Update: 2012-11-24 06:21 AM +0630

TIL

TIL Grammar Glossary

F01.htm

Compiled by U Kyaw Tun (UKT), M.S. (I.P.S.T., U.S.A.), and staff of TIL (Tun Institute of Learning, http://www.tuninst.net ), from various sources. Prepared for students of TIL Computing and Language Center, Yangon, Myanmar. Not for sale.

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Grammar Glossary - F

fallacies faulty predication figurative language (figures of speech) finite verb first person flame Flesch-Kincaid Index Fog Index foil formal and informal format fragment frame freewriting fricative FTP (file transfer protocol) function word fused sentence (run-on sentence) future continuous future perfect future perfect continuous future perfect tense future tense

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fallacies 

From LBH
Errors in reasoning. Some evade the issue of the argument; others oversimplify the argument. (See pp. 15560.)

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faulty predication 

From LBH
A sentence error in which the meanings of subject and predicate conflict, so that the subject is said to be or do something illogical:

*The installation of air bags takes up space in a car's steering wheel and dashboard.

(See pp.40910.)

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figurative language (figures of speech) 

From LBH
Expressions that suggest meanings different from their literal meanings in order to achieve special effects. (See pp. 57374.) Some common figures:

Hyperbole, deliberate exaggeration:
     The bag weighed a ton.

Metaphor, an implied comparison between two unlike things:
     The wind stabbed through our clothes.

Personification, the attribution of human qualities to a thing or idea:
     The water beckoned seductively.

Simile, an explicit comparison, using like or as, between two unlike things:
     The sky glowered like an angry parent.

A mixed metaphor is a confusing or ludicrous combination of incompatible figures:
     The wind stabbed through our clothes and shook our bones.

From UseE
A Figure of Speech is where a word or words are used to create an effect, but where they do not have their original or literal meaning.
     If someone says that they are 'starving', they do not mean that they are in fact dying of hunger, but that they are very hungry. This is a simple example of a figure of speech, where the word is used to heighten or increase the state that they are describing. A metaphor or a simile are two of the most common forms used.

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finite verb 

From LBH
Any verb that makes an assertion or expresses a state of being and can stand as the main verb of a sentence or clause:

The moose eats the leaves. (See p.70.)

Contrast verbal, which is formed from a finite verb but is unable to stand alone as the main verb of a sentence:

I saw the moose eating the leaves.

From UseE
The finite forms of a verb are the forms where the verb shows tense, person, or number (singular / plural). Non-finite verb forms have no person, tense or number.

finite verb forms:
I go / she goes / he went

non-finite verb forms:
to go / going

 

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first person 

See person.

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flame 

From LBH
To attack an online correspondent personally, as in a discussion list or newsgroup. (See p. 196.)

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Flesch-Kincaid Index 

From UseE
This is a readability test designed to show how easy or difficult a text is to read. The Flesch-Kincaid Index uses the following formula:

0.39 x Average No. of words in sentences + 11.8 x Average No. of syllables per word - 15.59

Internet links: {Passive Index}; {Fog Index}; {Lexical Density Test}; {Syllable Division}; {Concordancer}

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Fog Index 

From UseE
The Fog Index is a readability test designed to show how easy or difficult a text is to read. It uses the following formula:

(Average No. of words in sentences / Percentage of words of three or more syllables) x 0.4

Internet links: {Passive Index}; {Flesch-Kincaid Index}; {Lexical Density Test}; {Syllable Division}; {Concordancer}

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foil 

From LBH
A character in a literary work who contrasts with another character and thus helps to define the other character. (See p. 814.)

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formal and informal 

From LBH
Levels of usage achieved through word choice and sentence structure. More informal writing, as in a letter to an acquaintance or a personal essay, resembles some speech in its colloquial language, contractions, and short, fairly simple sentences. More formal writing, as in academic papers and business reports, avoids these attributes of speech and tends to rely on longer and more complicated sentences.

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format 

From LBH
In a document such as an academic paper or a business letter, the arrangement and spacing of elements on the page. See also document design. (For academic formats, see pp. 21518. For business formats, see pp. 90215. See also pp. 20014 on document design.)

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fragment 

See sentence fragment.

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frame 

From LBH
A window on a computer screen. With two or more frames on the same screen, a Web designer can show two or more documents at once.

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freewriting 

From LBH
A technique for generating ideas: in a fixed amount of time (say, fifteen minutes), you write continuously without stopping to reread. (See pp. 2223.)

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fricative

From DJPD16, p.216, information panel on 'Fricative'.
UKT: Note that brackets [...] and /.../ have special meanings here. They are best described in terms of Phonetics. The characters within these brackets are IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet). Characters within {...} are in Romabama and have a one-to-one correspondence with Burmese-Myanmar aksharas. See my work on Romabama in my website www.tuninst.net .

A type of consonant made by forcing air through a narrow gap so that a hissing noise is generated. This may be accompanied by VOICING, in which case the sound is a voiced fricative, such as [z], or it may be voiceless, such as [s].

UKT: Approximants therefore are never fricative and never contain interruptions to the airflow. -- see Approximant, DJPD16-30. This is important because I have identified approximants with medial formers, {ya.}, {ra.}, {wa.} and {ha.}. Burmese-Myanmar {ha.}, is to be considered as an approximant -- a pharyngeal approximant -- UKT 080101.

Examples for English : British and US English have nine fricative phonemes: /f θ s ʃ h/ (voiceless) and /v z ʒ/ (voiced).

All except /h/ are permitted to occur in all positions in English, but /ʒ/ as in <measure> /ˈmeʒə/ is of rather low frequency compared to the other eight sounds. /h/ may not end a syllable.

The quality and intensity of fricative sounds varies greatly, but all are acoustically composed of energy at relatively high frequency -- an indication of this is that much of the fricative sound is too high to be transmitted over a phone (which usually cuts out the highest and lowest frequencies in order to reduce the cost), giving rise to confusion that often arise over sets of words like English <fin>, <thin>, <sin> and <shin>. In order for the sound quality to be produced accurately, the size and direction of the jet of air has to be very precisely controlled.

A distinction is sometimes made between 'sibilant' or 'strident' fricatives (such as [s] and [ ʃ ] ) which are strong and clearly audible and others which are weak and less audible (such as [θ] and [f] ).

 

 

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FTP (file transfer protocol) 

From LBH
An Internet standard for transferring files from one computer to another, often used to upload Web pages. (See p. 241.)

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function word

Contrast lexical word.

From LBH
A word, such as an article, conjunction, or preposition, that serves primarily to clarify the roles of and relations between other words in a sentence:

We chased the goat for an hour but finally caught it.

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fused sentence (run-on sentence) 

From LBH
A sentence error in which two main clauses are joined with no punctuation or connecting word between them. (See p. 379.):

* I heard his lecture it was dull. -- fused
I heard his lecture; it was dull. -- revised

 

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future continuous 

From UseE
FORMATION: WILL + BE + -ING
It is used for actions that will be unfinished at a certain time in the future, or for things that will happen in the normal course of events, rather than being part of your plans and intentions.

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future perfect  

From UseE
FORMATION: WILL HAVE + Past Participle
1.  For actions to be completed before a specific future time, but the exact time is unimportant.

She'll have finished it by next week.

2.  When making assumptions about actions that are finished now.

It's OK to phone because he'll have got home by now.

 

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future perfect continuous

From UseE
FORMATION: WILL + HAVE + BEEN + Present Participle
It is used used for actions that will be unfinished, but have reached a certain stage:

This time next month, I'll have been living here for three years.

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future perfect tense 

See tense.

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future tense

See tense.

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End of TIL file