Update: 2007-07-10 12:16 AM -0500

TIL

Grammar in Plain English

GrammPlainEngl_Instr.htm

by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) and staff of TIL (Tun Institute of Learning, http://www.tuninst.net ).
Based on Barrons Educational Series, Grammar In Plain English, by Diamond, H. and Dutwin, P., Barrons Educational Series, Inc., Woodbury, New York. Copyright 1977. Edited by U Kyaw Tun, M.S. (I.P.S.T., U.S.A.).
Prepared for students of TIL Computing and Language Center, Yangon, Myanmar. Not for sale.
The programme is presented in two versions: the email version and the CD version.
-- www.tuninst.net

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Contents of this page

Contents of this page

Though the text is almost entirely from Barron, the explanations, in Romabama, are mine. What I am trying to do here is to prescribe Barron, and to go through it giving explanations in Burmese-Myanmar. However, because of the difficulty of presenting the Burmese-Myanmar font on the internet, I have to resort to Romabama which is an almost character-to-character transliteration of Burmese-Myanmar into English-extended Latin.

Introduction

01. The Simplest Complete Thought
01.01.
What Youve Always Known: The Sentence Pattern of Performer and Action - Syntax
01.01. Exercise
01.02. Recognizing Complete and Incomplete Thoughts
01.02. Exercise
01.03. Introduction of Grammatical terms: Subject and Predicate
01.04. Action Words: Special Problems: Tense

02. Performer and Action: Understanding Time and Number
02.01.
Understanding Time
02.02. Understanding Number

03. Adding Descriptive Words
03.01.
Descriptive Words: Adding Meaning
03.02. Descriptive Words: Special Problems

04. Using Descriptive Words
04.01.
Descriptive Words: Using Comparison

05. Adding Descriptive Phrases
05.01.
Descriptive Phrases: Adding Meaning
05.02. Descriptive Phrases: Correct Placement

06. Linking Words
06.01.
The Flink is Pretty: the subject is Being, not Doing
06.02. Subject and Linking Words: Agreement in Number
06.03. Linking Word: be
06.04. The Missing Link (ing word)
06.05. Missing Link combinations with not

07. Agreement: Special Problems
07.01.
Rules Concerning Special Problems of Agreement
07.02. Surprisingly Singular Subjects
07.03. Some Plural Subjects

08. Time: Special Problems
08.01.
Past action continues into present
08.02. Past action before another past action
08.03. Future action before another future action
08.04. Two actions occur simultaneously

09. Pronouns
09.01.
Performer pronoun, Subject pronoun, and Pronoun which receives action.
09.02.
Pronoun Clue 1
09.03. Pronoun Clue 2
09.04. Pronoun Clue 3
09.05. Pronoun Clue 4
09.06. Pronoun Clue 5
09.07. Pronoun Clue 6
09.08. Pronoun Clue 7
09.09. Pronoun Clue 8

10. Balanced Sentences
10.01.
Understanding Correct Sentence Structure

11. Punctuation
11.01.
End Mark
11.02. Comma
11.03. Common Comma Errors.
11.04. Semicolon

12. Effective Expression
12.01.
Style and Clarity
12.02. Quotation Marks
12.03. Other Marks of Punctuation.
12.04. Capitalization

UKT notes
Notes on individual words, usage, and the culture and history of the English speaking people from Burmese-Myanmar perspective. In the email version, these will accompany individual lessons as footnotes. However, in the CD version, they will be grouped together in alphabetical order at the end of the lessons.

Contents of this page

Update: 2007-07-10 12:16 AM -0500

Introduction

Very few people love Grammar: at least the traditional way of learning it. The terminology which we have to memorize has very little practical meaning in day-to-day speech. The scope of this manuscript can be judged from the aim of the original book: To prepare for the General Educational Development (GED) test.

<grammar> ko kraik pa-t hso-t. lu ha a.lwan rha: pa-t// a.hto:tha.hpring. tha.ma.ro:kya. <grammar> ko moan: kra. t// mhan-pa-t// Ba-hris lo. l: hso tau. tha.ma.ro:kya. <grammar> ha sa.ka: prau: t. n-ra mha lon:wa. ni: pa: a.thon: ma.wing-bu://

pa-hta.ma. U:hsoan: n~ga.lait-sa thing ta la:/ n~ga.lait-sa.ka: thing ta la: hso-ta hkw:hkra: thi.Bo. lo t//
a.hku. thing-hkan:sa tw ka. sa.ka:prau: mha lo.up t. a.hkr-hkan ka. sa. m/ ta.hpr:hpr: n. a.r: Bak ko wing thwa: m//

tha.ma.ro:kya thad~da tho.ma.hoat <traditional grammar> ha n~ga.lait-sa a.r: mha ma.pa-ring ma.hpris-Bu: lo. hting-kra.t. lu tw ka. mya: pa-t// da-kraung. <A noun is the name of a person or thing.> hso-ta mro: ko sa. thing kra. tau. t// di-lo poan-th <definition> tw ko kyak hkeing: lo. thing-kra: ra.t. kyaung:tha: ha <definition> tw a.lwat rwat ring: n. <grammar> ko krauk thwa: tau. t// n~ga.lait sa.ka: prau pran tau. l: <grammar> mhan pa. ma.la: hso t. sait wing la-pri: sa.ka: prau: ma.htwak tau.Bu://

a.hku. thing-hkan:sa mha <traditional grammar definition> tw ha n~ga.lait sa.ka: prau: t. n ra mha-tha ma.hoat/ a.r: mha l: lon:wa. ni:pa: ma.lo Bu: lo. tw. ra. laim.m//

B lu-myo: r. sa.ka: mha hpris-hpris a.thn-su. lo. hkau-t. <syllable>/ hto-mha.ta.hsing. <word> lo. hkau-t. a.thn-tw: tw ha a.si-a.si tis-myo: ko leik-na ra. t// :th. a.si-a.si ko <syntax> lo. hkau-t// n~ga.lait sa.ka: r. <syntax> ha ba.ma sa.ka: r. <syntax> n. ma.tu Bu:// <syntax> ha sa.ka:prau: thing t. n-ra mha <grammar definition> tw htak a.r: kri: t//

See <syntax> in notes in CD version: on email version, you will see it after a few lines.

a.htak mha ba.ma sa.ka: hso-t. a.thon:a.nhon ko thon leik ta mha:ywing: thon t lo. ma.hting pa-n.// Ba-tha-b-da. lo. hkau-t. <linguistic> mha a.prau: n. a.r: ko hkw:hkra: ra.pa-t// a.hku. thing-hkan:sa tw ha <lingusitic> rhu.daung. ka r:hta:ta hpris-lo. ba.ma-sa.ka: (Burmese spoken language) n. mran-ma ak~hka.ra (Myanmar akshara) ko hkw:hkra: prau: ra. pa laim. m//

n~ga.lait sa.ka: ka. <Latin alphabet> ko thon: pa-t// da-kraung. <English-Latin> <Burmese-Myanmar> hso-t. a.thon:a.nhon: tw ko tw. ra. laim. m// <alphabet> n. ak~hka.ra lo. hkau-t. <akshara> ha lon:wa. ma.tu Bu:// di a.hpris ko <linguistic> rhu.daung. n. a.thn-b-da. lo. hkau-lo. ra.t. <phonetics> rhu.daung. ka. kr. mha. tha kwak-kwak-kwing:kwing: mring la-neing t//

n~ga.lait a.prau: mha a.thn mhan Bo.htak/ pa:sup ka. prau: t. a.hka a.thn ha nhoat-hkam: a-hkn-twing: nha.hkaung: sa.lo. B n-ra ka. htwak la ta ko thing-t. hsa.ra ka. thi.Bo. lo pa t// ta.n: hso-ring <phonetics> htak <phonemics> ka. a.r:kri: pa-t//

a.hku. thing-hkan: sa tw ha  <phonemics> a.hky-hkan rhi. t. mran-ma sa ko tat kywam: thu ka. mran-ma-sa tat kywam: pri: tha: kyaung:tha: tw a.twak r:hta: hkring: pris pa-t//

<English-Latin has no phonemics-basis, whereas Burmese-Myanmar is based on sound phonemic principles.>

a.thn hpa.lh t. n-ra mha <alphabet> r. hkyo.t. mhu. tw ko pa.a rhing <linguists> tw ka. thi. hk. kra. t// U.pa.ma <alphabet> mha mran-ma nga. ak-hka.ra n. tu ta ma.rhi.Bu://  :-da kraung. n~ga.lait <ing> r. a.thn ha n-ra ta.ka mha ga.that thn ma.pa-Bu: lo. mhat hta: pa// tho.thau-l: pa-tha.k.tho. mran-ma a.mya:su. ka. prau: n kra. pa-t// ga.that thn ht. ma.prau: ring mha: t lo. a.prau: hkan ra. laim. m// da-kraung. <ing> ko prau: ring ga. thn ko n:n: lhyau. prau: pa//

<English-Latin> mha nga. ak~hka.ra tha. ma.rhi.ta a.hkyo. n-ra tw mha nga.that thn tau. rhi. pa-t// :di a.hka myo: ko pra.hpo.ra <International Phonetic Alphabet = IPA> ko lwan hk. t a.nhis 150 lauk-ka. t-htwing hk. kra. ra.pa-t// <Burmese-Myanmar> nga. n. tu t. sa-lon: ko <IPA> mha ŋ (U014B) n. r: t//

See <IPA = International Phonetic Alphabet> in notes in CD version: on email version, you will see it after a few lines.

(U014B) hso-ta <Unicode font> nn-paat hpris t// <Unicode font> a.kraung: ka. <computer, information technology> tha.ma: tw n. tha hseing lo. a.hku. thing-hkan:sa tw mha ma. rhing: pra. tau. Bu://

a:lon:hkyon prau:ra. ring a.hku. thing-hkan:sa tw ha mran-ma tw tw. n kra. <grammar> ma.hoat-Bu: hso ta hpris pa-t//

-----Footnotes for email lessons-----

International Phonetic Alphabet
n. Abbr. IPA I.P.A. 1. A phonetic alphabet and diacritic modifiers sponsored by the International Phonetic Association to provide a uniform and universally understood system for transcribing the speech sounds of all languages. -- AHTD
Go back IPA-b

syntax
n. 1. a. The study of the rules whereby words or other elements of sentence structure are combined to form grammatical sentences. -- AHTD

Go back syntax-b

Contents of this page

Update: 2007-07-10 12:16 AM -0500

Chapter 01. The Simplest Complete Thought

01.01. What Youve Always Known:
The Sentence Pattern of Performer and Action

We can make some sense of a complete sentence even though we may not know the meaning of the words which make up the sentence. Thus, when Lewis Carrol wrote "Jabberwocky" the most famous nonsense poem ever written, it could still be read and "understood" at various levels of understanding.

sa.ka: a.su. mha a.Daip~p rhi. hkying mha. rhi. m// tho.thau: :th. sa.ka:su. r. a.Daip~p ko ma.thi. p m. Ba a.kraung: l: hso ta na:l  ring <sentence> lo. hkau t//

a.Daip~p ma.rhi. t. <sentence> tw n. ka.bya ta.poad ko <Lewis Carrol> lo. hkau-t. sa-r: hsa-ra ta.U: ka r: hk. t// <Lewis Carrol (1832-1898)> hso-t. na-m ha ka.laung na-m hpris t// na-m a.ring: ka. <Charles Lutwidge Dodgson> hpris t// thu-ka. <Oxford University> ka. thn~hkya hsa.ra ta.U: hpris t//

Lets take a sentence that would have pleased Lewis Carrol:

The flink glopped.

Of the three words which make up the sentence, the only word we know is T-H-E, The. The other two are nonsense words and have no meaning in plain English. Yet we know that something or someone <flink> is the doer, and that it or he had done something <glopped>. The action had taken place in the past, and that flink is probably singular.

<sentence> hso ta a.Daip~p rhi. t. sa.ka: ko hso lo t// a.Daip~p a.pr a.son ma.thi. thau-l: Ba a.kraung: l: hso-ta na:l ring <sentence> hpris pa-t//

tha.ti. hta: ra. mha ka. sa n. sa.ka: ko hkw:hkra: thi. Bo. lo t// sa hso ta sa.ka: ko ka.kri: hka.hkw: tho.ma.hoat <A B C D> n. r: hta: ta hpris t// sa r: tau. poad-ma. poad-hprat <comma> <full-stop> sa. lo. <punctuation> tw ht. r: t// sa.ka: prau: tau. a.thn ko hprat prau: ra. t/ a.hkyain na: prau: ra. t//

<the flink glopped> hso t. <sentence> ko/ ta.lon:hking: pi-pi-tha.tha. prau: kr. pa// <monosyllabic> a.thn thon: thn pa t//

<the> ko hp leik pa// ba.ma sa.ka: mha ma.lo-Bu:// da-mha. ma.hoat <flink> n. tw: leik pa// th-tau. <the flink> hpris thwa: t//

<the flink> ha loap hsaung thu hpris t// <the flink> r. a.Daip~p ko thi. r. la:// thi. sa.ra ma.lo Bu:// <the flink> hso t. a.kaung ta.kaung/ lu-ta.yauk ha ta.hku.hku. ko loap t// Ba-loap tha. l:// ma.thi.Bu://

loap-ta-ka <glop> loap ta t.// <glop> loap ta ha <sleep> aip-ta-la: / <eat> sa:ta-la: hso ta ma.thi.Bu:// ta.hku.hku.tau. loap ta a.mhan B://

B-ton: ka. loap tha.l:/ a.hku. la:// ma.hoat-Bu:/ a.ring ka. loap hk. ta hpris t// B-lo-loap thi. ta l:// <glop> mha <ed> pa lo.//

<flink> B-nh-yauk loap-kra.ta-l:// ta.yauk ht: hpris m hting t// B-lo thi. tha.l:// <flink> nauk-mha <s> ma.pa-Bu://

:th-tau. <the flink glopped> hso t. sa.ka: thn kra: ta n. a.Daip~p a.pr. tau. ma.thi.Bu:/ Ba-a.kraung: prau: n ta l: tau. thi. t// :Da-myo: ko <sentence> lo. hkau t//

tha.ti. ta.hku. hta: mi. r. la:// <the flink> loap-thu ka. a.ring la t/ nauk-mha <glopped> loap.t. a.kraung: ka. la-t// <doer> <action> a.si-a.si ha n~ga.lait sa.ka: r. <syntax> hpris t// :di. <syntax> kraung. <The flink glopped.> hso-t. <sentence> ko na:l ta hpris t//

na.mu-na a.n n. <flink> ko <dog> n. a.sa: hto: pa/ <glopped> ko <barked> n. a.sa: hto: pa// <The dog barked> hpris thwa: t// a.si-a.si ko praung: leik pa// <barked the dog> hpris thwa: lo. na: ma.l tau.Bu:// ba.ma sa.ka: n. ta.lon:hkying: a.sa: hto: kr. pa//

(hkw: haung th) a.si-a.si ka. (haung th hkw:) hpris thwa: pri: mha: thwa: tau. t//

The point we would like to make here is: In day-to-day speech, we do not have to hear let alone understand every word.

-----Footnotes for email lessons-----

 

Contents of this page

Update: 2007-07-10 12:16 AM -0500

01.01. Exercise:

{m:hkwan:}: In the following sentences indicate the performer, the action, and time (past, present, future). Use the given format for your answer.

a.hpr// //
<Performer> loap-hsaung-thu =
<Action>  Ba-loap ta-l: =
<Time>  loap-hsaung-t. ka-la. =

m:khwan: hpr hso ra mha si:sa: thing. th. a.hkyak// //
<The flink glopped.> ko <performer> n. <action> hkw:hkra: l.la si ka. <The> ko hp pri: si:sa: lo. ra. t lo. prau: hk. t// :di a.teing: lat-ta.lau: ma.lo t. sa.ka:lon: sa.ka:su. tw ko hp pri: si:sa: tat aung l.kying. pa//

1. The law student completed the difficult exam.

si:sa:pon//
<The law student completed the difficult exam.>

ko nhis-peing: peing: kr. pa//

<(The law student) (completed the difficult exam.)>

hkit~ta. hp ra. m. sa.ka:lon tw ko hp leik pa//

<(student) (completed)>

a.hpr// // 
<Performer> loap-hsaung-thu = <student>
<Action> Ba-loap ta-l: = <completed>
<Time> loap-hsaung-t. ka-la. = <past> ya.hking ka.

2. Mrs. Smith sings in the church choir each Sunday.

si:sa:pon//
<Mrs. Smith sings in the church choir each Sunday.>
<(Mrs. Smith) (sings in the church choir each Sunday.)>
<(Mrs. Smith) (sings)

a.hpr// //
<Performer> loap-hsaung-thu = <Mrs. Smith>
<Action>  Ba-loap ta-l: = <sings>
<Time>  loap-hsaung-t. ka-la. = <present> ya.hku.

<sing> a.thn mha ga.that thn ma.pa-Bu://
IPA n. r: ring <sing> ko /sɪŋ/ lo. r:t --
<Daniel Jones English Pronouncing Dictionary 16> sa-myak-nha 490 ko kr. pa//

3. The plane raced across the sky.

si:sa:pon//
<The plane raced across the sky.>
<(The plane) (raced across the sky.)>
<(plane) (raced)>

a.hpr// //
<Performer> loap-hsaung-thu = <plane> tho.ma.hoat <the plane>
<Action>  Ba-loap ta-l: = <raced>
<Time>  loap-hsaung-t. ka-la. = <past> ya.hking ka. // <ed> pa-t. a.twak loap-pri: kraung: thi.ra.t

4. They will speak at the November meeting.

si:sa:pon//
<They will speak at the November meeting.>
<(They) (will speak at the November meeting.)>
<(They) (speak)>

a.hpr// //
<Performer> loap-hsaung-thu = <they> thu-to.
<Action>  Ba-loap ta-l: = <speak> tho.ma.hoat <will speak>
<Time>  loap-hsaung-t. ka-la. = <future> // <will> pa-t. a.twak ma.loap ra. th:Bu: lo. thi.ra.t

5. The interviewer listened attentively.

si:sa:pon//
<The interviewer listened attentively.>
<(The interviewer) (listened attentively.)>
<(interviewer) (listened)>

a.hpr// //
<Performer> loap-hsaung-thu = <inteviewer>
<Action>  Ba-loap ta-l: = <listened>
<Time>  loap-hsaung-t. ka-la. = <past>

6. A cashier always counts the change.

si:sa:pon//
<A cashier always counts the change.>
<(A cashier) (always counts the change.)>

a.hpr// //
<Performer> loap-hsaung-thu = <cashier>
<Action>  Ba-loap ta-l: = <counts>
<Time>  loap-hsaung-t. ka-la. = <present>

tha.ti. hta: ran//
<change> hso-t. sa.ka: r. a.Daip~p ko mha: yu mi. m/ tha.ti. hta: pa//

See <change> in notes in CD version: on email version, you will see it after a few lines.

7. Star Cleaners picks up and delivers cleaning.

si:sa:pon//
<Star Cleaners picks up and delivers cleaning.>
<(Star Cleaners) (picks up and delivers cleaning.)>
<(Star Cleaners) ((picks) (delivers))>

a.hpr// //
<Performer> loap-hsaung-thu = <Star Cleaners>
<Action>  Ba-loap ta-l: = <picks> <delivers>
<Time>  loap-hsaung-t. ka-la. = <present>

tha.ti. hta: ran//
mran-ma-sa r:pon ha n~ga.lait-sa r:ta n. ma.tu Bu:// n~ga.lait a.r: mha <capital letter> n. <sentence> ko sa. r: t// lu-nn-m n. loap-ngan:a.m tw ko <capital letter> n. sa. ra. t// mran-ma a.r: mha <capital> ma.thon: Bu:// da-kraung. <Romabama sentence> tw mha n. nn-m tw mha <capital> ma.thon Bu:// mran-ma by: <Myanmar consonant> n. tha.ra. <vowel> ak-hka.ra sa-lon tw ka <English-Latin alphabet-letter> 26 lon: htak mya: tau. <Romabama> a.twak ma.lon-lauk Bu:// da.kraung. <Romabama> r: neing Bo. <small letter> 26 lon n. <capital letter> 26 lon: a.pring a.hkra: <Latin letters> tw ko pa ht. thon hta: pa t//

<Star Cleaners> hso ta a.wat-lhau loap-ngan: tis-hku. r. nn-m hpris t//
<capital letter> thon ta ha a.r: a.twak tha a.r:kri: p m. a.prau: a.twak lon:wa. a.Dait~p ma.rhi. Bu:// a.hku. thing-hkan:sa tw ka. a.r: a.twak tha ma.hoat/ a.prau: a.twak l: hpris t hso-ta ma.m. pa n.//

<cleaning> hso-ta lhau-ran a.wat n. lhau-pri: a.wat ko hso lo t//

8. The woman and her children crossed the street.

si:sa:pon//
<The woman and her children crossed the street.>
<(The woman and her children) (crossed the street.)>
<((woman) (children)) (crossed)>

a.hpr// //
<Performer> loap-hsaung-thu = <woman> <children>
<Action>  Ba-loap ta-l: = <crossed>
<Time>  loap-hsaung-t. ka-la. = <past>

9. The gardener rakes the leaves and cuts the grass.

si:sa:pon//
<The gardener rakes the leaves and cuts the grass.>
<(The gardener) (rakes the leaves and cuts the grass.)>
<(gardener) ((rakes) (cuts))>

a.hpr// //
<Performer> loap-hsaung-thu = <gardener>
<Action>  Ba-loap ta-l: = <rakes> <cuts>
<Time>  loap-hsaung-t. ka-la. = <present>

10. Diane and Joe dined at the tavern and attended the theater.

si:sa:pon//
<Dian and Joe dined at the tavern and attended the theater.>
<(Dian and Joe) (dined at the tavern and attended the theater.)>
<((Dian) (Joe)) ((dined) (attended))>

a.hpr// //
<Performer> loap-hsaung-thu <Diane> <Joe>
<Action>  Ba-loap ta-l: <dined> <attended>
<Time>  loap-hsaung-t. ka-la. <past>

-----Footnotes for email lessons-----

change
n. 6. Abbr. chg. a. Money of smaller denomination given or received in exchange for money of higher denomination. b. The balance of money returned when an amount given is more than what is due. c. Coins: had change jingling in his pocket. -- AHTD
Go back change-b

Contents of this page

Update: 2007-07-10 12:16 AM -0500

01.02. Recognizing Complete and Incomplete Thoughts

A complete sentence conveys a complete thought. And therefore incomplete sentences and thoughts are very recognizable.

Case 1.
A sentence which begins with words such as when, after, because, as soon as, before, or since needs to have a completing thought.

Example:
The following do not convey complete thought:

* When you arrive at work.
* Because you are dutiful.

kyaung:tha: tw ka. mhat l. rhi. kra. t//
<capital letter> n. sa. pri: <full stop> n. hsoan: ring <sentence> hpris rau: t.//
a.htak ka. sa.ka:su. ha <sentence> ma. hoat Bu:// :da myo: ko a.tu. ma. yu mi. Bo. * n. pra. hta: t//

   <*When you arrive at work.>
sa.ka:su. ha ma.pr.son Bu:// Ba hpris-lo. ma.pr.son tha. l: thi. ra. aung ba.ma sa.ka: n. rhing: pra. m// :th. sa.ka:su. hso n ta ka.
   (ming: a.loap. sa.hkam: tho. rauk t. a.hka)
hpris t// kra: leik t. lu ka. hsak Ba prau: on: ma. l: na:htaung n p m. hsak prau: thn ma.kra: tau. Ba loap ra. mhan: ma.thi. tau. Bu://

   <*Because you are dutiful.>
Ba-tha pran leik tau.
   (ming: ta-wun kr t. a.twak)
hsak ma.prau: ring na: ma.l-Bu://

di-lo m:hkwan: myo: ko hpr Bo. mran-ma lo a.Daip~p pran kr. pa//

Solution: Possible thought completions for When you arrive are:

When you arrive, relax.
When you arrive, call me.
When you arrive, I will leave.

tha.ti. pru. ran//
<When you arrive> nauk mha <comma> pa t//

<when> <after> <as soon as> <before> to. ha <time> a.hkyain ko prau: t. sa.ka:lon: tw hpris-t//

<because> <since> to. ka. tau. a.kraung:pra.hkyak <reason> ko hpau-pra. t. sa.ka:lon: mya: hpris-kra.t//

Solution: Possible thought completions for Because you are dutiful. are:

Because you are dutiful, I will give you a promotion.
Because you are dutiful, you deserve a holiday.
Because you are dutiful, I am happy.

Remember, even when a statement is grammatically correct, it can be logically wrong. For example:

Because you are dutiful, you must be punished.

<grammatically correct - logically wrong> Ba-hpris-lo. l:// a.Daip~p pran kr. pa//
   (ming: ta-wan ky t. a.twak/ ming: ko dan p: ra. m//)

Case 2.
A sentence can be incomplete because of the wrong use of the action or verb.

Example:
Thus the following does not convey a complete thought.

*The dog barking all night.

kyaung:tha: tw ka. mhat l. rhi. kra. t//
<capital letter> n. sa. pri: <full stop> n. hsoan: ring <sentence> hpris rau: t.//
a.htak ka. sa.ka:su. ha <sentence> ma. hoat Bu:// :da myo: ko a.tu. ma. yu mi. Bo. * n. pra. hta: t//

kyaung:tha: tw ma. thi. ta ka./ <sentence> hso ta r:hta:t. sa.peid tha-ma.ka./ prau: ta ko l: hso lo t//

sa.ka: prau: t. a.hka mha <capital letter> to. <full stop> to. ko ht. prau: lo. ra. tha.la://

<*The dog barking all night.> ha <grammatically> mha: t//

<Burmese-Myanmar> mha <verb> ko {kri.ya-poad} lo. hkau t// <English-Latin> <verb> tw n. <Burmese-Myanmar> <verb> tw hkra:na: ta ko thi.ring rhing: pra. ra. lw t//

<bark> n. thu. a.sa: mran-ma kri.ya {haung} thon: pon hkring: ma.tu-Bu://

<bark> ko nauk-tw lo. hkau: t. <suffix> ht. thon: ra. t// <suffix> 2 myo: thon: t/ Ba-tw-l hso-tau. <ing> n. <ed> pris-t// da-kraung. <bark> mha. ta.hsing. <barking> n. <barked> hpris-thwa: t//

ba.ma sa.ka: {haung} ko tau. <after word> lo. hkau-lo. ra.t. {haung th} {haung n hs:} {haung hk. th} a.sa. rhi. ta tw ko ht. thon: ra. t//

<*The dog barking all night.> ko Ba-tha pran t. a.hka-mha
{hkw: ta.a lon: haung} hpris-thwa:t// <after word> ma.pa ring mha: t//

sa.ka:su. ko pring Bo. <was> lo sa.ka:lon:myo: ko ht. p: ra. t// di-tau.
   <The dog was barking all night.>
da-mya. ma.hoat <ing> ko hp <ed> n. a.sa:hto:
   <The dog barked all night.>

*The bustling figure walking hurriedly through the park.

mu-la. sa-oap ka. na.mu-na hpris-t. a.htak pa sa.ka:su. ha <grammatically> mha: t// rhing: thwa: aung sa.ka:lon: a.po tw hp leik pa//
   <(figure) (walking)>
pring-Bo. <is> <was> ta.hku. hku. ko ht. pa/
   <The bustling figure is walking hurriedly through the park.>
   <The bustling figure was walking hurriedly through the park.>
da-mha. ma.hoat <ing> ko hp/ <ed> n. a.sa:hto: pa/
   <The bustling figure walked hurriedly through the park.>

Remember, when you correct a sentence grammatically, it can become logically wrong.

sa.ka:su. ta.hku. ko <grammatically> mhan thwa: aung pring ta n. <logically> a.lo-lo mhan ma.thwa:Bu://

-----Footnotes for email lessons -----

 

Contents of this page

Update: 2007-07-10 12:16 AM -0500

01.02. Exercise

{m:hkwan:}: Are the following sentences complete? If not give a possible correction. Give your answer in the following format:

a.hpr// //
<complete> pr.son / <incomplete> ma.pr.son =
<why?> Ba-hris-lo.l: =

th-lo m:hkwan: myo: ko hp-hso t. a.hka-mha si:sa:pon ka. 01.02. Exercise ton: ka. a.teing: hpris t//

1. When Richard called his office.

a.hpr// //
<complete> pr.son / <incomplete> ma.pr.son = <incomplete>
<why?> Ba-hris-lo.l: =

loap-hsaung-thu ka. <Richard>// <Richard> hso-ta yauk-kya: tis-U: r. na-m hpris-t//
loap-hsaung-thu hso-t wau:ha-ra. ka. na-m ko hwan-pra.t// <Richard> lo. hkau-t. lu-yauk-kya: ko prau: ta. ma.hoat Bu://
loap-hsaung-hkak ka. <call> tho.ma.hoat <called>//
<When> pa.t. a.twak/ <relax> <call me> <I will leave> tho.ma.hoat a.la:tu a.hku.hku. pa ra. m//

U.pa.ma <call me> ko ht. kr. ra. aung//
<When Richard called his office, call me.> hpris thwa: m/
a.Daip~p ka.// // {<Richard> thu. ron: ko <phone> hsak t. a.hka nga. ko hkau pa}//

2. The man in the blue suit and the lady in the tan coat walking.

a.hpr// //
<complete> pr.son / <incomplete> ma.pr.son = <incomplete>
<why?> Ba-hris-lo.l: =

loap-hsaung thu tw ka. <the man> n. <the lady> hpris t//
ta.n: <the man in the blue suit> n. <the lady in the tan coat> to. hpris kra. t//

Ba-loap n ta l: tau. pa tha: B lo. ma. ngring: n./ pa-t-tha hso t ma. pr. son Bu://
<is> <are> <was> <were> ma.pa-B: <walk> nauk-mha <ing> ma.ht. ra. Bu://

na.mu-na a.n-n. r: kr ra. aung// //
<The man in the blue suit and the lady in the tan coat are walking.>
<*The man in the blue suit and the lady in the tan coat is walking.>
<is> thon: ta mha: t// Ba-hpris-lo.l: hso tau. loap-hsaung thu ka 2 U: hpris lo.//

3. The fumbling, bumbling clown dancing.

a.hpr// //
<complete> pr.son / <incomplete> ma.pr.son = <incomplete>
<why?> Ba-hris-lo.l: =

loap-hsaung thu ka. <clown> tho.ma.hoat <The fumbling, bumbling clown>
loap-hsaung ta-ka. <dancing> hpris-t//
<dance> mha. ta. hsing. <dancing> //
<dancing> mha <ing> pa t// tho.thau a.rh: mha <is> <was> ta.hku. hku. ma. pa lo. ma.pr. son Bu://

4. A favorite history question involves the causative factors of the Civil War.

See Civil War in notes in CD version: on email version, you will see it after a few lines.

a.hpr// //
<complete> pr.son / <incomplete> ma.pr.son = <complete>
<why?> Ba-hris-lo.l: =

loap-hsaung thu ka. <question> / tho.ma.hoat <history question> / tho.ma.hoat <A favorite history question>//
loap-hsaung ta ka. <involves> / tho.ma.hoat <involves the causative factors> / tho.ma.hoat <invoves the causative factors of the Civil War.>

5. Flour, sugar, and three eggs blending.

a.hpr// //
<complete> pr.son / <incomplete> ma.pr.son = <incomplete>
<why?> Ba-hris-lo.l: =

loap-hsaung thu ka. tis-U: ma. ka. Bu:/ 3 U: hpris t// Ba-tw l: hso-tau. <flour> <sugar> n. <eggs>//
loap-hsaung ta-ka. <blend> tho.ma.hoat <blending> hpris t//
<ing> pa n t. a.twak <blending> a.rh. mha <are> tho.ma.hoat <were> pa ra. m//
da-kraung. <Flour, sugar, and three eggs blending.> ha <sentence> ma.hoat Bu://

pring: leik t. a.hka ra.ta ka
<Flour, sugar, and three eggs are blending.>
<Flour, sugar, and three eggs were blending.>

nauk ta.n: ka. <ing> a.sa: <ed> ht pa
<Flour, sugar, and three eggs blended.>

<flour> hso ta {gyon-mhoan.}/ <sugar> ka.tau. {tha.kra:}// <egg> hso ta ka. tau. {krak-U.}// <blending> hso ta ka. th-th-hkya-hkya tha.ma. aung rau:sat mhw n ta// Ba-loap n ta pa laim.// mhoan. loap hpo. pring-hsing n ta hpris-t//

:th lo mhoan. loap t. n: ko <recipe> lo. hkau t// <recipe> r. a.thn htwak ka. {re-si-pi}/ <recipe> ko <re> <ci> <pe> ta.lon:hkying: a-thn htwak ra.t// {re-si.} lo. a-thn htwak ring mha: t// da-hpring. <cake> kya. tau. kau: lo. m: sa.ra-hpris la-t// <cake> kya. tau. <kaik> lo. a.thn htwak t//

n~ga.lait sa.ka: ko <Latin alphabet> n. r:hta: t. sa ko sa-lon:paung: a.teing: a.thn htwak-hpat-ring a.mya: a: hpring. mha: laim. m// ba.ma sa.ka: ko mran-ma ak~hka.ra n. r: hta: ta ko sa-lon:paung: a.teing: a.thn htwak hpat ring {ra.hkeing-thn} {yau:thn} {Da.nu.thn} htwak t lo. prau:hkying prau:kra. laim.m/ na: tau. l th: t/ <English-Latin> kya. tau. lon:wa. na: ma.l t. a.hpris rauk thwa: neing t// <Latin alphabet> ka. <phonetic> r:n: ma.hoat-Bu:/ <Myanmar akshara> ka. <phonetic> r:n: hpris-t// sa.ka:thn ko ti.ti.kya.kya. hpau pra. neing t. n ra mha <Myanmar akshara> ha <Latin alphabet> htak tha t// :th. a.kraung: ko a.hkr hkn pri: <Romabama> ko ti-htwing hta: ta hpris t//

6. Leona working harder than any other lawyer in the firm.

See the word <firm> in my notes in CD version: on email version, you will see it after a few lines.

<dictionary> ko kr. tat aung kr pa. <computer> pau mha <American Heritage Talking Dictionary> tho.ma.hoat <AHTD> ting hta: pa// <AHTD> ht: mha <firm> hso t. sa lon: ko rha pa//

a.hpr// //
<complete> pr.son / <incomplete> ma.pr.son = <incomplete>
<why?> Ba-hris-lo.l: =

loap-hsaung thu ka. <Leona> hpris-t// <Leona> hso ta main:ma. na-m hpris t// tha.ti.hta: ra. mha ka. a.hku. prau: n t. loap-hsaung-thu hso ta <grammar> a.tho:a.nhon: hpris-t/ thu hso-t. a.thn pa la lo. thak-rhi. thak-m. that~ta.wa lo. ma. hting pa n.//

loap-hsaung-hkyak tho.ma.hoat loap-hsaung-ta sa. t. a.thon:a.nhon: tw ha <grammar> a.thon:a.nhon tw hpris t// ta.k. a.loap ma.hoat-Bu://
a.hku. prau: n t. sa.ka:su. mha loap-hsaung-hkyak ha <work> tho.ma.hoat <working> hpris t// <ing> pa n t// da-kraung. <working> a.rh. mha <is> <was> ta.hku. hku. pa ra. m//

firm

firm 1 adj. firmer firmest 1. Resistant to externally applied pressure. 2. Marked by or indicating the tone and resiliency of healthy tissue: firm muscles. 3. Securely fixed in place: Despite being hit by the car, the post was still firm. 4. Indicating or possessed of determination or resolution: a firm voice. 5. Constant; steadfast: a firm ally. 6. a. Not subject to change; fixed and definite: a firm bargain; a firm offer. b. Unfluctuating; steady: Stock prices are still firm. 7. Strong and sure: a firm grasp. v. tr. intr. firmed firming firms 1. To make or become firm. adv. firmer firmest 1. Without wavering; resolutely: stand firm. [Middle English ferm from Old French from Latin firmus; See dher- in Indo-European Roots.] firmly adv. firmness n.

firm 2 n. 1. A commercial partnership of two or more persons, especially when unincorporated. 2. The name or designation under which a company transacts business.

a.Daip~p 2myo: p: hta: ta tw. laim. m// a.hku. sa.ka:su. a.twak a.Daip~p 2 ka. thing. tau t// <English to English dictionary> ko mran-ma tw a.mya: ka. ma. kr. kra. Bu:// Ba-hpris lo. l: hso tau. a.Daip~p tis-myo: ma. ka. p: la t. a.hka mha B-thin: ko yu ra. mhan: ma. thi. kra. lo. hpris t//

a.hku. sa.ka:su. mha <firm 2 n. 1. A commercial partnership of two or more persons, especially when incorporated.> ko tha yu ra. m//

sa.ka:su. mha <lawyer> l: pa t// da-kraung. <firm> hso ta rh.n tw su.paung: hpwing. hta: t. paog~ga.li.ka. rh.n-ron: lo. a.Daip~p pauk t//
Go back firm-b

7. The man threw away the garbage.

See the word <garbage> in my notes in CD version: on email version, you will see it after a few lines.

a.hpr// //
<complete> pr.son / <incomplete> ma.pr.son = <complete>
<why?> Ba-hris-lo.l: =

loap-hsaung-thu ka. <man> hpris-pri:/
loap-hsaung-hkyak ka. <threw> hpris t//
<when> lo sa.ka:lon l: ma.pa-Bu:/ <ing> l: ma.pa-Bu://
da-kraung. di sa.ka:su. ko <sentence> lo. hkau lo. ra. t//

8. The soldiers walked quietly.

a.hpr// //
<complete> pr.son / <incomplete> ma.pr.son = <complete>
<why?> Ba-hris-lo.l: =

loap-hsaung-thu ka. <soldiers>/
loap-hsaung-hkyak ka. <walked> hpris t// <when> lo sa.ka:lon l: ma.pa-Bu:/ <ing> l: ma.pa-Bu:// da-kraung. <complete> hpris t//

ta.n:// //
loap-hsaung-thu <subject> ka. <soldiers>/ loap-hsaung-hkyak <verb> ka. <walked> hpris t// <when> lo sa.ka:lon l: ma.pa-Bu:/ <ing> l: ma.pa-Bu:// da-kraung. <complete> hpris t//

9. When I have finished dusting and vacuuming, and washing, I will relax.

a.hpr// //
<complete> pr.son / <incomplete> ma.pr.son = <complete>
<why?> Ba-hris-lo.l: =

loap-hsaung-thu ka. <I>
loap-hsaung-hkyak ka. <finished> hpris t// <when> lo sa.ka:lon l: ma.pa-Bu:/ <ing> l: ma.pa-Bu:// da-kraung. <complete> hpris t//

10. The mayor commended the members of the local Rescue Squad.

a.hpr// //
<complete> pr.son / <incomplete> ma.pr.son = <complete>
<why?> Ba-hris-lo.l: =

loap-hsaung-thu ka. <mayor>
loap-hsaung-hkyak ka. <commanded> hpris t// <when> lo sa.ka:lon l: ma.pa-Bu:/ <ing> l: ma.pa-Bu:// da-kraung. <complete> hpris t//

-----Footnotes for email lessons-----

Civil War
The Civil War or the American Civil War (1861-65) was fought between the North (the Union) and the South (the Confederacy). This war was sometimes portrayed as the war to free the slaves who were of African origin (the Black Americans): the southern states were dubbed the "Slave States". This was not totally true because many of the Northerners (Yankees) were slave owners and were very much in favor of slavery. In fact the commander-in-chief of the South, General Robert E. Lee had set all his slaves free while his counterpart of the North, General Ulysses S. Grant had kept not only his slaves, but hired them out to others from time to time.
Go back civil-war-b

 

firm -- from AHTD
firm 1
adj. firmer firmest 1. Resistant to externally applied pressure. 2. Marked by or indicating the tone and resiliency of healthy tissue: firm muscles. 3. Securely fixed in place: Despite being hit by the car, the post was still firm. 4. Indicating or possessed of determination or resolution: a firm voice. 5. Constant; steadfast: a firm ally. 6. a. Not subject to change; fixed and definite: a firm bargain; a firm offer. b. Unfluctuating; steady: Stock prices are still firm. 7. Strong and sure: a firm grasp. v. tr. intr. firmed firming firms 1. To make or become firm. adv. firmer firmest 1. Without wavering; resolutely: stand firm. [Middle English ferm from Old French from Latin firmus; See dher- in Indo-European Roots.] firmly adv. firmness n.

Synonyms: firm hard solid The central meaning shared by these adjectives is tending not to yield to external pressure, touch, or force : a firm mattress; hard as granite; solid ice.

Antonyms: soft

firm 2 n. 1. A commercial partnership of two or more persons, especially when unincorporated. 2. The name or designation under which a company transacts business.
Go back firm-b

 

garbage
sa:kwing: sa:kyan n. ain-thon a.mheik ko <garbage> lo. hkau t// mro.n lu-du. a.twak a.mheik-thaim: <motor car> ka. n. taing: la thaim: t// aim-rhing ka. lam:B: mha a.mheik-poan: ko hta: p: ra. t// aim ht: mha. a.pring htwak hta: p: t. a.kraung: prau: ring <The man take out the garbage.> lo. prau: m// a.hku. prau: ta ka. <The man threw away the garbage.> hpris lo. s:m.kam:m. lwing. pis t lo. a.Daip~p ra. t//
Go back garbage-b

Contents of this page

Update: 2007-07-10 12:16 AM -0500

01.03. Introduction of Grammatical terms: Subject and Predicate

a.hku. thing-hkan: sa tw ko <Grammar in Plain English> lo. na-m tat p m. <grammar> wau:ha-ra. tw ko tis-lon:sa. nhis-lon:sa. thwing: thwa: ring po-lo.ping a.hsing-pr mha hpris lo./ lo-ring lo-tha.lo thwing: thwa: m//

loap-hsaung-thu ko ro:ro: n~ga.lait sa.ka: mha <performer> lo. hkau t// <grammar> a.hkau-a.wau ka. <subject> lo. hkau t//

loap-hsaung-hkak ka. <action> tho.ma.hoat <predicate> lo. hkau t// <predicate> ht: mha a.r:kri:hsoan: a.peing: ka. <verb> {kri.ya} hpris-t// <predicate> ht: mha nauk a.peing: ta.hku. pa-neing th: t/ :da-ka. loap-hsaung-hking:-hkn-ra.thu hpris t// :da ko <object> lo. hkau t//

ta.n: pran-prau: ra.ring <predicate> mha a.peing: nhis-peing: pa-neing-t//
1. <verb> - ma.pa-ring ma.hpris Bu:/
2. <object> - a.mr:tam: ma.pa Bu://

B-lu-myo: r. sa.ka: mha hpris-hpris a.Daip~p rhi. t. a.thn-su mha <subject = S> <verb = V> n. <object = O> thon:myo: pa-neing-t// tha.ti. pru. pa/ prau:n-ta-ka {pa-neing-t} lo. prau: ta/ {pa-ra.m} lo. prau:ta ma-hoat-Bu://

<sentence> ta.hku. mha a.n:hso: <verb = V> pa ra.m//

<S> <V> <O> thon: hku. ko B a.si-a.si n. hta: t hso-ta ko <syntax> lo. hkau-t//

a.hku. n~ga.lait sa.ka: n. ba.ma sa.ka: kwa-hkya: ta ko <linguistic> a.n n. kr. ring <syntax> hpris-n-ta ko tw. ra. laim. m//

ba.ma sa.ka: {hkw:ka lu-ko keik-th} mha <syntax> ka. <SOV>
n~ga.lait sa.ka: <dog bites man> mha tau. <syntax> ka. <SVO>

sa.ka:lon: a.si-a.si praung: p-m. sa.ka: ta.myo: r. <syntax> ka. B-tau.mha. ma.-praung:Bu:// di-ni.ya.ma. tho.ma.hoat <law> ka. {Ba-tha-b-da} lo. hkau-t. <Linguistics> r. a.hkr-hkn <law> B://

na.mu-na a.n n. <dog bites man.> ko praung:kr. pa// <man bites dog.> hpris-twa:t//
<man bites dog.> ha <grammatically> mhan t nau// a.Daip~p praung: thwa: ta B rhi.t// {lu-ka. hkw-ko keik t} t.//

ba.ma sa.ka: mha {ka.} to. {ko} to. sa.ka:tw: tw pa lo. a.si-a.si praung: p-m. a.Daip~p ma.praung:Bu://
{hkw:ka. lu-ko keik t} n. {lu-ko hkw:ka keik t} ha a.Daip~p a.tu-tu B://

 

-----Footnotes for email lessons-----

object
n. 4. Abbr. obj. Grammar a. A noun or substantive that receives or is affected by the action of a verb within a sentence. b. A noun or substantive following and governed by a preposition. -- AHTD
Go back object-b

 

subject
n. Abbr. subj. 6. Grammar The noun, noun phrase, or pronoun in a sentence or clause that denotes the doer of the action or what is described by the predicate and that in some languages, such as English, can be identified by its characteristic position in simple sentences and in other languages, such as Latin, by inflectional endings. -- AHTD
Go back subject-b

 

predicate n. Abbr. pred. 1. Grammar One of the two main constituents of a sentence, modifying the subject and including the verb, objects, or phrases governed by the verb, as opened the door in Jane opened the door or is very sleepy in The child is very sleepy. -- AHTD
Go back predicate-b

Contents of this page

Update: 2007-07-10 12:16 AM -0500

01.04. Action Words: Special Problems

Many action words undergo simple changes to show changes in time.

n~ga.lait sa.ka: mha kri.ya lo. hkau t. <verb> ha loap.hsaung t. a.hkyaing tho.ma.hoat ka-la. pau mu-t pri: lon:wa. thau-l:kaung: sa-loan: nauk-tw: mha hpris.hpris. praung: kra. t// ba.ma sa.ka: mha :di lo a.praung:a.hl: ma.rhi.Bu:// rhi. pa-t lo. ngring:hso la t. a.hka-myo: kya. ring a.hpr p: Bo. ka. n~ga.lait n. sa-ring a.lwan n: pa t lo. hpr ron B: rhi. t//

loap.hsaung ta-ka. a.hku. la:/ lwan-hk.t. ka-la. ka. la:// a.hku tho.ma.hoat ya.n. a.twing: loap ta hso ring <Present action>/ lwan-hk.t. ka-la. ka. loap ta hso ring <Past action> lo. hkau t//

ka-la. pau mu-t ta ko pra. tha. hkring: ko <Tense> lo. hkau-t//

<Present action> ko <Present tense> n. pra. pri: <Past action> ko <Past tense> n. pra. t// ya.hking ka loap-hsaung-hk.t pri:mrauk thwa:t hso-ta ko prau: hkying ring tau. <Past participle> n. pra. t//

Present action words (or verbs) can be changed into past action words, and completed past action words. There are two kinds of verbs: regular and irregular verbs.

The simplest change is the addition of an -ed ending. However, many action words use entirely different words to show these same time changes.

n~ga.lait <verb> praung:l: ta-myo: ba.ma sa.ka: mha ma. tw. ra. lo. mran-ma kyaung:tha: mya: doak~hka. a.tw. hson n-ra ha <tense> mha hpris-t// tho.thau pa-Li. Ba-tha tat-kywam: thu a.twak tau. ma.htu: hsan: pa-Bu://

Examples of word changes:
1. Irregular verbs:
     <eat> (present), <ate> (past), <eaten> (past participle)
     <go> (present), <went> (past), <gone> (past participle)
     <sleep> (present), <slept> (past), <slept> (past participle)
2. Regular verbs:
     <jump> (present), <jumped> (past), <jumped> (past participle)
     <look> (present), <looked> (past), <looked> (past participle)
     <talk> (present), <talked> (past), <talked> (past participle)

<verb> ta.hku. ha <past tense> mha <ed> n. hson: tha.lo <past participle> mha-l: <ed> n. hon: ring <regular verb> lo. tha. mhat pa//

a.lw-hson: <verb> praung:l:hkying: ko <regular verbs> tw-mha tw. ra. t// tho.thau: a.thon: mya: ta ka. <irregular verbs> tw pris t//

B-thing: ha <regular>/ B ka. tau. <irregular> hpris-laim. m lo. mhan: kr. lo. ma.ra. Bu:// a.lwat mhat ron ka. lw-lo. ma.hsi. Bu:// <dictionary> tw mha p: ta ka. <present tense> tha hpris t// <present tense> thi.ron n. <past tense> n. <past participle> ma.thi.neing Bu:// <dictionary> mha pra. t. pon ko <root verb> lo. hkau-t//

tho.thau <electronic dictionary> tw n. <computer> pau-mha ting hta: lo. ra.t. <AHTD> ha myo: n. <internet> ka. ta.hsing. ra. t. <online dictionary> tw mha tau. a.pr.a.son ra. t//

Past participle words are always preceded by:  <has>, <had> or <have>.

To show that action is still being carried on, the verb is attached with the suffix <ing>. Thus:
For both irregular and regular verbs:
   <eat>: <eating>
   <go>: <going>
   <sleep>: <sleeping>
   <jump>: <jumping>
   <look>: <looking>
   <talk>: <talking>

A verb ending in <ing> always has one of the following before it: <is> <are> <was> <were>. There is an exceptional word <am>: it is used only with the subject <I> in place of <is>.

<English Grammar> mha tw. ra.t. a.hkak-a.hk ha <verb> pau-mha a.mya:hson mu-t n-pa-t// <verb> rhoat-htw:pon ko a.hku. a.peid mha sa.tw. ta hpris t// da.kraung. di a peid-mha  l.kying:hkan: lw-lw B: p:tau.m//

Exercise:
Indicate which of the following verbs are regular and which are irregular. Look up these words in the AHTD.

aim aimed aimed

begin began begun // blow blew blown // break broke broken

catch caught caught// come came come // cut cut cut

dance danced danced // dine dined dined // do did done

etch etched etched

fall fell fallen // fell felled felled

give gave given // gloat gloated gloated

hate hated hated // hunt hunted hunted

ignore ignored ignored

join joined joined

kick kicked kicked

laugh laughed laughed // lead led led

meet met met

nip nipped nipped

ooze oozed oozed

plan planned planned

quit quitted quitted

ring rang rung // run ran run

swear swore sworn // swing swung swung

throw threw thrown

utter uttered uttered

vow vowed vowed

wear wore worn // write wrote written

Contents of this page

Chapter 02.
Performer and Action: Understanding Time and Number

02.01. Understanding Time

It is easy to determine the time of the action word in a single sentence. However, when sentences appear in paragraph form, the time of each action is more difficult to determine.

The time of all action words in a paragraph must be the same. The action word in the first sentence sets the time for the paragraph.

02.01.1 Exercise:

Directions: Are the following underlined action words right (r) or wrong (w)? If right, leave the word as it is. If wrong, give the correct word or words. Remember the action word in the first sentence sets the time for the paragraph.

The crowd filed into the meeting room. the chairman raps1 his gavel. An angry murmur continued2 in the room. The chairman will rap3 his gavel a second time. Quiet finally settles4 over the room. The chairman began5 his report.

1. (w) raps rapped

2. (r) continued

3. (w) will rap rapped

4. (w) settles settled

5. (r) began

 

02.02. Understanding Number

The performer in a sentence may be singular (one) or plural (more than one). A plural performer may be expressed in one word (girls) or in more than one word (Mary, Sue, and Jane).

Editors note: Never say the plural describes "many": it describes "more than one".

02.02.1 Exercise:

In each of the sentences, find the performer or performers. Indicate whether the performer is singular (s) or plural (p).

Ans:

1. The women worked well together.

(p): women

2. Mr. Smith and his son address the Cub Scouts.

(p): Mr.Smith and his son

3. Flour, sugar, and milk complete this recipe.

(p): Flour, sugar, and milk

4. Pat Martine understands community relations.

(s): Pat Martine

5. Mr. Luchners grandchildren often visit him.

(p): grandchildren

The performer must agree with the action word in number. Look at the following three sentences where there is agreement in number. Notice that the action is in present time.

1. All of our relatives come to dinner every Sunday.

The performer relatives is plural, and the action word come is plural.

2. Those cars travel at top speed.

The performer cars is plural, and the action word travel is plural.

3. The house stands on a hill.

The performer house is singular, and the action word stands is singular.

Agreement between the performer and the action word in number is easier in the past time, than in the present time. Look at the following three pairs of sentences where the performer changes in number, but the action word remains the same. Notice that the action is in the past time.

1. I rode the subway. David and I rode the subway.

2. Who rode the subway?. They rode the subway.

3. Ellen rode the subway. Ellen and Pam rode the subway.

Contents of this page

Chapter 03. Adding Descriptive Words

03.01. Descriptive Words: Adding Meaning

You know that an English sentence must have a person or thing (performer) performing an action. You might say that these words are the core of every sentence. But we dont speak in such simple sentences: He ran. She jumped.

Other words are added to the core to make a sentence more meaningful and interesting. These words may tell you more about the performer, or they may tell you more about the action. Look at the following example:

The beautiful swan swam quickly.

Here swan is the performer, and swam is the action word. The descriptive words are: The, beautiful, and quickly.

 

03.01.1 Exercise:

Study the two sentences given. Label the performer, action, and descriptive words in each sentence.

Ans:

1. A large apple fell suddenly.

Performer: apple

Action: fell

Descriptive words: A, large,

suddenly

2. The decaying tooth throbbed painfully.

Performer: tooth

Action: throbbed

Descriptive words: The, decaying,

painfully

03.01.2 Exercise:

The descriptive words in the following sentences have been underlined. Which is the word it describes?

Ans:

1. The telephone rang unexpectedly.

The word being described: rang

2. A heavy rain ruined our picnic.

The word being described: rain

3. The talented fingers knit the sweater.

The word being described: fingers

4. The speeding truck swerved abruptly.

The word being described: swerved

5. The soft snow fell gently.

The word being described by soft snow

The word being described by gently: fell

03.02. Descriptive Words: Special Problems

Many words which are used to describe performers must add -ly in order to describe actions. For example:

The nice woman spoke at the meeting.

The woman spoke nicely at the meeting.

In the above two sentences nice and nicely do very different jobs. Nice describes the performer, woman. Nicely describes the action spoke.

A common error is to write: The woman spoke nice.

Many people make the mistake of using nice to describe the action spoke. However, you can avoid that error if you can remember that most words which describe actions end in -ly.

 

03.02.1 Exercise:

What is the descriptive word in each of the following sentences? Which is the word it describes?

Ans:

1. My brother adds (quick, quickly).

The correct word: quickly

The word it describes: adds

2. That neighbors (loud, loudly) radio annoys me.

The correct word: loud

The word it describes: radio

3. He behaved (polite, politely) toward me.

The correct word: politely

The word it describes: behaved

4. The old dog walked (lazy, lazily) down the street

The correct word: lazily

The word it describes: walked

5. Ill give you a (quick, quickly) call when I need you.

The correct word: quick

The word it describes: call

6. He plays the piano too (loud, loudly).

The correct word: loudly

The word it describes: plays

7. I dont like (soft, softly) music.

The correct word: soft

The word it describes: music

8. The (delicate, delicately) bird hovered in the sky.

The correct word: delicate

The word it describes: bird

9. Maria (sincere, sincerely) apologized for her error in book

keeping.

The correct word: sincerely

The word it describes: apologized

10. The dancer balanced (delicate, delicately) on one foot.

The The correct word: delicately

The word it describes: balanced

Contents of this page

Chapter 04. Using Descriptive Words Correctly

04.01. Descriptive Words: Using Comparison

Many descriptive words follow this pattern:

Mr. Smith built a tall fence.

Mr. Jones built a taller fence.

Mr. White built the tallest fence of the three.

Tall is a descriptive word which describes fence. Taller is another descriptive word, and it compares the two fences one built by Mr. Smith and the other by Mr. Jones. Tallest is used when more than two are compared.

As you have seen in the above sentences, -er is added to a descriptive word to show a comparison between two people or things; -est is added to a descriptive word to show a comparison among more than two people or things. This is the general rule for comparison of descriptive words. Study the examples below:

fast faster fastest

green greener greenest

near nearer nearest

pretty prettier prettiest

rude ruder rudest

shrewd shrewder shrewdest

small smaller smallest

soon sooner soonest

spicy spicier spiciest

stout stouter stoutest

Many descriptive words sound awkward when -er or -est is added. These words use more instead of -er and most instead of -est when making a comparison. Study the examples below:

beautiful more beautiful most beautiful

difficult more difficult most difficult

enormous more enormous most enormous

legible more legible most legible

quickly more quickly most quickly

sympathetic more sympathetic most sympathetic

tenacious more tenacious most tenacious

torrid more torrid most torrid

variable more variable most variable

wonderful more wonderful most wonderful

Some descriptive words have entirely different forms to express different degrees of comparison. Study the examples below:

bad worse worst

good better best

 

04.01.1 Exercise:

Complete the pattern in each of the following sentences by adding the proper form of one of the descriptive words below.

boring magnificent long

high good

Ans may vary:

1. This is the _____ meeting Ive ever attended.

longest, most boring, best

2. We chose the _____ day of the summer for our office picnic.

best, most magnificent

3. Mr. Valdez is one of the _____ people I know.

most boring,

most magnificent, best

4. Ricky works _____ than anyone else in the plant.

better, longer

5. Our plants grew _____ this year than last year.

higher, better

Contents of this page

Chapter 05. Adding Descriptive Phrases

05.01. Descriptive Phrases: Adding Meaning

You have just been working with descriptive words which help to make the sentence much more meaningful and interesting. Frequently, one descriptive word is not enough. We need a group of words (a phrase) to expand the meaning.

The coffee cup fell on the floor.

Before you look for descriptive phrases, you must be sure that you understand the core of the sentence. Ask yourself these questions:

1. What is the action word in the sentence? fell

2. What is performing the action? cup

3. What do the and coffee describe? cup

4. Finally, what does on the floor describe? fell

 

05.01.1 Exercise:

Each of the sentences below contains at least one descriptive phrase which Ive underlined. What is the word it describes?

Ans:

1. The company solved its financial problems through efficiency

techniques.

solved

2. The fire in the fireplace 1 crackled into the night 2.

1. fire, 2. crackled

3. The dentists ultrasonic cleaner sped along the surfaces of his

patients teeth.

sped

4. Shrubbery grew around the house.

grew

5. A contestant with a soprano voice won the talent competition.

contestant

6. During the training session, the recruits crawled under the

fence.

crawled

7. A lonely figure waited on the bridge.

waited

8. Everyone except him cheered.

everyone

9. The dealer divided the cards among the four players.

divided

10. An argument raged between the two teams.

raged

05.02. Descriptive Phrases: Correct Placement

A descriptive phrase should be placed next to the word which it describes. Misplacement of a descriptive phrase results in confused meaning. As an example, lets take an incorrect sentence:

The congressman made an unfavorable comment at a

White House reception about rising prices.

The reception was not about rising prices; the congress mans comment was about rising prices. The sentence should read:

The congressman made an unfavorable comment about rising prices at a White House reception.

 

05.02.1 Exercise:

The underlined descriptive phrase in each of the following sentences is correctly placed. What is the word which it describes?

Ans:

1. The American way of life changes constantly.

way

2. The economy will grow through the 1970s.

will grow

3. This course of action is intolerable.

course

4. The prosecutor spoke to Steve.

spoke

5. John Canady writes about art.

writes

6. Several angry commuters walked to the bus stop. walked

7. Representatives of the different factions spoke.

representatives

8. The actors dine after the show.

dine

9. The panelist at the end1 of the table2 spoke decisively.

1. panelist, 2. end

10. Mr. Simmons spoke at length.

spoke

Frequently, a descriptive phrase separates the performer and the action. You must remember that the action agrees in number with the performer. For example:

The man walks slowly.

The man in the blue coat walks slowly.

The man in the blue boots walks slowly.

Notice that the performer man and the action word walks remain unchanged in each sentence. The number of the action word is not affected by any word in the descriptive phrase. Thus, in the third sentence, the action word does not change to agree with boots.

Note: Chapter 06. Cumulative Review of the original book is omitted. And therefore in this manuscript, the chapter following, Linking Words, is assigned Chapter 6 instead of Chapter 7.

Contents of this page

Chapter 06. Linking Words

06.01. The Flink is Pretty: the Subject is Being, not Doing

You have been working with the simplest complete thought: a performer and an action. For example:

The huge Boeing 747 swerved unexpectedly.

The performer is Boeing.The action is swerved.

Another simple, complete thought in the English language is one in which a person or thing is being something rather than doing something. For example:

The Boeing 747 is huge.

As you see, the word Boeing 747 in this sentence cannot be called the performer since it is not performing any action (swerving, flying, landing, departing). It is actually being described (huge). The word huge describes Boeing 747, and the word is links the descriptive word huge to the subject Boeing 747. The subject is the word which the sentence is about:

The Boeing 747 is huge.

The subject is Boeing 747. The descriptive word is huge. And the linking word is is.

The word is is not an action word; it is a linking word. We will point out the subject, the descriptive word and the linking word in the following sentences:

 

The apple tastes rotten.

The subject is apple. The descriptive word is rotten. And the linking word is tastes.

Alaskan oil seems abundant.

The subject is oil. The descriptive word is abundant. And the linking word is seems.

Editors note: Alaska was bought by the U.S.A. from Russia in 1867. It became a state in 1959. Geographically, it is not connected to the rest of the U.S.A., being separated by Canada (a soverign country). However, the Americans built a highway to link up Alaska to Washington State (some say without prior agreement by the Canadian government) at the outbreak of the Second World War (1939-45) through the Canadian province of British Columbia. Alaska is rich in mineral resources: oil being one.

Sometimes is links the subject with another word which equals the subject. For example:

U Shan Sah is a (Myanmar) detective.

The subject is U Shan Sah. The other subject is detective. And the linking word is is.

Editors note: In the original book p.55, the example was:

Kojak is a detective.

It is interesting to note that whenever the word linked with the subject equals the subject, the sentence can be reversed without changing its meaning. The reversed sentences may sound awkward; however, the meaning remains clear. For example:

A detective is U Shan Sah.

Other examples are:

Gerald Ford was the United States first non-elected

president.

The United States first non-elected president was Gerald

Ford.

The subject is Gerald Ford. The other subject is president. And the linking word is was.

Editors note: All the presidents of the U.S.A. are supposed to be elected by the people of the U.S. This was not so in the case of Gerald R. Ford, Jr., the 38th president (1974-77). Ford, the House (House of Representatives) minority leader was APPOINTED Vice president of the U.S. in 1973 after Vice President Spiro T. Agnew resigned rather than face a criminal trial on charges of bribery and tax-evasion. In 1974, Ford, now the Vice president was APPOINTED President after President Richard R. Nixon resigned rather than face a possible impeachment (or a trial).

The Shwedagon Pagoda is a remarkable sight.

A remarkable sight is the Shwedagon Pagoda.

The subject is Shwedagon Pagoda. The other subject is sight. And the linking word is is.

Editors note: In the original book p.56, the example read:

The Statue of Liberty is a remarkable sight.

A remarkable sight is the Statue of Liberty.

 

06.01.1 Exercise:

Complete each sentence using the correct form of a linking word from the list given below. Several words may be appropriate. Choose one.

appear remain become seem feel smell grow sound look taste be is are am was were

1. After the Knick game, the players _____ tired.

appeared, felt, looked

2. The labor representative _____ angry during the extensive

negotiations.

seemed, became, grew

3. The late Dwight Eisenhower _____ once a general.

was

4. The watchman _____ restless.

became, grew, is, was

5. During the tennis match, the women never _____ exhausted. were, seemed

Use the descriptive word correctly in the Subject - Linking Word - Descriptive Word pattern. Never use a descriptive word which ends in -ly to describe the subject of the sentence. Descriptive words which end in -ly are reserved for describing actions.

We will now give examples of correct and incorrect (though commonly used) sentences.

The correct sentence is: The child is adorable.

Never say: The child is adorably.

Here is is the linking word.

The correct sentence is: She speaks too softly.

Never say: She speaks too soft.

Here speaks is the action word.

06.02. Subject and Linking Words: Agreement in Number

A singular subject needs a singular linking word, and a plural subject needs a plural linking word. For example:

1. All of our relatives are coming to dinner.

All agrees in number with are.

2. Those cars appear fast.

Cars agrees in number with appear.

3. The house is on a hill.

House agrees in number with is.

In addition to the agreement in number, every linking word must agree with its subject in time. Agreement in the past tense is easier to achieve than agreement in the present.

As an example consider the linking word appear, and consider using it in different time situations:

1. Present Time, Singular and Plural

I appear nervous.

You appear nervous.

He appears nervous.

She appears nervous.

It appears ill.

Who appears contented?

We appear relaxed.

You and Marcel appear tired.

They appear friendly.

2. Past Time, Singular and Plural

I appeared nervous.

You appeared nervous.

He appeared nervous.

She appeared nervous.

It appeared ill.

Who appeared contented?

We appeared relaxed.

You and Marcel appeared tired.

They appeared friendly.

 

06.03. Linking Word: be

Be is a difficult word to understand. Be is used when preceded by to, will, can, could, would, or should. Examples:

The policeman wants to be helpful.

Next time, I will be more thoughtful.

Crowded supermarkets can be annoying.

This could be one chance in a lifetime.

The supervisor would be grateful if you could work late.

World peace should be everyones goal.

Other forms of be are used in sentences which do not have the helping words to, will, can, could, would, or should. You already are familiar with these forms of be: am, is, are, was, were. The following lists show you the proper use of these words.

1. Present Time, Singular and Plural

I am a nurse.

You are a policeman.

He is a crossing guard1.

She is a teacher.

It (the dog) is a Collie2.

Who is that lady?

We are co-chairmen.

You and your brother are partners.

Who are those ladies?

They are sisters.

Editors note:

1. Crossing guard - A person who helps children cross the road at places near a school.

2. Kinds of domestic dogs: Afghan Hound, Alsatian (German Shepherd), Beagle, Bloodhound, Boxer, Bulldog, Cocker Spaniel, Dalmatian, Dachshund, Doberman Pinscher, Great Dane, Golden Retriever, Irish Wolfhound, Irish Setter, Labrador Retriever, Norweigen Elkhound, Old English Sheepdog, Pekingnese, Pegu Hound (tif;acG;), Pug, Rough Collie, Saint Bernard, Siberian Husky, Terrier (Microsoft Encarta 2000 lists 66 kinds).

2. Past Time, Singular and Plural

I was a nurse.

You were a policeman.

He was a crossing guard.

She was a teacher.

It (the dog) was a Collie.

Who was that lady?

We were co-chairmen.

You and your brother were partners.

Who were those ladies?

They were sisters.

 

06.04. The Missing Link(ing word)

Often, a linking word is combined with another word. In combining, the initial letters of the linking word are dropped and replaced by an apostrophe. For example, the sentence

There is one answer to that question.

becomes

Theres one answer to that question.

There is is contracted to theres.

Other common missing link(ing word) combinations or contractions are:

he is is contracted to hes.

Hes the most forward-looking senator.

she is is contracted to shes.

Shes the strongest voice in Congress.

we are is contracted to were.

Were eager to hear your proposal.

you are is contracted to youre.

Youre one of the few people I trust.

they are is contracted to theyre.

Theyre determined to interfere.

here is is contracted to heres.

Heres your hat.

it is is contracted to its.

Its an active committee.

Editors note: Its without the aphostrophe means possession.

It is perfectly correct not to use contractions. In fact in formal letters and documents, contractions are not allowed. Thus, for a Myanmar student, if you find that you cannot pronounce the contraction, dont use it.

06.05. Missing Link combinations with not

is not is contracted to isnt.

Destruction isnt my idea of fun.

are not is contracted to arent.

They arent the only people coming today.

were not is contracted to werent.

We werent on the train.

was not is contracted to wasnt.

I wasnt prepared for the crowd at the bus stop.

Contents of this page

Chapter 07. Agreement: Special Problems

You know that an action word must agree with its performer in number, and with the sentence or paragraph in time. For example:

The jury enters the courtroom. A hush falls over the

crowd. The judge asks for the verdict.

You also know that a linking word must agree with its subject in number and with the sentence or paragraph in time. For example:

Court is in session. Please remain silent.

The defendant seems apprehensive. The prosecutor

appears angry.

 

 

07.01. Rules Concerning Special Problems of Agreement

You should be careful when using the following words:

Each, Either-Or, Here and There, Who and That

 

07.01.1. Each:

Each is singular when it is the performer or subject of the sentence. Example:

Each shows promise.

Performer is Each. Action word is shows.

 

07.01.2. Either-Or:

When using either-or, you are choosing one or the other. The action or linking word is singular if the performer or subject closest to it is singular. Example:

Either Tom or Bill drives to school.

Drives agrees with the singular performer, Bill.

The action or linking word is plural if the performer or subject closest to it is plural. Example:

Either Tom or his friends drive to school.

Drive agrees with the plural performer, friends.

 

07.01.3. Any

Any is singular. It is used when a choice involves three or more. Either is used for a choice between two. Example:

Any of the three movies suits me.

 

07.01.4. Here and There:

In sentences which begin with here or there, the action or linking word must agree with the performer or subject. Here and there are never performers or subjects. Example:

Here is my coat.

What is here? Coat.

Coat is the subject. Coat is singular; therefore the singular linking word is correctly completes the sentence.

 

07.01.5 Who and That:

You are familiar with the following sentence structures:

The woman attends every meeting.

Performer is woman., and action word is attends. Woman is singular. The action word attends agrees with the performer woman.

One of those women attends every meeting.

Performer is one, and action word is attends. One is singular. The action word attends agrees with the performer one.

Lets take a significantly different example.

One of those women who attend every meeting seldom

speaks.

Here we have to find the core of the sentence. And it is:

One seldom speaks.

The performer is one, and the action word is speaks. One is singular. The action word speaks agrees with the performer one.

Of those women who attend every meeting describes or tells more about one.

Who might be singular or plural. How do we decide? We look at the word to which who refers. In this case that word is women. Women is plural, therefore who is plural. Within the group of descriptive words, of those women who attend every meeting, attend must agree with who. Since who is plural in this case, attend agrees with who.

This rule also applies to that. Examples:

The ruler belongs to me.

The performer is ruler, and the action word is belongs.

One of those rulers belongs to me.

One of those rulers that are on the desk belongs to me.

 

07.02. Surprisingly Singular Subjects

Some words seem to refer to more than one person. In fact, they do not. They are singular. These include:

Everybody means every single body.

Somebody means some one body.

Anybody means any one body.

None means no one.

Everyone means every one.

 

07.03. Some Plural Subjects

Six words which take plural action or linking words are:

all, few, several, both, many, some

Contents of this page

Chapter 08. Time: Special Problems

You know that sentences express time:

Present Action: I commute to work each day.

Past Action: I commuted to work each day.

Future Action: I will commute to work each day.

Occasionally, time is more complicated than the simple expression of past or future.

 

08.01. Past action continues into present

Sometimes an action which began in the past continues into the present. Examples:

I have commuted to work for six years.

Marie has commuted to work for five years.

The addition of the helping word have or has expresses the idea of an action which began in the past, but is continuing into the present. In the above examples, the helping words, have and has, are in the present and the action word, commuted, is in the past.

 

08.02. Past action before another past action

Sometimes a past action has occurred before another past action. Example:

I had commuted for two hours each way before I moved

to the city.

The addition of the helping word had shows that the commuting occurred in the past before the moving occurred.

08.03. Future action before another future action

Sometimes a future action can occur before another future action. Example:

I will have commuted four million miles by the time I

retire.

 

08.04. Two actions occur simultaneously

When two actions occur simultaneously, their time must be the same. Example:

As the curtain rises, the audience applauds.

As the curtain rose, the audience applauded.

Contents of this page

Chapter 09. Pronouns

09.01. Performer pronoun, Subject pronoun, and Pronoun which

receives action.

Pronouns are used as performers/subjects or as words which receive action. For example:

Lloyd ran home.

Lloyd is the performer and you can use the performer pronoun, he, in place of Lloyd.

He ran home.

Next,

Lloyd is pleasant.

Lloyd is the subject and you can use the subject pronoun, he in place of Lloyd.

He is pleasant.

Now, lets take up the case of words which receive action,

Elana gave a bright smile to Tom.

Elana is the performer and the word which receives action is Tom.

Elana gave a bright smile to him.

Elana is the performer and him is the pronoun which receives action.

Again,

Maria gave Tom an icy stare.

Maria is the performer and the word which receives action is Tom.

Maria gave him an icy stare.

Maria is the performer and him is the pronoun which receives action is him.

09.01.1 Exercise:

Complete each sentence using a pronoun from the following list. More than one answer may be correct.

Performer/Subject pronouns Pronouns which receives action

I me

you you

he him

she her

it it

we us

they them

who whom

1. _____ won the election.

I, You, He, She, We, They

2. _____ campaigned all week.

I, You, He, She, We, They

3. The National Organization for Women gave the

citation to _____ .

him, her, you, them

4. The student hitchhiker got a lift from _____.

him, me, you, her, us, them

5. _____ was responsible for legislation providing

consumer protection?

Who

6. For _____ did the witness testify.

whom

09.02. Pronoun Clue 1:

Dont be confused by who and whom. As you can see in the preceeding list, who is a subject/performer and whom is a pronoun which receives action. Reason out as follow:

If: He painted the house.

Then: Who painted the house?

If: The phone call is for him.

Then: For whom is the phone call?

 

09.03. Pronoun Clue 2:

Dont be confused by more than one subject.

If: He won the election.

Then: Macon and he won the election.

 

09.04. Pronoun Clue 3:

Dont be confused by more than one word receiving action.

If: I gave the present to her.

Then: I gave the present to Tom and her.

 

09.05. Pronoun Clue 4:

Dont be confused by a condensed thought.

If: Elmer runs more quickly than I do.

Then: Elmer runs more quickly than I.

 

09.06. Pronoun Clue 5:

A sentence in which a linking word is connecting the subject to a word which means the same thing as the subject, is reversible.

If: Carl is the mayor.

Then: The mayor is Carl.

If: He is the mayor.

Then: The mayor is he.

 

09.07. Pronoun Clue 6:

Certain pronouns - my, your, his, her, its, our, their - may be used as descriptive words. Example:

I like the red hat.

I like his hat.

Descriptive pronouns are never a problem in the above context. However, errors are common in the following types of sentences.

Correct: I do not like his smoking.

Incorrect: I do not like him smoking

Correct: Of course I approve of your jogging.

Incorrect: Of course I approve of you jogging.

 

09.08. Pronoun Clue 7:

Words such as to, from, between, except, among are followed by pronouns which receive action. For example:

1. Between you and me, I dont enjoy cooking.

2. The package is for her.

3. Please divide the workload among them.

4. Everyone, except us, is attending the meeting.

 

09.09. Pronoun Clue 8:

A pronoun must agree in number with the word to which it refers. For example:

1. One of the men in the back of the room could not

project his voice.

His refers to one. Both words are singular.

2. All of those women left their coats after the rally.

Their refers to all. Both words are plural.

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Chapter 10. Balanced Sentences

10.01. Understanding Correct Sentence Structure

Sentences which are correctly and effectively written are sentences which are balanced.

A balance sentence is one in which related actions, descriptions, or ideas are presented in the same form.

Examples:

He liked swimming and diving.

Incorrect: He liked swimming and to dive.

Mrs. Thompson is pleasant and intelligent.

Incorrect: Mrs. Thompson is pleasant and has intelligence.

Tennis is both stimulating and exhausting.

Incorrect: Tennis is both stimulating and makes me exhausted.

Gary is not only a fine carpenter but also a fine

electrician.

Incorrect: Gary is not only a fine carpenter but a fine electrician also.

I like to walk in the rain, to sing in the shower, and to stamp in puddles.

Incorrect: I like to walk in the rain, to sing in the shower, and stamping in puddles.

The eagle has majesty, strength, and grace.

Incorrect: The eagle has majesty, strength, and is graceful.

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Chapter 11. Punctuation

11.01. End Mark

Punctuation is simply a way of keeping ideas straight. The most commonly used forms of punctuation are end marks which are used at the ends of sentences. These include the period ( . ) the question mark ( ? ), and the exclamation mark ( ! ).

 

11.02. Comma

The comma is the most difficult form of punctuation because of its varied uses. We will outline its uses below.

1. Commas are used to separate items in a series.

Example:

Check the tires, the oil, and the battery.

2. Commas are used to separate words or groups of words that interrupt the flow of the sentence.

Example:

Jimmy Doolittle, Air Force squadron leader during World War II, was admired by those who flew with him.

3. The words therefore, however, nevertheless, in as much as, are set off by commas when they interrupt a complete thought.

Example:

Unfortunately for Herbert Hoover, however, he became president a year before the crash of 1929.

Editors note: Herbert C. Hoover became president a year before the stock market crash of 1929 which was followed by the Great Depression of the Thirties. At that time the stock market was largely unregulated and laissez-faire (French word meaning "let things alone") economics was practiced. Both were corrected during the presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt which followed that of Hoover.

4. An introductory word or group of words is separated from the complete thought by a comma.

Example:

Before the New Deal, laissez faire economics was practiced.

5. Commas are used to separate two complete thoughts which are joined by a connecting word such as and, or, but, or for.

Example:

The office building will be torn down, and a parking lot will replace it.

6. A comma always separates the day from the year, and a comma separates the year from the rest of the sentence.

Example:

His son graduated on June 14, 1972, from New York University.

7. Separate a direct quotation from the rest of the sentence by using commas.

Example:

The master of ceremonies shouted, "Attention, ladies and gentlemen!"

8. A comma is used to separate the name of a city from the name of a state or country.

Example:

Madeline Manning Jackson is from Cleveland, Ohio.

9. A comma is used after the salutation in a friendly letter.

A comma is used after the closing in a friendly letter, as well as in a business letter.

Example:

Dear Tom,

... ... ... ... ...

... ... ... ...

Sincerely,

Harvey

 

11.03. Common Comma Errors

Frequently, commas are included where they should not be. Following are two common examples.

1. A comma is not used to separate two actions if the sentence has one performer.

Example:

I returned to the library _ and left the unread book.

There are no commas in the whole sentence, because the sentence has one performer only: I.

Incorrect: I returned to the library, and left the unread book.

2. When a sentence begins with a complete thought followed by an incomplete thought, a comma is not used.

Example:

The party became lively _ when John arrived.

Incorrect: The party became lively, when John arrived.

11.04. Semicolon (;)

The semicolon is a strong mark of punctuation. It signals the end of a thought. Unlike a period, it is used in the middle of a sentence because it connects two complete thoughts which are closely related.

Example, instead of

The world acclaimed the Great Houdinis feats of escape.

He earned the worlds praise.

we can write

The world acclaimed the Great Houdinis feats of escape;

he earned the worlds praise.

Editors note: Harry Houdini (1874-1926) was an American magician and an escape artist. He was born in Budapest, Hungary. He was famous for his performances of feats of magic. He showed astounding ability in extricating himself from handcuffs, ropes, locked trunks, and bonds of any sort. (from Microsoft Encarta 2000)

The semicolon can also be used to separate two complete and related thoughts that would otherwise be separated by, and, but, or, nor, for, so.

Example, instead of

The world acclaimed the Great Houdinis feats of escape, and he earned the worlds praise.

we can write

The world acclaimed the Great Houdinis feats of escape; he earned the worlds praise.

Occasionally, one or both of two complete and related thoughts will contain commas.

Example:

John, my older brother, is not a very good pool player; but even though he never wins, he enjoys the game.

Editors note: Pool - a billiard game.

Notice that in this type of sentence, in order to avoid confusion, a semicolon is used to separate the two complete thoughts even though a connecting word is present.

Example:

Although Jane is five years old, she has never been swimming; and personally, I think that is a shame.

Example:

When you are ready, please call me; and I, although occupied, will meet you at once.

The following large connecting words are always preceded by a semicolon and followed by a comma when connecting two complete thoughts: therefore, nevertheless, however, in as much as.

Example:

I dont like the terms of the contract; therefore, I will not sign it.

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Chapter 12. Effective Expression

12.01. Style and Clarity

Many sentences which seem correctly written are, in fact, in correct because of:

the misuse of words or phrases, and the addition of unnecessary words or phrases.

Lets look at the examples:

Example 1

My reason for sending the children to Happy Days Camp was that I thought they might learn to swim.

The sentence uses too many words to make the point. "My reason ... was that" could be condensed, and the sentence should be written:

I sent the children to Happy Days Camp because I thought they might learn to swim.

Example 2

Much of the time, the weather was cloudy, and they didnt go swimming.

Note: Ive changed this example (p.154 of the original book), because the mistake in the example given was so glaring.

They didnt go swimming because of the cloudy weather, and the sentence should be written:

Much of the time, the weather was cloudy, so they didnt go swimming.

OR

Much of the time, they didnt go swimming because the weather was cloudy.

Example 3

At the end of the season, the campers gave a party for their parents, but they didnt enjoy it.

It is unclear whether they refers to the campers or their parents. The sentence must be changed in order to convey the true meaning. The sentence should be written:

At the end of the season, the campers gave a party for their parents, but the campers didnt enjoy it.

OR

At the end of the season, the campers gave a party for their parents, but their parents didnt enjoy it.

 

 

12.02. Quotation Marks ("...")

Quotation marks are used to set off the exact words said by somebody or taken from a source.

There are two types of quotations: Direct quotations and Indirection quotations. Examples:

Direct quotation:

The young mother remarked, "Thank Heavens for our communitys parks and recreation programs!"

Indirect quotation:

The young mother remarked that she was grateful for her communitys parks and recreation programs.

In the first sentence, the womans exact words are quoted. In the second sentence, the word that signals the fact that the sentence is a report of what was said, not a direct quotation.

Editors note: My advice to Myanmar students is to avoid using words like Heavens, or God, or Jesus. In the above example given by the book, I think there is a shade of indignation on the part of the speaker when she said Thank Heavens. She could have implied that the state of the parks and recreation programs were bad but could have been worse. Remember, because of the cultural and religious differences, our way of thinking can be quite different from that of a white Christian North American. This had been pointed out to me by my American classmates and also by my fellow Canadian editors.

Now some rules on the use of quotation mark.

1. Use quotation marks to set off the exact words of a speaker. Note the comma between the speaker and the words spoken in the examples.

The teacher instructed, "Complete the vocabulary list at home."

"Review the vocabulary list for our last class," the teacher instructed.

Note the period (full stop) inside the quotation marks at the end of the first sentence.

2. Use quotation marks to set off both parts of a broken quotation. Do not capitalize the first word of the second part of the quotation unless it is the beginning of a new sentence.

"Well," exclaimed Anita, "what did you expect?"

"Stop complaining, Anita," said her brother.

"It wont help."

3. Place a semicolon after the closing quotation marks.

You said, "Wait until you see me"; so I waited.

4. Never use two forms of punctuation at the end of a quotation. When the entire sentence is a question but the quoted portion is not, place a question mark after after the closing quotation marks.

Did Jane say, "Meet at our house"?

5. Never use two forms of punctuation at the end of a quotation. When the entire sentence is an exclamation but the quoted portion is not, place the exclamation point after the closing quotation marks.

I could scream each time you call and say, "Ill be late for dinner tonight, dear"!

When the quoted portion is an exclamation, place the exclamation mark inside the quotes.

The guard shouted, "Stop him! Stop him!"

 

6. Use single quotation marks for a quotation within a quotation.

The history student asked, "Is it true that Patrick Henry said, Give me liberty, or give me death when Americas freedom was in question?"

7. Use quotation marks to enclose titles of poems, articles, chapters, or any part of a book or magazine. If the quoted title is followed by a comma, the comma should be placed inside the quotation marks.

The third chapter of Our World, entitled, "Views of the Middle East," is the most interesting.

 

12.03. Other Marks of Punctuation

You have already studied the major punctuation marks. There are several marks of punctuation which we encounter less frequently. These are the colon, the hyphen, the apostrophe, the dash, parentheses, and brackets.

Now some rules on their uses.

 

12.03.1 Colon (:)

1. Use a colon to introduce a list. Dont use a colon when the list is preceded by an action or linking word.

Bring the following equipment: a tent, a cot or sleeping bag, basic cooking utensils, and matches. Necessary equipment for such a trip includes a tent, a cot or sleeping bag, basic cooking utensils, and matches.

2. Use a colon after the salutation in a business letter.

Dear Mr. Williams:

Dear Sir:

Note: The words "My Dear Mr." is more formal than "Dear Mr.".

3. Use a colon between numbers to show time.

4:15 P.M.

 

12.03.2. Hyphen (-)

1. Use a hyphen to divide a word at the end of a line. Divide between syllables with a hyphen.

The new, downtown build-
ing is enormous, yet unorna-
mented.

2. Use a hyphen to divide compound numbers from twenty-one to ninety-nine.

3. Hyphenate descriptive words which are brought together to form a new word.

well-to-do, fly-by-night, half-yearly, self-supporting

4. Hyphenate certain prefixes and the words to which they are added.

My ex-husbands favorite art form is pre-Columbian sculpture.

 

12.03.3. Apostrophe ()

1. Use an apostrophe to show the omission of a letter from a word.

We arent (are not) responsible for breakage.

2. Use an apostrophe to show possession. Note that apostrophes are placed differently according to whether the word is singular or plural and according to the way the word forms its plural.

the lambs wool, the dogs kennels, the mens department, the ladies club

Exceptions: Its is the possessive form of it. Its means it is. His and hers are the possessive forms of he and she.

3. Use an apostrophe to show the plural of letters and numbers.

Bs, 7s

 

12.03.4. Dash ()

1. Use dashes to emphasize an interruption within a sentence.

Be home on time no later than midnight or I shall be very worried.

12.03.5. Parentheses ((...))

1. Use parentheses for words not strictly related to the main thought of the sentence. Do not use a capital letter or final punctuation (except the question mark) within the parentheses.

I managed (somehow or other) to drag three heavy suitcases to the terminal.

I called you last night (or was it Friday?) to give you the message.

 

12.03.6. Brackets [...]

1. Use brackets within parentheses and within a quotation.

They tried some French wines (Bordeaux [Medoc], Burgundy, and Chablis).

We were asked to read a poem and Tom said, "The one Ive chosen [by Wilde] is called "The Ballad of Reading Gaol. "

 

12.04. Capitalization

Capitalization, like punctuation, is applied according to rules.

1. Capitalize the first letter of the first word in a sentence, unless it is a sentence within parentheses.

Languages changes continually (note all the once-slang words in your current dictionary) but slowly.

2. Capitalize the first word of a direct quotation.

He cautioned, "If you buy a ticket beforehand, you will secure a seat for the performance."

3. Capitalize the word I.

In case you are late, I will cover for you.

4. Capitalize the deity, place names, street names, persons names, organization names, languages, and specific course names.

God and His universe, Blue Ridge Mountains, Delaware River, Forty-second Street, John Masters, Knights of Columbus, Spanish, History II (not sociology, math, etc.)

5. Capitalize names of important historical events, documents, and ages.

World War I, Magna Carta, Declaration of Independence, Victorian Era

Editors note: Magna Carta: In 1215, during the caretaker reign of King (Prince) John of England, the nobles of the land forced him to sign a charter restricting powers of the king. Though traditionally regarded as a charter granting some civil liberties, it was infact only in favor of the ruling class and not in favor of the population at large.

6. Capitalize days of the week, months, and special holidays.

Monday, January, Memorial Day

7. Capitalize east, west, north, and south only when they are used as sections of the country, not as directions.

Rod Lewis lived in the East for three years, then moved to the Midwest.

Turn east at the next corner.

Editors note: To the Americans, "East" means the eastern part of the U.S.A., whereas to the Europeans, "East" means any place east of Europe. Thus "Near East" - Turkey, "Middle East" - Palistine and Arabia, "Far East" - India, China and Japan, especially China and Japan.

8. In a title (of a play, book, poem, magazine, etc.) capitalize the first word and each important word.

Death of a Salesman, The Odyssey, The Wasteland, The Last of the Mohicans

9. Capitalize the initials of a persons name, and a title when it accompanies a name. Do not capitalize the title (such as captain) if it does not have reference to a specific person.

Captain T. J. Phillips.

We saw the captain.

10. Capitalize the first word in each line of poetry.

"A thing of beauty is a joy forever:
Its loveliness increases ..."

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Notes

change

n. 6. Abbr. chg. a. Money of smaller denomination given or received in exchange for money of higher denomination. b. The balance of money returned when an amount given is more than what is due. c. Coins: had change jingling in his pocket. -- AHTD
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Civil War

The Civil War or the American Civil War (1861-65) was fought between the North (the Union) and the South (the Confederacy). This war was sometimes portrayed as the war to free the slaves who were of African origin (the Black Americans): the southern states were dubbed the "Slave States". This was not totally true because many of the Northerners (Yankees) were slave owners and were very much in favor of slavery. In fact the commander-in-chief of the South, General Robert E. Lee had set all his slaves free while his counterpart of the North, General Ulysses S. Grant had kept not only his slaves, but hired them out to others from time to time.
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firm

-- from AHTD:

firm 1 adj. firmer firmest 1. Resistant to externally applied pressure. 2. Marked by or indicating the tone and resiliency of healthy tissue: firm muscles. 3. Securely fixed in place: Despite being hit by the car, the post was still firm. 4. Indicating or possessed of determination or resolution: a firm voice. 5. Constant; steadfast: a firm ally. 6. a. Not subject to change; fixed and definite: a firm bargain; a firm offer. b. Unfluctuating; steady: Stock prices are still firm. 7. Strong and sure: a firm grasp. v. tr. intr. firmed firming firms 1. To make or become firm. adv. firmer firmest 1. Without wavering; resolutely: stand firm. [Middle English ferm from Old French from Latin firmus; See dher- in Indo-European Roots.] firmly adv. firmness n.

Synonyms: firm hard solid The central meaning shared by these adjectives is tending not to yield to external pressure, touch, or force : a firm mattress; hard as granite; solid ice.

Antonyms: soft

firm 2 n. 1. A commercial partnership of two or more persons, especially when unincorporated. 2. The name or designation under which a company transacts business.

a.Daip~p 2myo: p: hta: ta tw. laim. m// a.hku. sa.ka:su. a.twak a.Daip~p 2 ka. thing. tau t// <English to English dictionary> ko mran-ma tw a.mya: ka. ma. kr. kra. Bu:// Ba-hpris lo. l: hso tau. a.Daip~p tis-myo: ma. ka. p: la t. a.hka mha B-thin: ko yu ra. mhan: ma. thi. kra. lo. hpris t//

a.hku. sa.ka:su. mha <firm 2 n. 1. A commercial partnership of two or more persons, especially when incorporated.> ko tha yu ra. m//

sa.ka:su. mha <lawyer> l: pa t// da-kraung. <firm> hso ta rh.n tw su.paung: hpwing. hta: t. paog~ga.li.ka. rh.n-ron: lo. a.Daip~p pauk t//
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garbage

sa:kwing: sa:kyan n. ain-thon a.mheik ko <garbage> lo. hkau t// mro.n lu-du. a.twak a.mheik-thaim: <motor car> ka. n. taing: la thaim: t// aim-rhing ka. lam:B: mha a.mheik-poan: ko hta: p: ra. t// aim ht: mha. a.pring htwak hta: p: t. a.kraung: prau: ring <The man take out the garbage.> lo. prau: m// a.hku. prau: ta ka. <The man threw away the garbage.> hpris lo. s:m.kam:m. lwing. pis t lo. a.Daip~p ra. t//
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International Phonetic Alphabet

n. Abbr. IPA I.P.A. 1. A phonetic alphabet and diacritic modifiers sponsored by the International Phonetic Association to provide a uniform and universally understood system for transcribing the speech sounds of all languages. -- AHTD
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object

object n. 4. Abbr. obj. Grammar a. A noun or substantive that receives or is affected by the action of a verb within a sentence. b. A noun or substantive following and governed by a preposition. -- AHTD
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predicate

predicate n. Abbr. pred. 1. Grammar One of the two main constituents of a sentence, modifying the subject and including the verb, objects, or phrases governed by the verb, as opened the door in Jane opened the door or is very sleepy in The child is very sleepy. -- AHTD
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subject

subject n. Abbr. subj. 6. Grammar The noun, noun phrase, or pronoun in a sentence or clause that denotes the doer of the action or what is described by the predicate and that in some languages, such as English, can be identified by its characteristic position in simple sentences and in other languages, such as Latin, by inflectional endings. -- AHTD
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syntax

syntax n. 1. a. The study of the rules whereby words or other elements of sentence structure are combined to form grammatical sentences. -- AHTD
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U Kyaw Tun

U Kyaw Tun first became an educator (assistant lecturer in Chemistry) in the University of Rangoon in 1955. In that capacity he lectured to the first year Science students at Yankin College campus. The following year saw him lecturing to the third year Science students (those taking Chemistry) at the main campus in addition to the first year Science students at Yankin College campus. He served for 33 years in various universities and colleges throughout Myanmar. Among the institutions he had served in was Rangoon Institute of Technology, Mandalay University, Bassein College, and Workers College. His last posting from which he retired was Associate Professor and Head of Department of Chemistry, Taunggyi Degree College.

Though trained as a scientist and engineer, U Kyaw Tun has a keen interest in the culture, history, religion and mythology of various peoples of the world. His knowledge of several languages: Myanmar, English, French, Pali, Swedish and German has helped him in his cultural studies. He has an extensive knowledge of Hindu astrology, specializing the Ashtakavarga system.

On a part time basis U Kyaw Tun had served as a columnist for the Working Peoples Daily in Myanmar and as a member of the editorial board and editorialist for North Renfrew Times in Canada. He has given several public lectures in Canada on Buddhism particularly to scientists and engineers, and to non-Buddhists.

After retirement U Kyaw Tun has taken training in Linguistics and Phonetics, and has come up with Romabama, a way of writing Burmese-Myanmar using the Latin alphabet. It is to be noted that Burmese-Myanmar, unlike the English-Latin, is a phonetic alphabet which preceded the IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet) by hundreds of years. Incidentally, the way of writing Burmese-Myanmar was based on the Asoka script (erroneously called the Brahmi) which was based on phonemic principles: the pillars were erected by Emperor Asoka about 2250 years ago in India.

Note by UKT

This book on grammar is one of most pleasant to read (if it can be said at all that reading a book on grammar could be pleasant). However, since it was printed in the U.S.A., it contains facts related to the American history and culture which are almost unknown to an average Myanmar. I have done my best to give my own notes to help him or her understand the contents more fully. I hope the instructor would be able to fill in more where I am found to be lacking.

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