Update: 2012-11-24 07:08 AM +0630

TIL

TIL Grammar Glossary

O01.htm

Compiled by U Kyaw Tun (UKT), M.S. (I.P.S.T., U.S.A.), and staff of TIL (Tun Institute of Learning, http://www.tuninst.net ), from various sources. Prepared for students of TIL Computing and Language Center, Yangon, Myanmar. Not for sale.

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Grammar Glossary - O

object object complement objective case onomatopoeia opinion ordinal number oxymoron

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object 

From LBH
A noun, pronoun, or word group that receives the action of or is influenced by a transitive verb, a verbal, or a preposition. (See pp. 260, 261, 267.)
A direct object receives the action of a verb or verbal and frequently follows it in a sentence:

We sat watching the stars.
Emily caught whatever it was you had.

An indirect object tells for or to whom something is done:

I lent Stan my car.
Reiner bought us all champagne.

An object of a preposition usually follows a preposition and is linked by it to the rest of the sentence:

They are going to New Orleans for the jazz festival.

From UseE
The object of a verb is created, affected or altered by the action of a verb, or appreciated or sensed by the subject of the verb.
UKT: It is best to look from the point of view of a SVO sentence.

He wrote the book.
('book' is the object, created by the action of writing)

I saw the film.
('film' is the object, sensed by the subject seeing it)

From AHTD
1. A noun (or substantive) that receives or is affected by the action of a verb within a sentence.
2. A noun or substantive following and governed by a preposition.


From GGW
  
A direct object is the receiver of action within a sentence, as in:

He hit the ball.

Be careful to distinguish between a direct object and an object complement.

They named their daughter Natasha.

In that sentence, "daughter" is the direct object and "Natasha" is the object complement, which renames or describes the direct object.

The indirect object identifies to or for whom or what the action of the verb is performed. The direct object and indirect object are different people or places or things. The direct objects in the sentences below are in boldface; the indirect objects are in italics.

The instructor gave his students A's.
Grandfather left Rosalita and Raoul all his money.
Jo-Bob sold me her boat.

Incidentally, the word me (and similar object-form pronouns such as him, us, them) is not always an indirect object; it will also serve, sometimes, as a direct object.

Bless me/her/us!
Call me/him/them if you have questions.

In English, nouns and their accompanying modifiers (articles and adjectives) do not change form when they are used as objects or indirect objects, as they do in many other languages. "The radio is on the desk" and "I borrowed the radio" contain exactly the same word form used for quite different functions. This is not true of pronouns, however, which use different forms for different functions. (He [subject] loves his grandmother. His grandmother loves him [object].) (See, also, pronoun cases.)

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object complement 

See complement.

From EnPlus
An object complement is an noun, pronoun, or adjective which follows a direct object and renames it or tells what the direct object has become. It is most often used with verbs of creating or nominating such as make, name, elect, paint, call, etc.
We know there is a difference between:

calling Mayor Williams
   calling Williams mayor 

painting a red door and
   painting a door red.

When the word follows the direct object and it tells what the direct object has become, it is the object complement. Sometimes people call it an objective complement. The underlined words on this page are object complements.

From HypTxt
The object complement completes a reference and/or an implication suggested by the object of the clause. The object complement is identifiable by its form, position, reference, and agreement.
[UKT: Abbreviations used in the following text: OC = Object Complement, S = Subject, V = Verb, etc.]

Form. Object complements are most usually noun phrases or adjective phrases, although a clause may assume this function on occasion.

They elected her Chair of the department (OC).
We find this music most pleasant (OC).

Position. Object complements only occur if there is an object in the clause and then occur normally after that object.

They elected her Chair of the department (OC).
*They elected Chair of the department (OC).
*They elected Chair of the department (OC) her.

And unlike objects themselves, object complements do not have any passive voice corresponding clauses, in which the complement appears in the subject position.

*Chair of the department was elected her by them.

Reference. Since all complements imply a reference, object complements complete a reference to the object of the clause. There is in effect a copular relation that exists between the object and its complement, in that the object and its complement can be paraphrased by a SVC structure, like this:

They elected her (O) Chair of the department(C).
She
(S) is Chair of the department(C).]

Agreement. Object complements usually agree with the object in number (singular or plural).

She made Liz and Emily (DO) her assistants (OC).
She made
Frank (DO) her assistant (OC).

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objective case

See case accusative case

From EnPlus
The objective case is the form of a noun or pronoun used in thedirect object, indirect object, object of preposition, object complement, and subject of an infinitive.
In English this is only significant with personal pronouns and the forms of who.
Personal pronouns in the objective case in modern English are me, you, him, her, it, us, and them.
The word whom is also in the objective case.

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onomatopoeia

From UseE
An onomatopoeia is a word which imitates the sound it represents.

'splash' sounds similar to the noise of something falling into water.
'thud' sounds like a falling object hitting the ground.
'buzz' is the sound an insect makes when flying.

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opinion 

From LBH
A conclusion based on facts; an arguable, potentially changeable claim. Claims of opinion form the backbone of any argument. (See p. 144.)

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ordinal number 

From LBH
The type of number that shows order:
     first, eleventh, twenty-fifth
 
Contrast cardinal number (such as one, twenty-five).

From UseE
First, second, third, etc., are ordinal numbers, usually coming before a noun. They can be written as 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, etc.

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oxymoron 

From UseE
An oxymoron combines two terms that are normally contradictory:
[e.g.] : real nightmare   living death   educated guess   plastic flowers

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End of TIL file