Update: 2012-11-24 06:19 AM +0630

TIL

TIL Grammar Glossary

E01.htm

Compiled by U Kyaw Tun (UKT), M.S. (I.P.S.T., U.S.A.), and staff of TIL (Tun Institute of Learning, http://www.tuninst.net ), from various sources. Prepared for students of TIL Computing and Language Center, Yangon, Myanmar. Not for sale.

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Grammar Glossary - E

EAP editing EFL ellipsis elliptical clause emoticon emotional appeal emphasis English writing style ESOL essay essential element ethical appeal etymological dictionary etymology euphemism evaluation evidence expletive exposition

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EAP

From UseE
EAP is an acronym for English for Academic Purposes.

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editing 

From LBH
A distinct step in revising a written work, focusing on clarity, tone, and correctness. Compare revising. (See pp. 6063.)

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EFL

From UseE
EFL is an acronym for English as a Foreign Language.

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ellipsis 

From LBH
The omission of a word or words from a quotation, indicated by the three spaced periods of an ellipsis mark: "that all...are created equal."
In MLA style (Modern Language Association), an added ellipsis mark is surrounded by brackets: "that all [...] are created equal." (See pp. 52730.)

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elliptical  clause  

From LBH
A clause omitting a word or words whose meaning is understood from the rest of the clause:
David likes Minneapolis better than [he likes] Chicago. (See p. 278.)

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emoticon 

From LBH
Sideways faces made up of punctuation, used to convey emotion or irony in electronic communication. (See p. 196.)

UKT:  
"Emoticon" is probably derived from "emotion" and "icon". Think of a human face with eyes, a nose and a mouth lying sideways. Because the face is lying sideways the two eyes can be represented by a colon; the nose with a hyphen and the smiling or sad mouth by the closing or opening parenthesis.

Happy face ☺ -->   :-)  
Sad face ☹ -->   :( 

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emotional appeal 

See appeals.

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emphasis 

From LBH
The manipulation of words, sentences, and paragraphs to stress important ideas. (See Chapter 23.)

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English writing style

From Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English_writing_style 080606

An English writing style is a way of using the English language.

The style of a piece of writing is the way in which features of the language are used to convey meaning, typically but not always within the constraints of more widely accepted conventions of grammar and spelling.

An individual's writing style may be a very personal thing. Organizations that employ writers or commission written work from individuals may require that writers conform to a standardized style defined by the organization. This allows a consistent readability of composite works produced by many authors, and promotes usability of, for example, references to other cited works.

In many kinds of professional writing aiming for effective transfer of information, adherence to a standardised style of writing helps readers make sense of what the writer is presenting. Many standardised styles are documented in style guides. Some styles are more widely used, others restricted to a particular journal. Adherence to no particular style is also a style in its own right - some may think it undesirable, others not.

Personal styles
All writing has some style, even if the author is not thinking about the style. It is important to understand that style reflects meaning. For instance, if a writer wants to express a torrent of euphoria, he might write in a style overflowing with expressive modifiers. Some writers use styles that are very specific, for example in pursuit of an artistic effect. Stylistic rule-breaking is exemplified by the poet E. E. Cummings, whose writing mainly uses only lower case letters.

See also
The Elements of Style, by William Strunk Jr. and E. B. White, a well-known guide to American usage
Fowler's Modern English Usage, a well-known guide to British English usage
List of frequently misused English words
APA style, American Psychological Association (APA) style - widely accepted for research papers
MLA style manual, Modern Language Association's (MLA) style - most often used in English studies, and literary criticism

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ESOL 

From UseE
ESOL is an acronym for English for Speakers of Other Languages or English as a Second or Other Language.

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essay 

From LBH
A nonfiction composition on a single subject and with a central idea or thesis.

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essential element 

From LBH
A word or word group that is necessary to the meaning of a sentence because it limits the thing it refers to: removing it would leave the meaning unclear or too general. Also called a restrictive element, an essential element is not set off by punctuation:

The keys to the car are on the table.
That man who called about the apartment said he'd try again tonight.

UKT: I've underlined the essential element in each sentence.

Contrast nonessential element. (See pp. 47375.)

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ethical appeal 

See appeals.

From LBH
An ethical appeal presents the writer as competent, sincere, and fair.

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etymological dictionary

From UseE
An etymological dictionary traces a word's development over time, giving historical examples to show changes.

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etymology 

From LBH
The history of a word's meanings and forms.

From UseE
An ETYMOLOGIST studies the origins of words, how their meaning changes and develops over time and how they fall into disuse, etc.

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euphemism 

From LBH
A presumably inoffensive word that a writer or speaker substitutes for a word deemed possibly offensive or too blunt for example: passed beyond  for "died."
(See p. 562.)

From UseE
A Euphemism is when you substitute language that is less direct and vague for another that is considered to be harsh, blunt, or offensive.
     When talking or writing about subjects that we find embarrassing or unpleasant, we often use euphemisms; rather than say that somebody has died, we might say that they 'have passed away'. Some hospitals have 'Special Clinics', where sexually transmitted diseases are treated.

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evaluation 

From LBH
A judgment of the quality, value, currency, bias, or other aspects of a work.
(See pp. 13536, 66772.)

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evidence 

From LBH
The facts, examples, expert opinions, and other information that support the claims in an argument. (See pp. 14650, 17071.)

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expletive 

From LBH
A sentence that postpones the subject by beginning with there or it and a form of the verb be :

It is impossible to get a ticket. There should be more seats available.

(See p. 288.)

From AHTD 
n. 1. An exclamation or oath, especially one that is profane, vulgar, or obscene. 2. a. A word or phrase that does not contribute any meaning but is added only to fill out a sentence or a metrical line. b. A word that stands in place of and anticipates a following word or phrase. In the sentence There are many books on the table, the word there functions as an expletive. adj. 1. Added or inserted in order to fill out something, such as a sentence or a metrical line. [From Late Latin explētīvus serving to fill out from Latin explētus, past participle of explēreto fill out ex- ex- plēre to fill; See pel - 1 in Indo-European Roots.]

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exposition 

From LBH
Writing whose primary purpose is to explain something about a topic.

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End of TIL file