matti, Niilo, Otto, Öljy, Paavo, Kuu, Risto, Sakari, Tyyne, Urho, Vihtori, Viski,

013. Flemish - Book, Dictionary, New Oxford Dictionary of English
arthur, brussel, carolina, desire, emiel, frederik, gustaaf, hendrik, isidoor, jozef, kilogram, leopold, maria, napoleon, oscar, piano, qualite, robert, sofie, telefoon, ursula, victor, waterloo, xavier, yvonne, zola

014. French - Book, Business, BBC
Anatole, Berthe, Célestin, Désirč, Eugéne, Émile, François, Gaston, Henri, Irma, Joseph, Kléber, Louis, Marcel, Nicholas, Oscar, Pierre, Quintal, Raoul, Suzanne, Thérčse, Ursule, Victor, William, Xavier, Yvonne, Zoé 

015. French - Book, Business, Cassel
Anatole, Berthe, Célestin, Désirč, Eugéne, Émile, François, Gaston, Henri, Irma, Joseph, Kléber, Louis, Marcel, Nicolas, Oscar, Pierre, Quintal, Raoul, Suzanne, Thérčse, Ursule, Victor, William, Xavier, Yvonne, Zoë 

016. French - Book, Business, Larousse
Anne, Berthe, Cécile, Daniel, Émile, François, Gustave, Henri, Ida, Jeanne, Kilo, Louise, Marie, Nicolas, Olga, Paul, Quittance, Robert, Suzanne, Thérčse, Ulysse, Victor, William, Xavier, Yvonne, Zurich 

017. French - Book, Business, Larousse
Arthur, Bruxelles, Caroline, Désirč, Émile, Frédéric, Gustave, Henri, Isidore, Joseph, Kilogramme, Léopold, Marie, Napoléon, Oscar, Piano, Quiévrain, Robert, Suzanne, Téléphone, Ursule, Victor, Waterloo, Xavier, Yvonne, Zéro

018. French - Book, Phrase, Berlitz
Anatole, Berthe, Célestin, Désirč, Eugéne, François, Gaston, Henri, Irma, Joseph, Kléber, Louis, Marcel, Nicolas, Oscar, Pierre, Quintal, Raoul, Suzanne, Thérčse, Ursule, Victor, William, Xavier, Yvonne, Zoé 

019. French - Book, Phrase, Collins
Anatole, Berthe, Célestin, Désirč, Eugéne, Émile, François, Gaston, Henri, Irma, Joseph, Kléber, Louis, Marcel, Nicolas, Oscar, Pierre, Quintal, Raoul, Suzanne, Thérčse, Ursule, Viktor, William, Xavier, Yvonne, Zoé 

020. French - Book, Phrase, Langenscheidt
Anatole, Berthe, César, Désirč, Emile, François, Gaston, Henri, Isidore, Jean, Kléber, Louis, Marie, Nicolas, Oscar, Paul, Québec, Robert, Suzanne, Théodore, Ursule, Victor, Wagon, Xavier, Yvonne, Zoé 

021. French - Book, Vocabulary, Collins
Anatole, Bertha, Célestin, Désirč, Émile, François, Gaston, Henri, Irma, Joseph, Kléber, Louis, Marcel, Nicolas, Oscar, Pierre, Quintal, Raoul, Suzanne, Thérčse, Ursule, Victor, William, Xavier, Yvonne, Zoé 

022. French - Book, Vocabulary, Oxford University Press
Anatole, Berthe, César Désiré, Eugčne, Émile, François, Gaston, Henri, Irma, Joseph, Kléber, Louis, Marcel, Nicolas, Oscar, Pierre, Québec, Robert, Suzanne, Thérčse, Ursule, Victor, William, Xavier, Yvonne, Zoé

023. French - Post Office Official
Anatole, Berthe, Célestin, Désirč, Eugéne, Émile, François, Gaston, Henri, Irma, Joseph, Kléber, Louis, Marcel, Nicolas, Oscar, Pierre, Quintal, Raoul, Suzanne, Thérčse, Ursule, Victor, William, Xavier, Yvonne, Zoé 

024. French - Telephone Directory Official
Anatole, Berthe, Célestin, Désirč, Eugéne, Émile, François, Gaston, Henri, Irma, Joseph, Kléber, Louis, Marcel, Nicolas, Oscar, Pierre, Quintal, René, Suzanne, Thérčse, Ursule, Victor, William, Xavier, Yvonne, Zoé

025. French - Telephone Directory, Swiss (1993)
Anna, Berthe, Cécile, Daniel, Emile, François, Gustave, Henri, Ida, Jeanne, Kilo, Louise, Marie, Nicolas, Olga, Paul, Quittance, Robert, Suzanne, Thérčse, Ulysse, Victor, William, Xavier, Yvonne, Zurich

026. German - Book, Business, BBC Standard Phone Alphabet
Anton, Ärger, Berta, Cäsar, Charlotte, Dora, Emil, Friedrich, Gustav, Heinrich, Ida, Julius, Kaufmann, Ludwig, Martha, Nordpol, Otto, Ökonom, Paula, Quelle, Richard, Siegfried, Schule, Theodor, Ulrich, Übermut, Viktor, Wilhelm, Xanthippe, Ypsilon, Zeppelin

027. German - Book, Business, BBC Standard Phone Alphabet
Anton, Ärger, Berta, Cäsar, Charlotte, Dora, Emil, Friedrich, Gustav, Heinrich, Ida, Julius, Kaufmann, Ludwig, Martha, Nordpol, Otto, Ökonom, Paula, Quelle, Richard, Samuel, Schule, Theodor, Ulrich, Übermut, Viktor, Wilhelm, Xanthippe, Ypsilon, Zacharias

028. German - Book, Business, Cassel
Anton, Ärger, Berta, Caesar, Dora, Emil, Friedrich, Gustav, Heinrich, Ida, Julius, Kaufmann, Ludwig, Martha, Nordpol, Otto, Ökonom, Paula, Quelle, Richard, Siegfried, Schule, Theodor, Ulrich, Übel, Viktor, Wilhelm, Xanthippe, Ypsilon, Zacharias

029. German - Book, Business, Hugo
Anton, Ärger, Berta, Cäsar, Charlotte, Dora, Emil, Friedrich, Gustav, Heinrich, Ida, Julius, Kaufmann, Ludwig, Martha, Nordpol, Otto, Ökonom, Paris, Quelle, Richard, Samuel, Theodor, Ulrich, Übermut, Viktor, Wilhelm, Xantippe, Ypsilon, Zacharias

030. German - Book, Dictonary, Collins
Anton, Ärger, Bertha, Cäsar, Charlotte, Dora, Emil, Friedrich, Gustav, Heinrich, Ida, Julius, Kaufmann, Ludwig, Martha, Nordpol, Otto, Ökonom, Peter, Quelle, Richard, Samuel, Schule, Theodor, Ulrich, Übermut, Viktor, Wilhelm, Xanthippe, Ypsilon, Zacharias

031. German - Book, Language, BBC
Anton, Berta, Cäsar, Dora, Emil, Friedrich, Gustav, Heinrich, Ida, Julius, Kaufmann, Ludwig, Martha, Nordpol, Otto, Paula, Quelle, Richard, Siegfried, Theodor, Ulrich, Victor, Wilhelm, Xanthippe, Ypsilon, Zeppelin

032. German - Book, Phrase, Berlitz
Anton, Ärger, Berta, Caesar, Charlotte, Dora, Emil, Friedrich, Gustav, Heinrich, Ida, Julius, Kaufmann, Ludwig, Martha, Nordpol, Otto, Ökonom, Paula, Quelle, Richard, Samuel, Schule, Theodor, Ulrich, Übel, Viktor, Wilhelm, Xanthippe, Ypsilon, Zacharias

033. German - Book, Phrase, Collins
Anton, Berta, Caesar, Dora, Emil, Friedrich, Gustav, Heinrich, Ida, Julius, Konrad, Ludwig, Martin, Nordpol, Otto, Paula, Quelle, Richard, Siegfried, Eszett, Theodor, Ulrich, Victor, Wilhelm, Xanten, Ypsilon, Zeppelin

034. German - Book, Phrase, Langenscheidt
Anton, Ärger, Berta, Cäsar, Dora, Emil, Friedrich, Georg, Heinrich, Ida, Johann, Kaufmann, Ludwig, Martha, Nordpol, Otto, Ökonom, Paula, Quelle, Richard, Samuel, Theodor, Ulrich, Übermut, Viktor, Wilhelm, Xaver, Ypsilon, Zeppelin

035. German - Book, Vocabulary, Collins
Anton, Berta, Cäsar, Dora, Emil, Friedrich, Gustav, Heinrich, Ida, Jerusalem, Kaufmann, Ludwig, Martha, Nordpol, Otto, Paula, Quelle, Richard, Samuel, Theodor, Ulrich, Viktor, Wilhelm, Xanthippe, Ypsilon, Zacharia

036. German - Book, Vocabulary, Oxford University Press
Anton, Ärger, Berta, Cäsar, Dora, Emil, Friedrich, Gustav, Heinrich, Ida, Julius, Konrad, Ludwig, Martin, Nordpol, Otto, Ökonom, Paula, Quelle, Richard, Siegfried, Theodor, Ulrich, Übel, Viktor, Wilhelm, Xanten, Ypsilon, Zeppelin

037. German - Emergency Services Official (1977)
Anton, Ärger, Berta, Cäsar, Charlotte, Dora, Emil, Friedrich, Gustav, Heinrich, Ida, Julius, Kaufmann, Ludwig, Martha, Nordpol, Otto, Ökonom, Paula, Quelle, Richard, Samuel, Schule, Theodor, Ulrich, Übermut, Viktor, Wilhelm, Xanthippe, Ypsilon, Zacharias

038. German - Mnemonic Alphabet for German Morse Code 
Arno, Borvaselin, Coburg-Gotha, Doria, Ernst, Friedrichsroda, Gomorrha, Herrenzimmer, Ida, Jawohl_Odol, Kolberg_Ost, Leonidas, Motor, Nora, Oekonom, Oekonomie,Per_Motorrad, Quohnsdorf_bei_Forst, Revolver, Sabine, Tod, Uniform, Ueberkonto, Verbrennungstod, Weltnordpol, Xolabaphon ,York_Yellowstone, Zoroaster.

039. German - Post Office Official
Anton, Bertha, Caesar, Dora, Emil, Friedrich, Gustav, Heinrich, Ida, Jakob, Konrad, Ludwig, Martha, Nordpol, Otto, Paula, Quelle, Richard, Siegfried, Schule, Theodor, Ulrich, Viktor, Wilhelm, Xantippe, Ypsilon, Zeppel

040. German - Telephone Directory, Austrian
Anton, Ärger, Berta, Cäsar, Dora, Emil, Friedrich, Gustav, Heinrich, Ida, Julius, Konrad, Ludwig, Martha, Nordpol, Otto, Österreich, Paula, Quelle, Richard, Siegfried, Scharfes-S, Schule, Theodor, Ulrich, Übel, Viktor, Wilhelm, Xaver, Ypsilon, Zürich 

041. German - Telephone Directory, Berlin (1965)
Anton, Ärger, Berta, Caesar, Dora, Emil, Friedrich, Gustav, Heinrich, Ida, Julius, Karl, Ludwig, Martha, Nordpol, Otto, Ödipus, Paula, Quelle, Richard, Siegfried, Theodor, Ulrich, Übel, Viktor, Wilhelm, Xanthippe, Ypsilon, Zeppelin

042. German - Telephone Directory, Swiss (1993)
Anna, Bertha, Cäsar, Daniel, Emil, Friedrich, Gustav, Heinrich, Ida, Jakob, Kaiser, Leopold, Marie, Niklaus, Otto, Peter, Quelle, Rosa, Sophie, Theodor, Ulrich, Viktor, Wilhelm, Xaver, Yverdon, Zürich

043. German - Telephone Directory, Vienna
Anton, Ärger, Berta, Cäsar, Christine, Dora, Emil, Friedrich, Gustav, Heinrich, Ida, Julius, Konrad, Ludwig, Martha, Norbert, Otto, Österreich, Paula, Quelle, Richard, Siegfried, Theodor, Ulrich, Übel, Viktor, Wilhelm, Xaver, Ypsilon, Zacharias

044. Greek - Book, Phrase, AA
Aléxandros, Vasílios, Geórgios, Demétrios, Eléne, Zoé, Eraklés, Theódoros, Ioánnes, Konstantínos, Leonídas, Menéaos, Nikólaos, Xenofón, Odusséas, Periklés, Ródos,Sotérios, Timoléon, Upselántes, Fótios, Chréstos, Psáltes, Oméga

045. Hebrew - Unofficial
Osnat, Bela, Gila, Dalia, Hagar, Vered, Ziva, Hava, Tova, Yona, Carmel, Leytal, Miri, Nurit, Smadar, Einat, Fani, Tzila, Korina, Ruth, Sarah, Tami

046. Hebrew - Book, Phrase, Berlitz Phonetic
Affula, Binyamina, Carmel, Dalia, Eretz, France, Gedera, Haifa, Israel, Jaffa, Karkur, Lod, Moledet, Naan, Ogen, Pardes, Queen, Rishon, Sefer, Tveria, Urim, Vered, Wingate, Express, Yavniel, Zikhron

047. Hebrew - Telephone Operator Phonetic
Afula, binyamina, karmel, dalya, eretz, frans, gedera, heyfa, yisrael, jafa, karkur, lod, moledet, naan, ogen, pardes, kvin, rishon, sefer, tverya, urim, vered, vingeyt, ekspres, yavniel, zikhron

048. Hebrew - Unofficial 
Aleph, Boaz, Gimel, David, Hagar, Vav, Zéev, Hava, Tiach, Yona, Carmel, Lea, Moshe, Nesher, Samekh, Áin, Pesel, Tsipor, Korakh, Ruth, Shamir, Telem

049. Hungarian - Amateur Radio
Antal, Béla, Cézár, Dénes, Elemér, Ferenc, Géza, Helén, Ibolya (Imre), János, Károly, László, Mária, Nelli, Olga, Péter, Kvelle, Róbert, Sándor, Tamás, Ubul, Vilmos, viszki, x-es, jenki, Zoltán

050. Hungarian - Amateur Radio
Antal, Béla, Cecil, Dénes, Elemér, Ferenc, Géza, Helén, Ibolya (Imre), János, Károly, László, Mária, Nelli, Olga, Péter, Kvelle,Róbert, Sándor, Tamás, Ubul, Viktor, dupla-vé, x-es, ipszilon, Zoltán

051. Hungarian - Book, Phrase, Berlitz
Aladár, Ágota, Balázs, Cecília, Dénes, Erzsébet, E'va, Ferenc, Gábor, Helén, Ilona, József, Károly, László, Mónika, Nándor, Olga, Ödön, Péter, Kú, Róbert, Sándor, Tivadar, Ubul, Üröm, Vilma, duplavé, iksz, ipszilon, Zorán

052. Hungarian - Telephone Directory
András, Béla, Cecil, Dóra, Elemér, Ferenc, Gizella, Hajnalka, István, János, Katalin, Luca, Mátyás, Nándor, Olga, Piroska, Queen, Róbert, Sarolta, Tímea, Ubul, Vilmos, Walter, Xénia, Ypsilon, Zoltán

053. Italian - Book, Business, Berlitz
Ancona, Bari, Catania, Domodossola, Empoli, Firenze, Genova, Hotel, Imola, Livorno, Milano, Napoli, Otranto, Palermo, Quarto, Roma, Sassari, Torino, Udine, Venezia

054. Italian - Book, Business, Cassel
Ancona, Bologna, Como, Domodossola, Empoli, Firenze, Genova, Hotel, Imola, I_lunga, Kursaal, Livorno, Milano, Napoli, Otranto, Padova, Quarto, Roma, Savona, Torino, Udine, Venezia, Washington, Ics, York, Zara

055. Italian - Book, Business, Pitman
Ancona, Bologna, Como, Domodossola, Empoli, Forli,` Genova, acca, Imola, i_lunga, cappa, Livorno, Milano, Napoli, Otranto, Palermo, cu, Roma, Savona, Torino, Udine, Venezia, Washington, ics, ipsilon, Zara

056. Italian - Book, Dictionary, Collins
Ancona, Bologna, Como, Domodossola, Empoli, Firenze, Genova, Hotel, Imola, Jersey, Kursaal, Livorno, Milano, Napoli, Otranto, Padova, Quarto, Roma, Savona, Taranto, Udine, Venezia, Washington, Xeres, Yacht, Zara

057. Italian - Book, Language, BBC
Ancona, Bologna, Como, Domodossola, Empoli, Firenze, Genova, Hotel, Imola, Jersey, Kilo, Livorno, Milano, Napoli, Otranto, Palermo, Quaderno, Roma, Savona, Torino, Udine, Venezia, Washington, ics, York, Zurigo

058. Italian - Book, Language, Cassel
Ancona, Bologna, Cagliari, Domodossola, Empoli, Firenze, Genova, Hotel, Imola, Jolly, Kappa, Londra, Milano, Napoli, Otranto, Palermo, Quarto, Roma, Sondrio, Torino, Udine, Vicenza, Vdoppio, X, Yugoslavia, Zagabria 

059. Italian - Book, Phrase, AA
Ancona, Bologna, Como, Domodossola, Empoli, Firenze, Genova, Hotel, Imola, Jersey, Kursaal, Livorno, Milano, Napoli, Otranto, Padova, Quarto, Roma, Savona, Torino, Udine, Venezia, Washington, Xeres, Yacht, Zara

060. Italian - Book, Phrase, Berlitz
Ancona, Bari, Catania, Domodossola, Empoli, Firenze, Genova, Hotel, Imperia, i_lunga, kappa, Livorno, Milano, Napoli, Otranto, Palermo, cu, Roma, Sassari, Torino, Udine, Venezia, v_doppia, ix, i_greca, zeta 

061. Italian - Book, Phrase, Collins
Ancona, Bari, Catania, Domodossola, Empoli, Firenze, Genova, Hotel, Imperia, Livorno, Milano, Napoli, Otranto, Palermo, quarto, Roma, Savona, Torino, Udine, Venezia, Zara

062. Italian - Book, Phrase, Langenscheidt
Ancona, Bologna, Como, Domodossola, Empoli, Forli, Genova, Hotel, Imola, Jolanda, cappa, Livorno, Milano, Napoli, Otranto, Pisa, Quattro, Roma, Salerno, Torino, Udine, Venezia, Washington, ics, ypsilon, zeta

063. Italian - Telephone Directory, Geneva (1996)
Anna, Battista, Carlo, Davide, Ernesto, Federico, Giovanni, acca, Isidoro, i_lungo, cappa, Luigi, Maria, Nicola, Olga, Pietro, Quintino, Rodolfo, Susanna, Teresa, Umberto, Vittorio, vu_doppia, ics, ipsilon, Zurigo 

064. Italian - Telephone Directory, Swiss (1993)
Anna, Battista, Carlo, Davide, Ernesto, Federico, Giovanni, acca, Isidoro, i_lungo, cappa, Luigi, Maria, Nicola, Olga, Pietro, Quintino, Rodolfo, Susanna, Teresa, Umberto, Vittorio, vu_doppia, ics, ipsilon, Zurigo 

065. Italian - Unofficial
Ancona, Bologna, Como, Domodossola, Empoli, Firenze, Genova, Hacca, Imola, Jolly, Kappa, Livorno, Milano, Napoli, Otranto, Pisa, Quartomiglio, Roma, Savona, Torino, Udine, Venezia, Wagner, Xilofono, York, Zara 

066. Italian - Book, Grammar, Routledge
Ancona, Bologna, Como, Domodossola, Empoli, Firenze, Genova, hotel, Imola, i_lungo, cappa, Livorno, Milano, Napoli, Otranto, Palermo, cu, Roma, Salerno, Torino, Udine, Venezia, Washington, ics, ipsilon, zeta

067. Italian - Unofficial
Ancona, Bologna, Como, Domodossola, Empoli, Firenze, Genova, Hacca, Imola, Jolly, Kappa, Livorno, Milano, Napoli, Otranto, Palermo, Quartomiglio, Roma, Siena, Torino, Udine, Venezia, Wagner, Xilofono, York, Zara 

068. Kwanyama - Book, School
Anna, Beata, Cesilia, David, Eva, Feni, Gerson, Hosea, Immanuel, Johanna, Kayosho, Lamek, Maria, Nande, Otto, Pauli, Quini, Rauha, Simon, Tuuli, Ulania, Vilho, Wilkka, Xokulu, Yoleni, Zola

069. Ndonga - Book, School
Anna, Beata, Cesilia, David, Eva, Feni, Gerson, Hosea, Immanuel, Johanna, Kayoso, Lamek, Maria, Nande, Otto, Pauli, Quini, Rauha, Simon, Tuuliki, Ulania, Vilho, Wilika, Xerxes, Yoleni, Zola 

070. Norwegian - Book, Phrase, Berlitz
Anna, Ĺase, Ćrlig, Bernhard, Caesar, David, Edith, Fredrik, Gustav, Harald, Ivar, Johan, Karin, Ludvig, Martin, Nils, Olivia, Petter, Quintus, Rikard, Sigrid, Teodor, Ulrik, Enkelt-V, Dobbelt-V, Xerxes, Yngling, Zakarias 

071. Norwegian - Telephone Dictionary, Oslo (1965)
Anna, Ĺase, Ćrlig, Bernhard, Caesar, David, Edith, Fredrik, Gustav, Harald, Ivar, Johan, Karin, Ludvig, Martin, Nils, Olivia, Řsten, Petter, Quintus, Rikard, Sigrid, Teodor, Ulrik, Enkelt-V, Dobbelt-V, Xerxes, Yngling, Zakarias 

072. Norwegian - Telephone Directory
Anna, Ĺase, Ćrleg, Bernhard, Caesar, David, Edith, Fredrik, Gustav, Harald, Ivar, Johan, Karin, Ludvig, Martin, Nils, Olivia, Petter, Quintus, Rikard, Sigrid, Teodor, Ulrik, Enkel-V, Dobbelt-V, Xerxes, Ynling, Zakarias

073. Polish - Amateur Radio
Adam, Bozena, Celina, Dawid, Ewa, Franek, Grazyna, Henryk, Irena, Janusz, Kilo, Ludwik, Maria, Natalia, Olga, Pawel/, Quido, Roman, Stefan, Tomasz, Urban, Violeta, Wanda, Xawer, Y-grek, Zygmunt 

074. Polish - Book, Dictionary, Collins
Adam, Barbara, Cecylia, Dorota, Ewa, Franciszek, Genowefa, Henryk, Irena, Jadwiga, Karol, Leon, L/ukasz, Maria, Natalia, Olga, Pawel/, Quebec, Roman, S’wiatowid, Tadeusz, Urszula, Violetta, Wacl/aw, Xantypa, Ypsylon, Zygmunt 

075. Polish - Book, Phrase, Berlitz
Adam, Barbara, Celina, Dorota, Ewa, Franciszek, Grazyna, Henryk, Iwona, Jan, Karol, Leon, L/ukasz, Maria, Natalia, Olga, Piotr, Quiz, Roman,Stanisl/aw, Tadeusz, Urszula, Violeta, Wacl/aw, Xymena, Ypsylon, Zenon 

076. Polish - Telephone Directory, Warsaw
Adam, Barbara, Celina, Danuta, Ewa, Franciszek, Genowefa, Henryk, Irena, Jadwiga, Karol, Leon, L/ukasz, Maria, Natalia, Olga, Pawel/, Roman, Stanisl/aw, Tadeusz, Urszula, Wl/adysl/aw, Xantypa, Ygrek, Zygmunt 

077. Portuguese - Book, Dictionary, Collins
Antônio, Beatriz, Carlos, dado, Eliane, Francisco, Gomes, Henrique, Irene, José, Kátia, Lúcia, Maria, Nair, Osvaldo, Pedro, Quinteta, Roberto, Sandra, Tereza, Úrsula, Vera, William, Xavier, Yolanda, Zebra 

078. Portuguese - Book, Dictionary, Collins
Antônio, Beatriz, Carlos, dado, Eliane, Francisco, Gomes, Henrique, Irene, José, Kátia, Lúcia, Maria, Nair, Osvaldo, Pedro, Quintela, Roberto, Sandra, Tereza, Úrsula, Vera, William, Xavier, Yolanda, Zebra 

079. Portuguese - Book, Phrase, AA
América, Bernardo, Colónia, Dinamarca, Espanha, França, Grécia, Holanda, Irlanda, Japăo, Kremlin, Londres, Madrid, Nápoles, Oslo, Portugal, Quilo, Rússia, Suécia, Turquia, Uruguai, Vitória, Washington, Xangai, Zurique 

080. Portuguese - Book, Phrase, Berlitz
Aveiro, Braga, Coimbra, Dafundo, Évora, Faro, Guarda, Horta, Itália, José, Kodak, Lisboa, Maria, Nazaré, Ovar, Porto, Queluz, Rossio, Setúbal, Tavira, Unidade, Vidago, Waldemar, Xavier, York, Zulmira 

081. Portuguese - Book, Phrase, Collins
Alexandre, Banana/Bastos, Carlos, Daniel, Eduardo, França, Gabriel, Holanda, Itália, José, Lisboa, Maria, Nicolau, Óscar, Paris, Quarto, Ricardo, Susana, Teresa, Ulisses, Venezuela, Xangai, Zebra

082. Portuguese - Telephone Directory, Azores (1966)
Aveiro, Bragança, Coimbra, Dafundo, Évora, Faro, Guarda, Horta, Itália, José, Kilograma, Lisboa, Maria, Nazaré, Ovar, Porto, Queluz, Rossio, Setúbal, Tavira, Unidade, Vidago, Wilson, Xavier, York, Zulmira

083. Romanian - Book, Phrase, Berlitz
Ana, Barbu, Constantin, Dumitru, Elena, Florea, Gheorghe, Haralambie, Ion, Jiu, kilogram, Laza~r, Maria, Nicolae, Olga, Petre, qu, Radu, Sandoo, Tudor, T,ara~, Udrea, Vasile, dublu_V, Xenia, I_grec, zaha~r

084. Romansh - Telephone Directory, Swiss
Anna, Berta, Carla, Dora, Emil, Flurin, Guido, Hugo, Ida, Judit, Kilo, Luisa, Maria, Nesa, Otto, Paula, Quirin, Rita, Silvia, Toni, Ursin, Victor, Willi, Xaver, Yvonne, Zita 

085. Russian - Amateur Radio
Anna, Boris, Vasiliy, Galina, Dmitriy, Yelena, Yozh, Zhuk, Zinaida, Ivan, Ivan_Kratkiy, Konstantin, Leonid, Maria, Nikolay, Olga, Pavel, Roman, Sergey, Tamara, Ul'yana, Fyodor, Hariton, Tsentr, Chelovek, Shura, Shchyuka, Tvyordy_Znak, Yery, Myagkiy_Znak, Ekho, Yuliana, Yakov 

086. Russian - Amateur Radio
Anton, Boris, Vasiliy, Grigoriy, Dmitriy, Yolka, Yozh, Zhenya, Zoya, Irina, Yot, Kilowatt, Lyubov, Mikhail, Nadezhda, Oleg, Polina, Radio, Semyon, Tatyana, Ul'yana, Fyodor, Hariton, Tsentr, Chelovek, Shura, Shchyuka, Tsaplya, Yery, Znak, Igrek, Yuliana, Yakov

087. Russian - Book, Phrase, AA
Anna, Boris, Viktor, Grigoriy, Dmitriy, Elena, Yolka, Zhenya, Zoya, Irina, Yod, Konstantin, Liza, Mariya, Natasha, Ol'ga, Pyotr, Ruslan, Semyon, Tat'yana, Ukraina, Fyodor, Khar'kov, Tsaritsa, Chekhov, Shura, Shchuka, Erik, Yuriy, Yana 

088. Russian - Unofficial Phonetic
Aleksej, Boris, Vasilij, Grigorij, Dmitrij, Elena, Zhenja, Zoya, Ivan, Ivan_Kratkij, Kilowatt, Leonid, Maria, Nikolai, Olga, Pavel, Roman, Sergej, Tatjana, Uljana, Fjodor, Hariton, Zaplja, Chelovek, Shura, Schuka, Tviordiy_Znak, Igrek, Miagkiy_Znak, Emilija, Yuri, Jakow

089. Serbo-Croat - Book, Phrase, Berlitz
Avala, Beograd, Cetinje, C~ac~ak, C'uprija, Dubrovnik, Djakovo, Dz~amija, Evropa, Foc~a, Gorica, Hercegovina, Istra, Jadran, Kosovo, Lika, Ljubljana, Mostar, Nis~, Njegos~, Osijek, Pirot, Rijeka, Skopje, S~ibenik, Titograd, Uros~evac, Valjevo, Zagreb, Z~irovnica, Kvadrat, Duplo_V, Ipsilon, Iks, 

090. Slovak - Telephone Directory
Adam, Boz~ena, Cyril, C~adca, Dávid, D~umbier, Emil, Frantis~ek, Gusta'v, Helena, CHrudim, Ivan, Karol, Ludvík, L~ubochńa, Mária, Norbert, Ń, Nitra, Oto, Peter, Quido, Rudolf, Svätopluk, S~imon, Tomás~, T~, Teplá, Urban, Václav, W, dvojité_vé, Xaver, Ypsilon, Zuzana, Z~ofia 

091. Slovenian - Unofficial
Ankaran, Bled, Celje, C~rnomelj, Drava, Evropa, Fala, Gorica, Hrastnik, Izola, Jadran, Kamnik, Ljubljana, Maribor, Nanos, Ormoz~, Piran, Ku, Ravne, Soc~a, S~marje, Triglav, Unec, Velenje, Dvojni-V, Iks, Ipsilon, Zalog, Z~alec

092. Spanish - Argentina Unofficial
Alicia, Beatriz, Carolina, Dorotea, Eva, Federico, Guillermina, Hombre, Ines, Josefina, Kilo, Lola, Doble_Lola, Maria, Natalia, Ńandu, Ofelia, Pandora, Quintana, Rosa, Sara, Teresa, Ursula, Veronica, Washington, Xilofon, Yolanda, Zapato

093. Spanish - Book, Business, BBC
Antonio, Barcelona, Carmen, Chocolate, Dolores, Enrique, Francia, Gerona, Historia, Inés, José, Kilo, Lorenzo, Llobregat, Madrid, Navarra, Ńońo, Oviedo, París, Querido, Ramón, Sábado, Tarragona, Ulises, Valencia, Washington, Xiquena, Yegua, Zaragoza 

094. Spanish - Book, Business, Telephonist’s Alphabet
Antonio, Barcelona, Carmen, Domingo, Espańa, Francia, Gerona, Historia, Italia, José, Kilo, Lérida, Llave, Madrid, Navarra, Ńando, Oviedo, Portugal, Queso, Ramón, Sevilla, Tarragona, Ursula, Valencia, Washington, Xilofón, Yegua, Zaragoza 

095. Spanish - Book, Business, Telephonist’s Alphabet
Antonio, Barcelona, Carmen, Domingo, Enrique, Francia, Gerona, Historia, i_latina, Jaen, Kilo, Lérida, Llave, Madrid, Navarra, Ńando, Oviedo, París, Queso, Roma, Sevilla, Toledo, Ubeda, Valencia, Washington, Xilofón, Yegua, Zaragoza 

096. Spanish - Book, Dictionary, Collins
Antonio, Barcelona, Carmen, Chocolate, Dolores, Enrique, Francia, Gerona, Historia, Israel, José, Kilo, Lorenzo, Llobregat, Madrid, Navarra, Ńońo, Oviedo, París, Quebec, Ramón, Sábado, Tarragona, Uruguay, Valencia, Washington, Xiquena, Yegua, Zaragoza 

097. Spanish - Book, Missionary Materials, Madrid (1960)
Alicante, Bilbao, Cádiz, Dinamarca, Espańa, Francia, Girona, Huelva, Italia, Jaén, Kilo, Lugo, Llamar, Madrid, Navarra, Oviedo, Portugal, Queso, Roma, EreDoble, Sevilla, Toledo, Único, Valencia, UveDoble, equis, Yugoslavia, Zaragoza 

098. Spanish - Book, Phrase, AA Latin American
Ana, bueno, Carlos, chocolate, dedo, Eduardo, Francia, gato, historia, Inés, José, Kilo, Luis, Llanes, Madrid, Norma, Ńońo, Omar, Pedro, querido, Ramón, sábado, Teresa, Ulises, Victor, Washington, Xiquena, i_griega, Zaragoza 

099. Spanish - Book, Phrase, Berlitz
Antonio, Barcelona, Carmen, Chocolate, Dolores, Enrique, Francia, Gerona, Historia, Inés, José, Kilo, Lorenzo, Llobregat, Madrid, Navarra, Ńońo, Oviedo, París, Querido, Ramón, Sábado, Tarragona, Ulises, Valencia, Washington, Xiquena, Yegua, Zaragoza

100. Spanish - Book, Phrase, Berlitz Latin American
Amalia, Beatriz, Carmen, Domingo, Enrique, Federico, Guatemala, Honduras, Ida, José, Kilo, Lima, Llave, México, Nicaragua, Ńońo, Olimpo, Pablo, Quito, Rafael, Santiago, Teresa, Uruguay, Venezuela, Washington, Xilófono, Yucatán, Zorro 

101. Spanish - Book, Phrase, Collins
Antonio, Barcelona, Carmen, Chocolate, Dolores, Enrique, Francia, Gerona, Historia, Inés, José, Kilo, Lorenzo, Llobregat, Madrid, Navarra, Ńońo, Oviedo, París, Querido, Ramón, Sábado, Tarragona, Ulises, Valencia, Washington, Xiquena, Yegua, Zaragoza 

102. Spanish - Book, Phrase, Langenscheidt
Antonio, Bogotá, Carmen, Chocolate, Dora, Enrique, Francisco, Gibraltar, Historia, Inés, José, Kilo, Lorenzo, Llobregat, México, Nicaragua, Ńońo, Océano, Paraguay, Querido, Ramón, Sábado, Tomás, Ulises, Venezuela, Washington, Xiquena, Yegua, Zaragoza 

103. Swahili - Book,, Phrase, Berlitz
Aali, Bibi, Cyprus, Daniel, Elfu, Fiwi, Gombe, Henry, Ida, Jinja, Kenya, Leso, Mtu, Nairobi, Olga, Paul, Quebec, Robert, Sana, Tanga, Unga, Victor, William, Xavier, Yatima, Zanzibar 

104. Swahili - Unofficial
Ali, Banda, Chakechake, Dodoma, Entebe, Fumba, Gogo, Homa, Imba, Jambo, Kenya,Lala, Mama, Nakuru, Ona, Punda, Kyela, Rangi, Simu, Tatu, Uganda, Vitu, Wali, Eksrei, Yai, Zanzibar 

105. Swedish - Book, Phrase, Berlitz
Adam, Bertil, Cesar, David, Erik, Filip, Gustav, Helge, Ivar, Johan, Kalle, Ludvig, Martin, Niklas, Olof, Petter, Qvintus, Rudolf, Sigurd, Tore, Urban, Viktor, Wilhelm, Xerxes, Yngve, Zäta, Ĺke, Ärlig, Östen

106. Swedish - Early 20th Century
Aron, Bertil, Cesar, David, Emanuel, Frans, Gustaf, Harald, Ivar, Johan, Kalle, Lars, Martin, Niklas, Olof, Petter, Qvintus, Rudolf, Sigurd, Teodor, Urban, Viktor, Wilhelm, Xenofon, Yngve, Zakarias, Aake, Aerlig, Oern

107. Swedish - Police Stolkholm
Adam, Bertil, Cesar, David, Erik, Filip, Gustav, Helge, Ivar, Johan, Kalle, Ludvig, Martin, Niklas, Olof, Petter, Quintus, Rudolf, Sigurd, Tore, Urban, Viktor, Wilhelm, Kryss, Yngve, Zäta, Ĺke, Ärlig, Östen

108. Swedish - Telephone Directory
Adam, Ĺke, Ärlig, Bertil, Cesar, David, Erik, Filip, Gustav, Helge, Ivar, Johan, Kalle, Ludvig, Martin, Niklas, Olof, Östen, Petter, Qvintus, Rudolf, Sigurd, Tore, Urban, Viktor, Willhelm, Xerxes, Yngve, Zäta

109. Swedish - Unofficial
Adam, Ĺke, Ärlig, Bertil, Cesar, David, Erik, Filip, Gustav, Helge, Ivar, Johan, Kalle, Ludvig, Martin, Niklas, Olof, Östen, Petter, Quintus, Rudolf, Sigurd, Tore, Urban, Viktor, Wilhelm, Xerxes, Yngve, Zäta 

110. Turkish - Book, Phrase, AA
adana, bursa, cide, Canakkale, denizli, edirne, fethiye, giresun, hatay, Isparta, izmir, lUleburgaz, malatya, nevSehir, ordu, Oren, pamukkale, rize, sinop, Sirvan, tokat, urfa, UskUp, van, yozgat, zonguldak 

111. Turkish - Book, Phrase, Berlitz
adana, balIkesir, ceyhan, Corum, diyarbakIr, edirne, fatsa, giresun, hatay, Irmak, istanbul, jandarma, kastamonu, lUleburgaz, manisa, nazilli, ordu, OdemiS, pazar, quebek, rize, samsun, trabzon, urla, Unye, van, dubel_v, xavier, yozgat, zonguldak

112. Turkish - Telephone Standard (1982)
ankara, bursa, ceyhan, Canakkale, denizli, edirne, fatih, giresun, hakkAri, Ilgaz, izmir, japonya, kayseri, lUleburgaz, malatya, nevSehir, ordu, OdemiS, polatlI, rize, sivas, Sile, trabzon, uSak, Unye, van, yozgat, zonguldak 

113. Turkish - Unofficial
Ankara, bursa, ceyhan, CankIrI, denizli, edirne, fatsa, giresun, hopa, Isparta, izmir, jale, kayseri, lUleburgaz, manisa, nazilli, ordu, OdemiS, pazar, rize, samsun, SarkOy, trabzon, urfa, Unye, van, yalova, zonguldak 

114. Turkish - Unofficial
Adana, bursa, ceyhan, Canakkale, denizli, edirne, fatih, giresun, yumuSak_ge, hatay, Isparta, izmir, jale, kayseri, lUleburgaz, malatya, nevSehir, ordu, OdemiS, polatlI, rize, samsun, Sile, trabzon, urfa, Unye, van, yozgat, zonguldak 

115. Ukrainian - Amateur Radio
Andriy, Bogdan, Vasil’, Grigory, Dmitro, Yenei, Zhuk, Zenoviy, Igrek, Ivan, Izhak, Yosip, Kilovat, Levko, Mariya, Natalka, Olga, Pavlo, Roman, Stepan, Taras, Ukraina, Fedir, Khristina, Tsentr, Cholovik, Shura, Shchuka, Znak, Yuri, Yakiv 

Go back voice-comm-phon-alph-note-b

Contents of this page

End of TIL file