020423Tue

SoftGuide

Teacher's Manual: Classics Canada
Authentic Readings for  ESL Students. Book 1

by Patricia Brock (Dawson College) and Brian John Busby. Prentice Hall Regents Canada, Scarborough, Ontario.

Scanned, reformatted in HTML, and edited by U Kyaw Tun, M.S. (I.P.S.T., U.S.A.). Not for sale. Prepared for students of SoftGuide Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR

Table of Contents
The Principle of the Series ix
Annotated Bibliography xi
Unannotated Bibliography  xiii
01. The Loup-Garou -- A French-Canadian Legend  1
      LCA.01.
02. Laura Secord -- An English-Canadian legend  5
       LCA.02
03. Jerry Potts, Plainsman -- A Western-Canadian legend  8
      LCA.03
04. Nature Poetry -- George Bowering  11
      LCA.04
05. The Chinook -- A Western-Canadian legend  12
      LCA.05
06. How Summer Came to Canada -- retold by William Toye   15
      LCA.06
07. Raven and the Whale -- retold by Ronald Melzack   18
      LCA.07
08. The Play: The Magnificent Voyage of Emily Carr
      -- by Jovette Marchessault: translated by Linda Gaboriau  21
      LCA.08
09. The Fire Stealer -- retold by William Toye 23
      LCA.09
10. Roses Sing on New Snow -- A Delicious tale by Paul Yee  25
      LCA.10
11. The Poor Cottage -- by Philippe Aubert de Gaspe: translated by Jane Brierly  27
      LCA.11
12. Water Poetry -- Hector de St-Oenys Gameau, F. R. Scott and Raymond Souster  28
      LCA.12
13. My Financial Career -- by Stephen Leacock  30
      LCA.13
14. The Enchanted Caribou -- by Elizabeth Cleaver  32
      LCA.14
15. The Novel: Naomi's Road, Ch. 6 -- by Joy Kogawa  34
      LCA.15
Listening Comprehension Activities  LCA-1


THE PRINCIPLES OF THE SERIES

Classics Canada was written with seven principles in mind.
1: Classics Canada is a reading series.
2: Classics Canada is designed for a variety of learners.
3: Classics Canada is designed for a variety of levels.
4: Classics Canada includes a diversity of Canadian authors
.
5: Classics Canada includes a diversity of Canadian literary texts.
6: The readers use Canadian literary texts to learn English.
7: The readers use Canadian literary texts to learn about Canada
.


Principle 1: Classics Canada is a reading series.

The primary aim of the series is to enable learners to read in English. The students achieve this aim by developing the skills of reading for main ideas, reading for details, skimming, scanning, and speed reading.

The secondary aim of the series is to enable learners to listen, to speak, and to write in English. Activities focusing on these skills are integrated with the reading texts in a natural and organic fashion.

The series is suitable for instructional reading (for learners who can read with the help of a teacher in the classroom). It is also suitable for independent reading (for learners who can read on their own either in or out of the classroom).


Principle 2: Classics Canada is designed for a variety of learners.

The students can be young adults or adults who are in junior high school, high school, vocational or technical school, junior college, CEGEP, college, a university language centre, a private language school, a continuing education course, a distance education course, or an adult education course.

The learners can be ESL or EFL students who are in a course that either focuses on all the language skills or focuses only on reading and writing skills.

The learners can be native English speakers who prefer low-difficulty but high-interest reading material, and who are in a course that focuses on reading skills, writing skills, Canadian culture, or Canadian literature.


Principle 3: Classics Canada is designed for a variety of levels.

The literary texts consist of legends, excellent children's stories, and adult readings. They have been selected because they are interesting and also appropriate for second language readers. The vocabulary and grammar in the texts are roughly matched to the student's level of reading ability, and so the selections gradually increase in length and difficulty.

The series is suitable for ESL or EFL learners who have already acquired basic oral communication skills in English, or who have at least attained a low intermediate level of English.

The series is suitable for ESL or EFL learners or native English speakers who have already learned the basic reading and writing skills in English.

For ESL and EFL learners, the series goes from a low intermediate level to a high advanced level. For English speakers, the series goes from a low beginner to a high intermediate level.

p.ix

         ESL and/or EFL      English
Book 1   low intermediate    low beginner
Book 2   high intermediate   high beginner
Book 3   low advanced        low intermediate
Book 4   high advanced       high intermediate


Principle 4: Classics Canada includes a diversity of Canadian authors
.

There are texts by traditional or mainstream writers such as Robertson Davies, Stephen Leacock, Hugh MacLennan, W.O. Mitchell, and Farley Mowat.

There are texts by women writers such as Margaret Atwood, Anne Hébert, Margaret Laurence, Lucy Maud Montgomery, and Gabrielle Roy.

There are texts by writers from culturally diverse backgrounds such as Austin Clarke, Joy Kogawa, Daniel David Moses, Carol Shields, and Paul Yee.


Principle 5: Classics Canada includes a diversity of Canadian literary texts.

Different genres are well-represented. Each book in the series contains eleven chapters with short fiction selections, two chapters with poetry, one chapter with a scene or scenes from a play, and one chapter with an excerpt from a novel.

The literary texts are authentic and intact, and they are reprinted in the series exactly as they were originally published with no abridgements, no simplifications, and no modifications.

Some selections may contain language considered inappropriate by today's standards. In material that we have written ourselves, however, we have tried to use precise names and descriptions for various cultural groups.

Our main resources for this material were:
An Anthology of Canadian Native Literature in English, edited by Daniel David Moses and Terry Goldie (Toronto: Oxford, 1992);
The Canadian Encyclopedia (Edmonton: Hurtig, 1988) ;
The Junior Encyclopedia of Canada (Edmonton: Hurtig, 1990);
The Oxford Companion to Canadian Literature (Toronto: Oxford, 1983);
A Reader's Guide to the Canadian Novel, Second Edition, by John Moss (Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1987).

We realize that some information may have changed since these reference books were published, and we regret that we may have omitted to mention some cultural groups or may not have used preferred spellings for others.

p.x

Principle 6: The readers use Canadian literary texts to learn English.

The series is not about the academic study of literature, but about the use of literary texts to increase and develop a knowledge of the English language in general and a knowledge of Canada in particular.

Literary texts provide the learners with a rich linguistic environment because the selections offer genuine samples of a wide range of styles, registers, and genres at many levels of difficulty.

By their very nature, literary texts are open to multiple interpretation. This means that there is a ready-made opinion gap between one individual's interpretation and another's that can be bridged by genuine interaction.


Principle 7: The readers use Canadian literary texts to learn about Canada.

The readers learn about Canadian history through texts from the distant past to the immediate present.

The readers learn about Canadian geography through texts from Atlantic Canada, Quebec, Ontario, the West and the North.

The readers learn about Canadian multiculturalism through texts from First Nations, English, French, and other culturally diverse sources.


ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Reading Comprehension

Grellet, Françoise. (1981). Developing Reading Skills: A practical guide to reading comprehension exercises. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

This is a handbook for language teachers who would like to develop their own reading materials or who wish to enrich a reading course. It offers a classification and description of exercises aimed at developing different reading skills. While the book is designed primarily for teachers of English as a second language, the exercises are equally appropriate for the teaching of other foreign languages, and much of the book is relevant to the teaching of first-language reading skills.
     The question-types range from the familiar (for example, multiple-choice and open questions) to highly original exercises that require the integration of different skills and an active, creative response from the student.
     The book encourages teachers to introduce variety into the teaching of reading and offers them a great deal of resource material to draw on.

Nuttall, Christine. (1982). Teaching Reading Skills in a Foreign Language. Part of the Practical Language Teaching Series. London: Heinemann Educational Books.

This book is about teaching people to read in a foreign language, and particularly English as a foreign or second language, with the emphasis on reading for meaning.

p.xi

It examines the various skills needed to read effectively, and suggests classroom approaches and materials to develop and integrate these skills as well as to integrate reading with other language skills.
     In addition to making many practical suggestions for the classroom, this book will interest those who wish to look further into the theory of reading. There are appendices of reading texts, ideas for using these texts, and a helpful bibliography.

Williams, Eddie. (1984). Reading in the Language Classroom. Part of the Essential Language Teaching Series. London and Basingstoke, England: Macmillan Publishers Ltd.

Reading in the Language Classroom considers the role of reading in language learning and the teaching of reading skills to language learners. It provides ideas for integrating reading into the language programme, and suggests classroom approaches that acknowledge the importance of the reader's contribution. The practical aspects of materials and methods are covered in detail, and many examples are provided for teachers.

Literature

Carter, Ronald and Michael N. Long. (1991 ). Teaching Literature. Part of the Longman Handbooks for Language Teachers. New York: Longman, Inc.

Teaching Literature examines the place of literature in the EFL classroom. It contains many useful suggestions for approaches and activities that will get students interested in literature and help them to understand and enjoy the texts they are studying. It includes activities for both beginners and advanced classes and shows how literature can be related to the students' own experiences. The authors also look at the development of a literature curriculum, and suggest how texts should be chosen and how courses can be structured.

Collie, Joanne and Stephen Slater. (1987). Literature in the Language Classroom: A resource book of ideas and activities. New York: Cambridge University Press.

This is a practical guide for both practising teachers of English and teachers in training. It offers a rationale and a variety of imaginative techniques for integrating literature work with language teaching. The book is divided into three sections:
     Part A discusses the questions: Why teach literature? What should we teach? How should we teach it?
     Part B outlines and illustrates a wealth of student-centred class and homework activities appropriate to each stage of the study of a literary work. Detailed descriptions of the activities are accompanied by numerous simple worksheets.
     Part C demonstrates techniques for working with complete texts, and shows how the activities outlined in Part B can be applied to particular novels, plays, short stories, and poems.
     All the activities described in the book have been used successfully with a wide range of classes from intermediate level up.

Duff, Alan and Alan Maley. (1991 ). Literature. Part of the Resource Books for Teachers Series edited by Alan Maley. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

p.xii

Literature offers the teacher a wide variety of interesting and practical ideas for using literature in the language classroom. The book is designed specifically with the needs of the foreign language learner in mind. No previous knowledge of literature is needed either by the teacher or by the students, since it is not a book about how to study literature, but a book about how to use it for language practice.

Hill, Jennifer. (1986). Using Literature in Language Teaching. Part of the Essential Language Teaching Series from Modern English Publications. London and Basingstoke, England: Macmillan Publishers Ltd.

Using Literature in Language Teaching introduces practical ways to integrate well-known literary texts simply and effectively into language study. It gives step-by-step guidance on how to tackle the study of a literary text in the language classroom, using basic methods to make the activity accessible, lively, and memorable for students. The book also indicateshow analysis of literary texts will strengthen students' command of the language and their appreciation of the wider cultural heritage behind the language.


UNANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

This bibliography does not include all of the references for each topic. It includes only three recently published books per topic.


Teaching English as a Second Language

Doff, Adrian. (1988). Teach English: A training course for teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press in association with the British Council.

Harmer, Jeremy. (1991 ). The Practice of English Language Teaching. New Edition. London: Longman Group Ltd.

Matthews, Alan, Mary Spratt, and Les Dangerfield. (1985). At the Chalkface: Practical Techniques in Language Teaching. London: Edward Arnold.


Listening Comprehension

Maley, Alan and Sandra Moulding. (1981 ). Learning to Listen: Tasks for developing listening skills. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Underwood, Mary. (1989). Teaching Listening. London: Longman Group Ltd.

Ur, Penny. (1984). Teaching Listening Comprehension. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Oral Communication

Byrne, Donn. (1986). Teaching Oral English. New Edition. London: Longman Group Ltd.

p.xiii

Klippel, Friederike. (1984). Keep Talking: Communicative fluencyactivities for language teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ur, Penny. (1981 ). Discussions that Work: Task-centred fluency practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Written Communication

Byrne, Donn. (1988). Teaching Writing Skills. New Edition. London: Longman Group Ltd.

Raimes, Ann. (1983). Techniques in Teaching Writing. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

White, Ronald. (1980). Teaching Written English. London: Heinemann Educational Books.


Pronunciation

Avery, Peter and Susan Ehrlich (Eds.). (1987). TESL Talk (17:1 ). The Teaching of Pronunciation: An Introduction for Teachers of English as a Second Language. Toronto: Ontario Ministry of Citizenship and Culture.

Kenworthy, Joanne. (1987). Teaching English Pronunciation. London: Longman Group Ltd.

Tench, Paul. (1981 ). Pronunciation Skills. London: Macmillan Essential Language Teaching Series.


Vocabulary

Allen, Virginia French. (1983). Techniques in Teaching Vocabulary. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Gairns, Ruth and Stuart Redman. (1986). Working with Words: A guide to teaching and learning vocabulary. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Wallace, Michael. (1982). Teaching Vocabulary. London: Heinemann Educational Books.

p.xiv

01. The Loup-Garou
-- A French-Canadian Legend
The Legend from Beauséjour, Québec

WARM-UP
The teacher plays the cassette one or more times. The students listen to the sounds of a werewolf or a pack of wolves. The students can share any stories they have about wolves or werewolves with the rest of the class.


LISTENING ACTIVITY

Werewolves

Tapescript and Answer key:
Werewolves are one of the most frightening of beasts -- real or imagined -- ever to roam the earth.
     Not only do they viciously attack and kill their (1) prey, they are particularly fond of human flesh. And, as Joachim Crête (2) discovered, a friend by day may turn out to be a (3) werewolf by night.
     There are many reasons why people the (4) world over have been taken for werewolves. One explanation is (5) insanity; another is a rare disease that causes long hair (6) to grow over all parts of the body, including the (7) face .
     Regardless of the current theories, stories about werewolves date (8) back to Greek and Roman times.
     By the Middle Ages, (9) people throughout civilized Europe lived in terror of the (10) beast. The French, for example, took werewolves so seriously that (11) they executed them! As recently as 1720, a werewolf discovered (12) in Austria was hanged, mutilated and burned to prevent it (13) from coming back as a vampire.
     According to French-Canadian (14) legend, a loup-garou may take the form of another animal (15) such as a dog or a bear. Whatever the animal, (16) a person becomes a loup-garou for failing to go to (17) confession -- especially at Easter Mass -- for seven years.
     The only (18) way this person can permanently return to human form is (19) to have someone strike the beast forcefully enough to draw (20) blood. Once delivered, the victim is left with a permanent scar, the only evidence of a murderous past.


DISCUSSION AND WRITING ACTIVITIES

Werewolves and Wolves

As an additional integrated skills (listening comprehension, reading, discussion, and writing) activity, you could introduce the topic of wolves to the class. First, you might want to prepare some questions, such as the true-false ones below. The students can read and discuss them in pairs or small groups or in a large group.

Second, the students can find out some information about wolves from various sources, such as the books suggested in the Library Books sections of their book and this one

p.1

and/or watching the movies suggested in the Discussion and Writing Activities section of this book.

Third, the students can review their original answers to the true-false questions to confirm or reject them. Finally, the students can work individually, in pairs, or in small groups and write a paragraph or an essay about wolves.


True or False Questions

Try to decide if the statements below are true or false. Be ready to give your reasons.
1. The wolf is the largest wild member of the dog family.
2. Wolves vary widely in colour, from snow white to coal black.
3. Wolves live in packs of three to seven animals.
4. Wolves howl when they feel sad and melancholy.
5. Wolves attack and kill human beings.

Answer key:

1. The wolf is the largest wild member of the dog family. -- True
The wolf is similar in appearance and size to a large German Shepherd dog, although it is leaner and has longer legs and much bigger feet. Wolves have a long, bushy tail with a black tip.

2. Wolves vary widely in colour, from snow white to coal black. -- True
Wolves are most frequently grey. The coat consists of coarse, outer guard hairs and a short, soft underfur. The foot pads of northern wolves are protected by stiff tufts of hair.

3. Wolves live in packs of three to seven animals. -- True
Wolves are pack animals. In a pack, there is a dominant male and a breeding bitch. The pack protects and feeds the nursing mother. Lower-ranked members of the pack may "babysit" the pups when the parents are away hunting.

4. Wolves howl when they feel sad and melancholy. -- False
The wolf's howl, a long, quivering wail, is to human ears one of the most melancholy sounds in nature. It is not known why wolves howl.

5. Wolves attack and kill human beings. -- False
The reported cases of wolves attacking humans are extremely rare. In fact, wolves are shy and very wary of people. Most experts believe that the domestic dog is descended from the wolf. The two are genetically identical and can be interbred.

You could borrow the following audio-visual material from the local office of the National Film Board of Canada.

Wolf Pack / Au pays des loups
     19 min.58sec. 1-0174-501 1974
     Director: Bill Mason. Producer: William Brind

p.2

A nature film that shows the absorbing, even admirable, qualities of the wolf's character and behavior, and its essential role in the natural scheme of life and death. Filmed by Bill Mason in caribou country, Wolf Pack closely observes the wolves through late winter into early spring. What emerges is a portrait of the wolf as a disciplined hunter, a respected leader, and a parent whose care for the young ensures the survival of the pack. (Awards: Salerno, Missoula, Birmingham, Palo Alto)

Death of a Legend / La Fin d'un mythe
     49 min. 30 sec. 1-0171-553 1971
     Director: Bill Mason. Producer: Barrie Howells
The wolf is yet another species threatened by humans and their technology, largely because of unfounded myths. This film by Bill Mason disproves many of the fallacies. Studies by wildlife biologists reveal that the wolf helps maintain the balance of nature. The film contains some exceptional footage showing the wolf's life cycle and the social organization of the pack, as well as views of other animals of the Canadian wilderness: caribou, moose, deer, buffalo. (Six awards, including Toronto, New York, Brussels.) 16 mm and video. 16 mm and as a video compilation in Animals, Animals, Animals (71 min. 1 sec. 1-0185-143).

Cry of the Wild / Le Chant de la forêt
     88 min. 4 sec. 1-0172-015 1972
     Director: Bill Mason. Producer: William Brind
To hear Bill Mason tell about the making of this feature film (he is also the narrator) is to share with him his affection for his camera-quarry: the big northern timber wolves and pure-white Arctic wolves. He brings to the screen some unexcelled film footage and a great depth of lore about these wary, intelligent creatures of the Canadian wilds.

Filming was done over three years in the Northwest Territories, British Columbia, the high Arctic, and near Mason's Gatineau Hills (Quebec) home where he kept and observed three grown wolves and, eventually, the litter of cubs that provides some of the film's most engaging sequences. 16 mm and video.


LIBRARY BOOKS
You may find the additional books listed below in the class, school, or local library, or a bookstore.

Call of the Wild
Jack London (Various publishers). The adventures of an unusual dog, forcibly taken to the Klondike gold fields, where he eventually becomes leader of a wolf pack.

Julie of the Wolves
J. C. George (Toronto: HarperCollins, 1973)

p.3

A novel for young people about a 13-year-old Inuit girl who runs away from home and an unwanted marriage. Lost on the north slope of Alaska, she is befriended by a pack of wolves. Winner of the 1973 Newberry Award.

Werewolves
J. Yolen and M. H. Greenberg, editors (Toronto: HarperCollins, 1985). A collection of 15 stories by a variety of authors about the werewolf phenomena.

White Fang
Jack London (Various publishers). The story of a dog that is part wolf and how he comes to make peace with humans.

p.4

02. Laura Secord
-- An English-Canadian legend
A Legendary Canadian Hero

READING ACTIVITY

True or False
Answer key:
1. T     2. F      3. T     4. DS
5. T     6. DS    7. F     8. DS


LISTENING ACTIVITY

Laura Ingersoll Secord

Tapescript:
Though Laura Secord's name is today as familiar as the local candy store, it took a long time for the heroine to gain the recognition she deserved. For many years after the War of 1812, Laura lived in poverty with her invalid husband and was left penniless when he died in 1841. It was not until years later that the public learned of her role in an important victory against the Americans. While on a visit to Canada, the Prince of Wales, later to be Edward VII, heard of her heroism and sent the 85-year-old Laura a reward of £100.
     Laura Ingersoll Secord had known hardship most of her life. She was born in the colony of Massachusetts in 1775, the year the American Revolution began. At the age of eight, her mother died, leaving her to raise three younger sisters and, years later, her many half-siblings. In 1795, her father received a grant of land in the Niagara frontier and moved his family to Upper Canada. After a long and difficult journey, he settled in Queenston, where with Laura's help he ran a tavern.
     Within two years, Laura had met and married James Secord, a United Empire Loyalist and promising merchant. For a time, their life ran smoothly as the business prospered and their family grew (they had seven children in all). But the American declaration of war in 1812 would change all that. Laura was not one to give in, however, and despite her frail appearance, her courage and endurance proved that, even in 1813, a woman's place was not necessarily in the home.

Answer key:
1775     Laura Ingersoll was born in Massachusetts Colony.
1783     Laura's mother died and Laura took care of her three younger sisters.
1795     Laura's father took the family to the Niagara Penisula in Upper Canada.
1797     Laura Ingersoll met and married a United Empire Loyalist, James Secord.
1812     The Americans declared war on Britain and Canada
1813     Laura warned Lieutenant FitzGibbon about the American attack.

p.5

1813-1841 Laura lived in poverty with her invalid husband and seven children.
1841     Laura's husband died and she was left penniless.
1841-1860 The public learned of Laura's role in the victory against the Americans.
1860     The Prince of Wales heard of Laura's heroism and sent her a reward of £100.


DISCUSSION AND WRITING ACTIVITIES

The War of 1812 Heroes and Battles
If the students would like to know more about the War of 1812 and the times in which Laura Secord lived, you may borrow one of the following films from the local office of the National Film Board of Canada and show it to the class as an additional listening comprehension, discussion, and writing activity.

A Question of Identity: The War of 1812/La Guerre de 1812
     27 min. 56 sec. 1 0166 009 1966
     Producer: Bernard Devlin
When Britain and the United States were at war, the feud spilled over into Canada, to pioneer settlements of the Upper St. Lawrence and Niagara regions. Farmers who had worked together to clear their land had to decide on which side their allegiance lay. When many took up arms to defend their new land against the "Yankee" marauders, a feeling of Canadian identity began to emerge. The film recreates this aspect of the War of 1812. 16 mm.

The Battle of Châteauguay / La Bataille de la Châteauguay
     29 min. 29 sec. 1 0178 629 1978
     Director: Marcel Carriere. Producer: Roger Frappier
The Battle of Châteauguay, fought in 1813 to push back American troops invading Canada, is recounted in this dramatic film by the hero of the battle, Lt-Col. Charles-Michel de Salaberry. Recreated battle scenes illustrate his military strategy. Animation is used to relate the events leading up to this important battle (the French and American revolutions, the reign of Napoleon, the naval battles between the English and the Americans, and Yankee expansionist policies). A lively history film, it provides an unusual look at the War of 1812. Co-produced by NFB and Parks Canada-Environment Canada.

The War of 1812 (1783-1818)
     58 min. 11 sec. 1 0167 108 1967
     Directors: Ronald Dick, Pierre L'Amare. Producer: Nicholas Balla
This film looks at the Canadian-British-American struggle for the Ohio valley, the War of 1812 and its contribution to American and Canadian nationalism. It also takes a few sardonic looks at the myths of that war. 16 mm.

Laura Secord Inc.

p.6

Here are the necessary addresses and and postal codes:

Laura Secord Inc.
Consumer Affairs
Box 7200, Willowdale, Ontario M2K 2Z2
Tel (416) 467-2100; Fax (416) 467-2114

Nestle Canada Inc.
1185 Eglington Avenue East, Don Mills, Ontario M3C 3C7
Toll Free Tel: (800) 268-6353

p.7

03. Jerry Potts, Plainsman
-- A Western-Canadian legend
A Legendary Canadian Hero

READING ACTIVITY

Paragraph Names
Answer key:
Paragraph 1   d)
Paragraph 2   no title
Paragraph 3   f)
Paragraph 4   b)
Paragraph 5   g)
Paragraph 6   c)
Paragraph 7   e)
Paragraph 8   no title
Paragraph 9   a)

LISTENING ACTIVITY

Jerry Potts

Tapescript:
Son of a Blood Indian mother and a Scottish father, Jerry Potts (1840-1896) learned to survive in two cultures from his earliest childhood in Montana. Potts, who was only an infant when his father was murdered, was adopted by another white man, a cruel individual with whom the boy spent five terrible years. Luckily, a kindly fur trader named Andrew Dawson took custody of the young boy. Under his guidance, Potts learned to read and write, and speak several Indian languages, as well as hunt, trap and track game. When visiting his mother, he learned the myths and customs of the Blood Indians, a Blackfoot tribe. Potts became an extraordinary hunter and tracker. Without the aid of a map or compass or even the stars to guide him, he could find the quickest route through barren, unknown territory.
     As a young man, Potts gained a reputation among the Blackfoot as a great warrior (taking sixteen scalps in one battle alone). Never once wounded in battle, he was even thought to possess supernatural powers. Potts was also one of those rough-and-tumble frontiersmen with a fondness for drinking, gambling and fighting. (It was said that during drinking bouts, Potts and his best friend would trim each other's moustache with bullets at 25 paces!) Potts eventually became disgusted with the violence that the whisky trade brought to his people and welcomed the opportunity to work with the Mounties to restore peace. Little did he know that his guidance and diplomacy would help shape the history of the west.

p8

Answer key:
1.   c)
2.   c)
3.   b)
4.   c)
5.   a)
6.   b)
7.   a)

DISCUSSION AND WRITING ACTIVITIES

The RCMP
Find out the address of your local branch of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police or write to the RCMP in Ottawa:

Public Affairs Directorate
Royal Canadian Mounted Police
1200 Vanier Parkway, Ottawa, Ontario  K1A OR2
Tel: (613) 993-8372

If the students would like to know more about the RCMP and the times in which Jerry Potts lived, you could borrow one of the following films from the local office of the National Film Board of Canada, and show it to the class as an additional listening comprehension, discussion and writing activity.

The Days of Whiskey Gap
     28 min. 5 sec. 1 0161 097 1961
     Director: Colin Low. Producers: Roman Kroiter, Wolf Koenig, Tom Daly
Rousing tales of the North-West Mounted Police, brought to life in a rare collection of photographs and artists' sketches. In Canada, frontier stories almost always involved the men with scarlet tunics and a grip on the law. The film revives some of these stories through the colourful reminiscences of old timers. 16 mm.

Medicine Line
     10 min.20sec. 10187515 1987
     Director: Kim Mitchell. Producers: Charles Konowal, Adrian Bateman, Ches Yetman
The story of the dramatic and historic confrontation between Major James Walsh of the Mounties and Chief Sitting Bull of the Dakota Sioux. 16 mm.

p9

The Musical Ride
     19 min. 1 0155 022 1955
A 1955 film presentation of the famous Musical Ride of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. In a display of brilliant horsemanship, scarlet-coated Mounties take their horses through the many intricate patterns of the Ride, performed to the accompaniment of band music. 16 mm.

The Myth and the Reality
     5 min. 9 sec. 1 0373 588 1973
A centennial film for the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. 16 mm.

p10

04. Nature Poetry
-- George Bowering

READING ACTIVITY

Mix and Match
Poem 1   c) "The Blue"
Poem 2   a) "A Sudden Measure"
Poem 3   d) "The Grass"
Poem 4   b) "Indian Summer"

LISTENING ACTIVITY

George Bowering

You can correct the dictation with the class either by giving the students the original version of the text, or by asking the students to write the text on the board or on an overhead projector.

Tapescript and Answer key:
George Bowering was born in 1935 in the Okanagan Valley of British Columbia. He grew up in British Columbia and joined the Royal Canadian Air Force after finishing high school. He left the Air Force in the late fifties to study history and English literature at the University of British Columbia. His first book, Sticks and Stones, was published in 1963. Since that time, he has written more than forty other books. The Gangs of Kosmos, Rocky Mountain Foot, and Burning Water have won the Governor General's Award.

p11

05. The Chinook
-- A Western-Canadian legend
A Canadian Tall Tale

READING ACTIVITY

Standard English
Answer key:
1. draggin'   dragging
2. nothin'    nothing
3. havin'     having
4. drivin'    driving
5. tryin'     trying
6. lookin'    looking
7. danglin'   dangling

Guess the Words from Context
Answer key:
1. pile          stack
2. fake         artificial
3. hanging      dangling
4. loud         boisterous or deafening
5. big and soft overstuffed
6. whiskers     beard
7. set up       pitched
8. limp         floppy

LISTENING ACTIVITY

The Chinook

Tapescript:
You may not believe a word of such stories, but old timers like the Hendersons told them "for truth". And why not? The facts about chinooks are as amazing as the tall tales about them. Within minutes, a chinook can raise the air temperature by 20° C. Winds can blow at over 155 kilometres per hour. Chinooks visit regularly in some parts of southern Alberta and stay for about three days, giving golfers the unusual opportunity of shooting a few rounds.
     Where does this peculiar wind come from? According to Indian legend, the chinook was the little blind daughter of the great southwind. Every so often she would steal out of her winter home in Castle Mountain near Banff and bring temporary springtime to the snow-covered plains to the east. Of course, weather specialists today have quite a different explanation. Moist Pacific air condenses and drops heavy rain on the western side of the Rockies. As this warm air mass then moves down the eastern slopes, it compresses and heats up. The result is a wind so warm and dry that the snow it encounters evaporates!

p12

     Such dramatic weather has produced both tall tales and very weather-conscious people. A chinook can save a trapped herd of cattle from starvation, or allow farmers to thresh grain in January. Contrary to what you may think, however, chinooks can make it impossible to grow fruit. Under their influence, fruit blossoms form prematurely, only to be killed later by the cold. The sometimes tremendous velocity of the wind can also be destructive, blowing precious topsoil right off the land. Not surprising then that Indian legend refers to the chinook as blind.

Answer key:
1. By 20° C within minutes.
2. Over 155 kilometres per hour.
3. People in southern Alberta have the unusual opportunity of playing golf.
4. The Chinook is the little blind daughter of the great southwind.
    She would steal out of her winter home in Castle Mountain near Banff
    and bring temporary springtime to the snow-covered plains to the east.
5. Moist Pacific air condenses and drops heavy rain on the western side of the Rockies.
    As this warm air mass moves down the eastern slopes, it compresses and heats up.
    The result is a warm, dry wind that evaporates the snow.
6. It can save a trapped herd of cattle from starvation, or allow farmers to thresh grain in January .
7. It can make growing fruit impossible because fruit blossoms form prematurely,
    only to be killed later by the cold.
8. The sometimes tremendous velocity of a chinook can blow precious topsoil right off the land.

DISCUSSION AND WRITING ACTIVITIES

Tell a Tall Tale
If the students are not familiar with any tall tales, you can refer them to the following book:

Johnny Chinook
Robert E. Gard (Edmonton: Hurtig, 1967)
A collection of legends and tall tales from western Canada.

The Weather and Climate in Canada
Here are the necessary addresses and postal codes:

Enquiry Centre
Environment Canada
Ottawa, Ontario  K1A 0H3
Tel: (819) 997-2800; Fax: (819) 953-2225
Toll Free Tel: (800) 668-6767

Health and Welfare Canada

p13

Publications Division
Communications Branch
Jeanne Mance Building, Ottawa, Ontario  K1A 0K9

If the students would like to know more about the weather, the seasons, and the climate of Canada, you could borrow one of the following films from the local office of the National Film Board of Canada and show it to the class as an additional listening comprehension, discussion and writing activity.

Climates of North America
     16min.21sec. 101620041982
     Director: Joseph Koenig. Producer: Tom Daly
This film shows, better than words can explain, what climate is and how it shapes the vegetation and the life of the inhabitants of North America's climatic regions. Students see the influence of prevailing winds, rainfall, and temperature variations. 16 mm.

In All Seasons
     23 min. 52 sec. 1 0175 557 1975
     Director: Ernest Reid. Producers: Desmond Dew, Colin Low
The Atmospheric Environmental Service is Canada's weather bureau. The AES supplies weather forecasts and information on climate patterns. Our well-being depends on knowledge of the weather. The film shows the AES in operation in a country where there are "four seasons-every week." 16 mm.

The Origins of Weather
     12 min. 17 sec. 1 0163004 1963
     Director: Joseph Koenig. Producer: Tom Daly
Explains, from the vantage of off-the-Earth observation, the factors that produce the climate we know. Animation illustrates the earth's dynamic heat exchange-the effect of the sun's heat, the movement of air masses. Resulting weather is then shown. 16 mm.

Wind
     9 min. 23 sec. 1 0172055 1972
     Director: Ron Tunis. Producer: Rene Jodoin
A child's first discovery of wind. The silent, invisible something that tickles his fancy, ruffles his hair, ripples the grass around him, is portrayed here in winsome animated drawings. But the artist also shows the elemental force that carries all before it. Without words but with sound effects, this is a film with universal appeal. 16 mm.

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06. How Summer Came to Canada
-- retold by William Toye

READING ACTIVITY

Who?
Answer key:
1. Who rules over the land in the South?
          -- the Queen or Summer
2. Who slept for six months?
          -- Glooskap
3. Who made the land frozen and white?
          Winter
4. Who carried Glooskap on his back?
          -- the Whale
5. Who told Glooskap about the land in the South?
          -- the Loon
6. Who dances around the Queen?
          -- the Fairies of Light and Sunshine and Flowers
7. Who lives in a tent?
          -- Winter
8. Who does Glooskap love?
          -- Summer

LISTENING ACTIVITY

The Micmac

Tapescript:
How Summer Came to Canada is a Micmac legend. The Micmac are First Nations people who live throughout Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, the island of Newfoundland, and in parts of New Brunswick and Quebec. Their language is also called Micmac. It is one of the Eastern Algonquian languages.
     Original Micmac settlements were scattered along the shorelines of bays or rivers. Before the arrival of European settlers, the Micmac lived by hunting in the fall and winter, and fishing in the spring and summer. Leadership was based upon respect and the ability to organize hunting and fishing.
     The Micmac were one of the first aboriginal peoples to come into contact with European settlers. Some European settlers brought diseases new to North America, and many Micmac died. The Micmac became very involved in the fur trade, serving as middlemen between the Europeans and other First Nations groups. When the fur trade ended, many Micmac became labourers and artisans. Although unemployment is one of the greatest challenges to the people, there are a number of very successful writers, artists, musicians, and professionals among the Micmac.
     Lee Cremo is a fiddler from Cape Breton, Nova Scotia. His playing is highly respected and has won him many awards. Cremo has appeared in two films: The Vanishing Cape Breton Fiddle and Arms of Gold.
     Rita Joe is a poet from Prince Edward Island. She was born in 1932, but did not begin writing until 1969. In 1979, her first book was published.
     There are over 15000 Micmac living in Canada today, mainly in the Maritimes, Newfoundland, and Quebec. Altogether, there are more then 50 Micmac reserves. There are also Micmac settlements in New England in the United States.

p.15

Answer key:
1.  Micmac
2.  Algonquian
3.  rivers
4.  fish
5.  hunt
6.  Europe
7.  fur
8.  Nova Scotia (Cape Breton)
9.  poet
10. Newfoundland

DISCUSSION AND WRITING ACTIVITIES

First Nations Legends

If the students are not familiar with any First Nations legends, you could borrow one of the following films from the local office of the National Film Board of Canada, and show it to the class as an additional listening comprehension, discussion, and writing activity. For example, you could ask the students to write one of the legends in their own words.

Glooskap Country
     13 min. 45 sec. 1o162 025 1962
The rich scenic panorama of Nova Scotia's Minas Basin, a tourist attraction, gives
substance to the legend of Glooskap, an aboriginal god who, according to First Nations
legend, lived on what is now Cape Blomidon and performed magic for his people. A
Province of Nova Scotia film. 16 mm.

Medoonak the Stormmaker
     13 min. 2 sec. 1 0175 005 1975
     Director: Les Krizsan. Producers: Ian McLaren, Rex Tasker
A Micmac legend, colourfully interpreted in mime, dance, and narration by elaborately garbed and masked actors of the Mermaid Theatre of Wolfville, Nova Scotia. The story tells how Medoonak, reckless ruler of the winds and the seas, was convinced to still his magical wings and calm the churning waters so that the Micmac fishermen could catch food for their starving people. 16 mm.

Summer Legend
     8 min. 19 sec. 1 0186 024 1986
     Director: Françoise Hartmann. Producers: Eunice Macaulay, Douglas MacDonald
Silas Rand and Charles Leland first wrote down the legends of the great spirit Glooskap before the turn of the century. Since then, Summer Legend has been retold many times, but never more beautifully than in this colourful animated interpretation. It tells of the Micmac people in the cold white dawning of the world, and of how Glooskap battled with the giant Winter in order to bring Summer to the North. 16 mm.

p16

Also available in the NFB video compilation Native Indian Folklore.
Also available in the NFB video compilation Discuss It!, a delightful video anthology of 14 classic shorts to support English language teaching and learning. An accompanying Teacher's Guide will help you decide how to use them.

Text for the video Summer Legend
Narrator:

     Long ago, at the dawning of man, when Glooskap, the Great Spirit, walked amongst his people, there came a time of dreadful cold. Streams and rivers turned to ice. Snow covered the land. And man could no longer hunt and fish for his food. Fires flickered and died. The people feared they would perish from cold and hunger.

     But Lord Glooskap heard their cries. He strode through the forest seeking the cause of their misfortune. And at the edge of the trees, on a wide white plain, he came face to face with the terrible Giant Winter. As they stood together, each could feel the
strength of the other. The Giant lit a pipe and smoked in silence for a time. Then he offered it to his visitor. Glooskap smoked, and listened as Winter began to speak. Soon the listener fell into a charmed sleep. The Giant talked on. His voice was the voice of frost, and with its magic spell he hoped to keep Glooskap a prisoner forever.

     Through the mists of sleep, Glooskap heard his messengers, the loons. They told him that in a land far to the South lived a beautiful Princess who could bring hope to his people. Held captive by the spell of frost, Glooskap slept on. But his magic, too, was powerful. After many months he broke free from the cold enchantment, and fled toward the Great Sea Water. He stood at the shore and called to the Spirits of the Deep to help him. Soon a great whale appeared. And Glooskap rode on her back until they reached the land of which the loons had spoken.

     Here the grass was soft and green. Little streams ran beneath trees clouded with blossom. Flowers turned their faces to the sky, and bright birds and butterflies filled the air. There was a sound of music. Glooskap listened. Then, in a clearing he saw a group of lovely maidens weaving garlands of fragrant flowers. In their midst stood a girl of such perfect beauty that Glooskap knew his search had ended. This was the Princess he was seeking. She was Summer. The fairest Summer of all.

     Just then the loons flew over the clearing, and the maidens turned to watch the strange birds. In that instant Glooskap spirited away their Princess and held her by his magic. He carried Summer so lightly that he skimmed the treetops as he set out for the North again. Yet the way was long, and a moon passed before he stood once more in the snows of Winter and faced the Giant. Now, with Summer by his side, Glooskap had the stronger magic. He talked, and sweat beaded the Giant's brow and ran down his face. Still he talked, and Winter slowly began to melt away. "Stop," cried Winter. "You have won." Then the snow disappeared and the land reawakened.

     Glooskap said to the Princess, "Your coming brings joy to my people. They welcome you and beg you to stay. When six months have passed, you may return for a season to your home in the South. Then Winter may visit us like a brother, as once he did." Now, each year when it is time for the Princess to come to Glooskap's people, Winter retreats and the land wakens again to Summer.

p17

07. Raven and the Whale
-- retold by Ronald Melzack

READING ACTIVITY

Guess the Words from Context
Answer key:
1.   c)
2.   a)
3.   j)
4.   b)
5.   g)
6.   i)
7.   k)
8.   I)

LISTENING ACTIVITY

Raven Legends

Tapescript:
Raven legends come from the First Nations groups of the west coast of British Columbia: the Haida, Tlingit, Kwakiutl, and Tsimshian and others. The land of these people is rugged, with many cliffs and islands. At places, mountains rise directly out of the Pacific Ocean .

     These groups came to the west coast over 10000 years ago. In the beginning, they hunted land animals, but as the land began to change, fishing became more important. Over time, groups began to form and control their own sections of the coast. Control of the richest salmon rivers was considered very important.

     Although each of these groups has its own distinct culture, the West Coast First Ntaions do share a number of features. Large ocean-going canoes were used by these groups for fishing, war, and general transportation. Although some canoes were designed for just two people, others were huge, ,and could carry 50 ,members of the group. These canoes were often painted with beautiful images and designs.

     Probably the best-known example of West Coast art is the totem pole. These tall poles were often located close to the shore. Artists were hired to carve and paint family crests, very often indicating who owned the property the pole stood on.

     Today, the First Nations population on the West Coast is about 70 000. Fishing remains an important source of food and wealth. Unfortunately, employment opportunities on the reserves are rare, and close to 50 per cent of the population live elsewhere.

p18

Answer key:
1.   T
2.   DS
3.   DS
4.   F
5.   F
6.   T

DISCUSSION AND WRITING ACTIVITIES

If the students would like to know more about Raven and West Coast First Nations legends, you could borrow one of the following films from the local office of the National Film Board of Canada, and show it to the class as an additional listening comprehension, discussion and writing activity. For example, you could ask the students to write one of the legends in their own words.

Legend
     15min.11sec. 101700121970
     Director: Ritchard Raxlen. Producer: Tom Daly
A beauty-and-the-beast tale, enhanced and embellished by the filmmaker's art. The screen becomes a luminous, shimmering dance of colours from which the story's characters emerge and melt away like ephemeral beings from a mystic world. The story is based on a West Coast legend, and the feats that the youth must perform to win his fair maiden are distinctly aboriginal ones. Masks are used in the telling of the story. 16 mm.

Salmon People
     24 min. 43 sec. 10177016 1977
     Director: Tom Westman. Producers: Shelah Reljic, Peter Jones
The legendary relationship between the West Coast First Nations and the salmon, once their staple food, is revealed in this film that compares ancient myth with modern reality. Raven finds riches in the harvest of the salmon, only to lose everything through a thoughtless act against the Spirit of the Salmon. Similarly, people today jeopardize their living from the sea by heedless action. Images of ancient spear-fishing and primitive smoke-houses contrast with images of First Ntions people today operating a seiner and working in a co-operative factory. 16 mm.
Also available in the video compilation Native Indian Folklore.

Sauk-Ai
     9 min. 53 sec. 1 0177 043 1977
     Director: Tony Westman. Producers: Peter Jones, Shelah Reljic, Tony Taylor
Based on a legend of the Tsimshian First Nations of British Columbia, this film is about a spirit called Raven who takes the shape of a man. One day, as he is searching for food,

p.19

he meets Salmon Woman, who embodies the Spirit of the Salmon. Their life together unfolds in harmony until Raven forgets his happiness and turns on his wife in anger. Underlying this simple tale is the timeless reality of how fragile the links between people are and how easily they can be ruptured. 16 mm.

Information about Whales
Here are the necessary addresses and postal codes :

World Wildlife Fund
60 St. Clair Avenue East, Suite 201, Toronto, Ontario  M4T 1NS
Tel: (416) 923-8173

Distribution Section
Canadian Wildlife Service
Environment Canada
Ottawa, Ontario  K1A 0E7
Toll Free Tel: (800) 463-4311

National Geographic Society
Educational Services
Suite 210, 211 Watline Avenue, Mississauga, Ontario  L4Z 1P3

p.20

08. The Play: The Magnificent Voyage of Emily Carr
-- by Jovette Marchessault:
translated by Linda Gaboriau

LISTENING ACTIVITY
Interactive Dictation

Student A dictates to Student B:

The Group of Seven

The Group of Seven was a group of artists who focused mainly on painting landscapes. The original members were Lawren Harris, A. V. Jackson, Franklin Carmichael, Franz Johnston, Arthur Lismer, J. E. H. MacDonald, and F. H. Varley.

     All were friends, most having met each other through their work as commercial artists. A strong influence on the group was the work of Tom Thomson, another commercial artist and friend. A lover of the outdoors, he had encouraged the members of the group to explore the possibilities of painting the Canadian landscape. Thomson was never a member of the group, having died three years before its foundation in 1920.

     The goal of the Group of Seven was to capture the spirit of Canada in their art. In order to do this, they organized many trips into the Canadian wilderness, sketching and painting nature in its different seasons. Many sketches were either finished or redone in the artists' studios.

     Throughout the group's existence, changes in membership took place. In 1926, Franz Johnston resigned and was replaced by A. J. Casson. In the early thirties, Edward Holgate and L. L. Fitzgerald were also admitted.

     Although it disbanded in 1933, just 13 years after its formation, the Group of Seven remains the most famous group of Canadian painters.

Student B dictates to Student A:

Tom Thomson

Tom Thomson was born in 1887 in rural Ontario. He grew up on a farm with his parents and eight brothers and sisters. He took his first art lesson in 1906, and got a job as a commercial artist the following year with Grip Limited in Toronto. It was at this company that he met and became friends with other artists who would one day form the Group of Seven.

     In 1912, Thomson's career began a dramatic change. He travelled to Algonquin Park, sketching and painting its landscape for the very first time. After returning, he used his work to create one of his most famous paintings, "Northern Lake." The painting was bought the following year by the government of Ontario. The sale brought Thomson $250 at a time when he was earning just 75 cents an hour.

     In the fall of 1913, Thomson met James MacCallum, a medical doctor with a great love of art. MacCallum offered to pay Thomson's expenses for one year so that he could concentrate on his art. Thomson accepted and left his job as a commercial artist. During the few remaining years of his life, Thomson spent three seasons a year travelling about

p.21

Algonquin Park. In the winters, he would return to Toronto, where he reworked many of his sketches into finished paintings.

     In 1917, Thomson disappeared while on a canoe trip. His body was found eight days later.

DISCUSSION AND WRITING ACTIVITIES

If you live near Toronto and your students are interested, you could consider a visit to the McMichael Canadian Art Collection in Kleinburg, Ontario (10365 Islington Avenue). The gallery has a magnificent collection of art by the Group of Seven, Emily Carr, and a number of First Nations artists. Tel: (905) 893-1121.

If the students would like to know more about Jovette Marchessault, you could borrow the following film from the local office of the National Film Board of Canada and show it to the class as an additional listening comprehension, discussion, and writing activity.

Fire words, Part 2: Jovette Marchessault
(Les Terribles vivantes, 2e partie: Jovette Marchessault)
     29 min. 39 sec. 1 0186 074 1986
     Director: Dorothy Todd Henault. Producers: Barbara Janes, Kathleen Shannon
Having become the writer she dreamed of being as a child, Quebec feminist Jovette Marchessault is rediscovering the work and ideas of women whom history has erased from our collective memory: "I want to make women's history and women's culture visible." Marchessault's earthy, lyrical language infuses her sharp criticism of social and literary norms with the fervour of celebration. With her visionary sense of the future, the self-educated author has interwoven writing with the oral tradition. Her monologue "Night Cows" comes intensely to life when performed by Montreal actress Pol Pelletier. 16 mm.

p.22

09. The Fire Stealer
-- retold by William Toye

READING ACTIVITY

Make Connections
Answer key:
1.   It is the torch.
2.   She is the girl.
3.   She is Nokomis.
4.   They are the maple and birch trees.
5.   He is Nanabozho.
6.   It is grass.
7.   He is the old warrior.
8.   They are the people.

LISTENING ACTIVITY
Algonquian Legends

Tapescript:
The Fire Stealer is an Algonquian legend. The Algonquian are First Nations people who live in western Quebec and eastern Ontario. Before the arrival of European settlers, the Algonquian lived primarily by hunting. Small bands of people, usually related to each other, would travel much of the year in search of food. A few communities who lived in the southern part of the area controlled by the Algonquian would farm small crops. Small villages were often set up in the summer, when food was most plentiful.

     Men and women had different tasks within the community. The men hunted, fished, and made tools and canoes. They also fought against other tribes. The women grew crops, gathered wild plants, and cared for the children. Because they spent so much time travelling, families lived most of the time in wigwams. These were tents made of wood, birchbark and animal skin.

     Relations between the Algonquian and other First Nations was largely dependent on family ties, rather than language. Marriages often took place between Algonquians and other First Nations.

     The first contact between the Algonquian and European settlers was in 1603. Shortly afterwards, the Algonquian became very active in the fur trade, working with the French of New France. Later, many Algonquian people became involved in forestry.

     Today, there are over 3000 Algonquian people in Canada. The language of the Algonquian is also called Algonquian. This language forms the basis of many other aboriginal languages, including Micmac.

p.23

Answer key:
1.   men
2.   women
3.   men
4.   both
5.   men
6.   women
7.   both
8.   women
9.   men
10.  men

p.24

10. Roses Sing on New Snow
-- A Delicious tale by Paul Yee

READING ACTIVITY
Correct the Information

Answer key:
This is a short story about a young girl named Maylin.She worked in her father's restaurant. Her father would tell his customers that his two sons did all the work. Maylin made a dish called Roses Sing on New Snow. The dish was given to the governor of South China. He asked who made it. He was told that Maylin's two brothers did the work. The governor wanted to know how to make the dish. Maylin's brothers tried to make Roses Sing on New Snow, but it didn't taste the same. The governor became angry. Maylin's fathertold the governor that Maylin made the dish. Maylin showed the governor how to make Roses Sing on New Snow, but he wasn't able to make it taste the same. Only Maylin was able to make Roses Sing on New Snow.

LISTENING ACTIVITY
Paul Yee

Tapescript and Answer key:
Paul Yee was born in Spalding, Saskatchewan, in 1956. He grew up in Vancouver's Chinatown and Strathcona, attending both English and Chinese schools, before finishing his studies at the University of British Columbia. His first book, Teach Me to Fly, Skyfighter!, published in 1983, was a collection of short stories for teenagers. He has since gone on to publish several other books for young adults: Curses of the Third Uncle, Tales from the Gold Mountain, and Roses Sing on New Snow. He has also written a book about Vancouver's Chinatown, Saltwater City.

DISCUSSION AND WRITING ACTIVITIES
If the students would like to know more about Chinese Canadians, you could borrow one of the following films from the local office of the National Film Board of Canada, and show it to the class as an additional listening comprehension, discussion and writing activity.

Bamboo, Lions and Dragons
     26 min. 27 sec. 1 0179093 1979
     Director: Richard Patton. Producers: Jennifer Torrance, John Taylor, George Johnson
Two families, the Changs and the Lims, tell the story of the Chinese community in Vancouver from widely different perspectives. Chang Yun Ho arrived in Canada in 1908. His generation never integrated into the Canadian mainstream, partly because of the Asiatic Exclusion Act that fostered racism. By contrast, Liz and Herb Lim were born in Canada, and grew up in Chinatown. They now live in the suburbs, totally acculturated to Canadian ways. 16 mm and video.

p.25

My Name Is Susan Yee
12 min.18sec. 10175111 1975
Director: Beverly Shatter. Producers: Yuki Yoshida, Kathleen Shannon. A piquant view ot downtown Montreal as it appears to a young Chinese Canadian. Not all guides are as perceptive as Susan, or as outspoken. At home, at school, at play on the Mountain, she has a sharp eye for adult foibles. The result is a meeting with Susan and her city that is enlightening and amusing. Support material available. 16 mm.

p.26

11. The Poor Cottage
-- by Philippe Aubert de Gaspe:
translated by Jane Brierly

READING ACTIVITY
Guess the Words from Context

Answer key:
1.   i)
2.   c)
3.   h)
4.   e)
5.   d)
6.   b)
7.   j)
8.   f)
9.   a)
10.  g)

LISTENING ACTIVITY
Philippe-Joseph Aubert de Gaspé

Tapescript:
Philippe-Joseph Aubert de Gaspe was born in Quebec City in 1786. His family was quite wealthy and he was schooled in some of the finest institutions of the day. He became a lawyer and, from 1816 to 1822, sheriff of Quebec City. Aubert de Gaspé assisted his son, Philippe-Ignace-François, in writing the first Canadian novel, L'influence d'un livre, published in 1837. His first book, Les ançiens canadiens, was published when he was 77, years old. The historical novel, combining legends and folk tales, sold well. It has twice been translated into English as The Canadians of Old. Three years later, Aubert de Gaspé published his second book, Memoires, a collection of legends, folk tales, and essays. Aubert de Gaspe died in Quebec City in 1871.

Answer key:
1786      Philippe-Joseph Aubert de Gaspe was born in Quebec City.
1790s - early 1800s He went to school and became a lawyer.
1816-1822 He was the sheriff of Quebec City.
1837      He and his son wrote and published the first Canadian novel,
            L'influence d'un livre.
1863      He published his first book, Les an<;:iens canadiens.
1866      He published his second book, Memoires.
1871      He died in Quebec City.

p.27

12. Water Poetry
-- Hector de St-Oenys Gameau,
F. R. Scott and Raymond Souster 

WARM-UP
Hector de Saint-Denys Garneau

Tapescript and Answer key:
Hector de Saint-Denys Garneau was born in Montreal in 1912. He attended a number of schools in Montreal, but his studies were never completed due to a heart condition. His first book, Regards et jeux dans l'espace, was considered radical and experimental when it was published in 1937. Unfortunately, it sold poorly, and it was criticized by reviewers. He died at the age of 31 while canoeing in rural Quebec. Today he is considered to be one of the best and most influential Quebec poets of the twentieth-century.

READING ACTIVITY
Mix and Match
Answer key:
Poem 1   b) "North Stream"
Poem 2   c) "River of My Eyes"
Poem 3   a) "Waiting for the First Drop"

LISTENING ACTIVITY
Interactive Dictation

Student A dictates to Student B:

Francis Reginald Scott was born in Quebec City in 1899. His father, F. G. Scott, was an Anglican minister and a poet. F. R. Scott studied law at McGill University in Montreal and Oxford University in England. After he returned to Canada, Scott worked as a lawyer and taught at McGill. He also became involved in politics.and was one of the leading members of the New Democratic Party. Much of F. R. Scott's poetry deals with social issues. A great many other poems demonstrate his love of Canadian landscapes and waterscapes. F. R. Scott died in Montreal in 1985.

Student B dictates to Student A:

Raymond Souster was born in 1921 in Toronto. He has lived in Toronto nearly all his life and worked for more than forty-five years in a bank there. His first book of poems, When We were Young, was published in 1946. His most famous book is The Colour of the Times, which won the Governor General's Award for poetry in 1964. Some of Souster's better collections include A Local Pride and As Is .

p.28

DISCUSSION AND WRITING ACTIVITIES

Match the Poems and the Poets
Answer key:
Poem 1   c) F. R. Scott
Poem 2   a) Hector de Saint-Denys Garneau
Poem 3   b) Raymond Souster

If the students would like to know more about F. R. Scott and/or about the water in Canada, you could borrow one of the following films from the local office of the National Film Board of Canada, and show it to the class as an additional listening comprehension, discussion and writing activity.

F. R. Scott: Rhyme and Reason
     57 min. 43 sec. 1 0182 098 1982
     Director: Donald Winkler. Producers: Tom Daly, Barrie Howells ~
This absorbing documentary looks at the multi-faceted career of F. R. Scott, a truly remarkable Canadian whose work and vision of social justice has influenced Canada's evolution in the 20th century. The film looks at Scott's role in the founding of the CCF Party in the 1930s, his years as a teacher of constitutional law, as a modernist poet, and as a champion of civil liberties. Also appearing in the film are eminent figures from the fields in which Scott excelled, among them David Lewis and Eugene Forsey. Highlights include Scott's courtroom challenges of the Duplessis regime in the 1950s, his controversial support of the War Measures Act during the 1970 October Crisis in Quebec, and readings from his poetry.

Paddle to the Sea
     27 min. 57 sec. 1 0166061 1966
     Director: Bill Mason. Producer: Julian Biggs
A children's odyssey, from the story by Holling C. Holling. A film about an aboriginal child in a canoe, hand-carved in the northern forest and, in the spring, launched towards the sea. There are many adventures, all photographed with great patience and an eye for the beauty of living things. The film gives vivid impressions of Canada's varied landscape and the life of the waterways. 16 mm and video.

p.29

13. My Financial Career
-- by Stephen Leacock

READING ACTIVITY

Inference Questions
Answer key:
1.   No.
2.   Yes.
3.   No.
4.   No.
5.   No.

Attitudes and Feelings
Answer key:
1. astonished   The clerk
2. cool         The accountant
3. grave        The manager
4. disappointed (does not describe any of the characters)
5. worried      (does not describe any of the characters)
6. rattled      The narrator
7. solemn       The narrator
8. unkind       The manager

LISTENING ACTIVITY
Stephen Leacock

Tapescript:
Stephen Leacock was born in Swanmore, England, in 1869. His family emigrated to Canada in 1876, settling on a farm in the Lake Simcoe area of central Ontario. The father abandoned the family soon after, leaving little money. Leacock went on to study at Upper Canada College, the University of Toronto, and the University of Chicago, teaching and writing to pay for his tuition. He was hired by McGill University in Montreal in 1903, and quickly rose to become head of the department of economics and political science. His first book, The Elements of Political Science, was published in 1906. Although largely forgotten, it was the best-selling book during his lifetime. Leacock wrote several more textbooks, but it wasn't until 1910 that his first book of humour, Literary Lapses, was published. He went on to write over 30 more books of humour. Leacock retired in 1935, and died nine years later. In 1947, the Stephen Leacock Medal for Humour was created. It is awarded annually for the best Canadian book of humour.

p.30

Answer key:
1.   In Swanmore, England, in 1869.
2.   In 1876.
3.   On a farm in the Lake Simcoe area of central Ontario.
4.   At Upper Canada College, the University of Toronto,
      and the University of Chicago.
5.   At the department of economics and political science,
      McGi11 University in Montreal.
6.   The Elements of Political Science.
7.   In 1906.
8.   Literary Lapses
9.   In 1910.
10.  In 1935.
11.  Nine years later in 1944.
12.  In 1947.

DISCUSSION AND WRITING ACTIVITIES
If the students would like to know more about Stephen Leacock and other stories that he wrote, you could borrow one of the following films from the local office of the National Film Board of Canada and show it to the class as an additional listening comprehension, discussion, and writing activity.

My Financial Career
     6 min. 38 sec. 1 0162010 1962
     Directors: Grant Munro, Gerald Potterton. Producers: Colin Low, Tom Daly
An animated cartoon film from Stephen Leacock's witty account of a young man's first brush with banking. When he goes to make his deposit he is so overawed by the institution that nothing he intends to say comes out right. Also available in the video compilation Canadian Literature: Short Stories 1.
     Also available in the NFB video compilation Discuss It!, a delightful video anthology of 14 classic shorts to support English language teaching and learning. An accompanying Teacher's Guide will help you decide how to use them.

The Awful Fate of Melpomenus Jones
     7 min. 48 sec. 1 0183 018 1983
     Director: Gerald Potterton. Producers: Douglas MacDonald, David Verrall
Based on the Stephen Leacock short story, this amusing film, animated and set to toe-tapping ragtime music, tells of a polite and timid young curate with a major shortcoming. He just could not bring himself to say goodbye, and this was to cause him great grief and considerable consternation. Melpomenus Jones's troubles began on the first day of his vacation when he went to visit friends, and somehow stayed and stayed, until, on the last day of his holiday, he finally departed in an unexpected way! 16 mm.

p.31

14. The Enchanted Caribou
-- by Elizabeth Cleaver 

READING ACTIVITY
Who?
Answer key:
1.    Tyya
2.    Etosack
3.    Tyya and the three brothers
4.    one of the brothers
5.    the three brothers
6.    Tyya
7.    the shaman
8.    Tyya
9.    Etosack
10.   Etosack's dead grandmother
11.   Etosack and Tyya
12.   Inuit hunters

LISTENING ACTIVITY
The Inuit

Tapescript:
The Enchanted Caribou is an Inuit legend retold by Elizabeth Cleaver. The Inuit are the First Nations people who live along the Arctic coast and islands of Canada. The language of the Inuit is Inuktitut. Inuit is an Inuktitut word meaning "the people." A single member of this group is known as an Inuk, meaning "one person."
     Before encountering European settlers, the Inuit hunted and fished as a means of support. This is a tradition that continues today, though to a lesser extent. The types of animals hunted vary depending upon what is available in any given area. Seals, caribou, musk oxen, walruses, and whales are among the most commonly hunted animals. The most commonly caught fish are salmon, trout, and char. There is little vegetation in these areas, but some gathering of food takes place. Although the Inuit have a long artistic tradition, it was not until recent times that their artwork was recognized outside of the Inuit communities. Today, many Inuit support themselves by selling their sculptures, prints, drawings, and wall hangings.
     There are eight main Inuit groups in Canada: Baffin Island, Caribou, Copper, Iglulik, Labrador, Mackenzie, Netsilik, and Ungava. The Inuit are related to other aboriginal groups in Alaska and Greenland.

p.32

Answer key:
1.   Arctic
2.   Inuktitut
3.   Inuit
4.   Inuk
5.   seals, walruses
6.   salmon, char
7.   artistic
8.   sculptures, wall hangings
9.   Copper, Ungava
10.  Alaska

DISCUSSION AND WRITING ACTIVITIES
If the students would like to know more about the Inuit and Inuit legends, you could borrow one of the following films from the local office of the National Film Board of Canada, and show it to the class as an additional listening comprehension, discussion, and writing activity. For example, you could ask the students to write one of the legends in their own words.

Legends and Life of the Inuit
     57 min. 46 sec. 1 0178 395 1978
     Director: Richard Robesco. Producer: Gaston Sarault
Legends form an important part of Inuit culture. Stories were told around the fire during winter storms. They were told for fun, to teach, to pass on history, and to explain the meaning of life. This animated film looks at life today in an Inuit community and presents five legends. 16 mm.

Lumaaq: An Eskimo Legend
     7 min. 55 sec. 1 0175689 1975
     Director: Co Hoedeman. Producer: Pierre Moretti
Lumaaq tells the story of a legend widely believed by the Povungnituk Inuit. The artist's drawings are transferred to paper, cut out, and animated under the camera. The result is Inuit prints in action. Dialogue, music, and artwork make this film a cultural revelation. Sound film without commentary. 16 mm.

The Owl and the Raven: An Eskimo Legend
     6 min. 39 sec. 1 0173589 1973
     Director: Co Hoedeman. Producer: Pierre Moretti
According to this Inuit legend, the raven was not always the jet-black bird that it is today. The owl had something to do with it. What happened makes an engaging story acted out by two lifelike puppets made of seal fur. The film, narrated partly in Inuktituk, partly in English, is largely the work of Inuit artists. 16 mm.

p.33

15. The Novel: Naomi's Road, Ch. 6
-- by Joy Kogawa 

WARM-UP
Answer key:
1. 1939 -  4 years old
2. 1968 - 33 years old
3. 1983 - 48 years old
4. 1986 - 51 years old
5. 1993 - 58 years old

READING ACTIVITY
Jigsaw Reading

Chapter 1
     Daddy, Mama, Stephen, and Naomi are at home one evening. Daddy teaches Stephen to play the piano. Mama sings the daffodil song to Naomi. At eight o'clock it's time for Naomi to go to bed.
     Outside Naomi's bedroom window there is a peach tree. Mama tells her a story about a little boy who lives inside a giant peach and sings a song about the peach boy. Naomi wants to be a child forever.

Chapter 2
     Naomi plays with her dolls. She has a teddy bear, a toy mouse, a nurse doll, and a Japanese baby doll. Her friend Ralph plays with matches. He sets the curtains on fire, but Mama puts the fire out.
     Mama goes to Japan to visit her great-grandmother who is sick. Obasan takes care of Stephen and Naomi. She doesn't understand English very well, but she is soft and gentle.

Chapter 3
     Mama doesn't come home from Japan. Daddy says she can't come home until the war is over. War is the worst and saddest thing in the world.
     Stephen comes home crying. His glasses and his violin are broken. Naomi's doll is angry and starts to cry .War is stupid.
     Naomi is frightened and wakes up at night. Daddy sings a funny song, but Naomi doesn't laugh. War is a terrible thing.

Chapter 4
     Daddy has to go away. He tells Stephen and Naomi to be good and to listen to Obasan. She tells Stephen and Naomi that they're going away too.
     They take the train to the mountains. On the train there is a young woman with a baby. Obasan gives her some fruit, and an old woman gives her some cloth for a diaper.
     Naomi plays with a ball and a Mickey Mouse toy. The dolls are tired, and so is Naomi. Obasan sings them a lullaby.

p.34

Chapter 5
     The train stops at Slocan in the mountains. Obasan, Stephen, and Naomi get off. The train station is noisy and crowded. They leave with the minister and another man. Naomi starts to cry. She lost her doll! She left it on the train!
     They walk into the woods. Stephen sees a small gray hut with tall weeds around it. It looks like the home of the three bears! It is very dusty inside and has newspaper walls.

LISTENING ACTIVITY
A Letter from the Author

Tapescript and Answer key:

Dear Reader,
     O Canada! What a vast, beautiful country .Here there are people from all around the world. And along with the Native Peoples, we are all Canadians together.
     This little story is told by a Canadian child (1) called Naomi Nakane. She has black hair and lovely Japanese eyes and (2) a face like a valentine. Naomi's story happened in the (3) days before you were born, in the 1940s. In her (4) childhood there was a war going on. Canada and Japan were (5) enemies. How sad that was. Suddenly she had to (6) be ashamed to be Japanese. She did not learn to (7) read or write Japanese and she tried to forget how (8) to speak Japanese. She never used chopsticks with strangers.
     It (9) is hard to understand, but Japanese Canadians were treated as enemies (10) at home, even though we were good Canadians. Not one Japanese Canadian (11) was ever found to be a traitor to our (12) country. Yet our cameras and cars, radios and fishing (13) boats were taken away. After that our homes and (14) businesses and farms were also taken and we were (15) sent to live in camps in the mountains. Fathers (16) and older brothers and uncles were made to work (17) building roads in the Rocky Mountains. If you ever drive through (18) these beautiful mountains, you may ride over some roads (19) made by Japanese Canadians.
     Naomi's road is a different kind of (20) road. It is the path of her life. If you walk with her a while, you will find the name of a very important road.

DISCUSSION AND WRITING ACTIVITIES

"What Do I Remember of the Evacuation?"
Joy Kogawa
If the students would like to know more about Japanese Canadians and the discrimination that they have endured, you could borrow the following film from the local office of the National Film Board of Canada, and show it to the class as an additional listening comprehension, discussion, and writing activity.

Enemy Alien
     26 min. 49 sec. 1 0175 196 1975
     Director: Jeanette Lerman. Producer: Wolf Koenig
This film is about a people who dared ask, "What are they going to do with us?" The Japanese Canadians fought long and hard to be accepted as Canadians. It is important

p.35

that their long story of frustration and injustice, mistrust and hate, and eventual triumph be remembered. This film tells that story. 16 mm.

A Letter to Joy Kogawa
Students can write to Joy Kogawa care of her publisher:
     Joy Kogawa
     c/o Oxford University Press
     70 Wynford Drive, Don Mills, Ontario M3C 1J9

p.36

LISTENING COMPREHENSION ACTIVITIES

All rights reserved. Individual teachers who have purchased this publication are permitted to reproduce the listening comprehension activities for use in their classrooms only. Reproduction, by any means, of any listening comprehension activities for any other use is prohibited without the written permission of the publisher.

© 1995 Prentice-Hall Canada Inc.
LCA-1

LCA.01. The Loup-Garou
The Legend from Beausejour, Quebec

Werewolves
First, listen to the text. Second, listen to the text and fill in the blanks. Third, listen to the text and correct and complete the blanks. Then discuss the answers to the questions about werewolves with the teacher and other students.

Werewolves are one of the most frightening of beasts --real or imagined --ever to roam the earth.

     Not only do they viciously attack and kill their (1) __________ , they are particularly fond of human flesh. And, as Joachim Crête (2) __________ , a friend by day may turn out to be a (3) __________ by night.

     There are many reasons why people the (4) __________ over have been taken for werewolves. One explanation is (5) __________ ; another is a rare disease that causes long hair (6) __________ grow over all parts of the body, including the (7) __________  .

     Regardless of the current theories, stories about werewolves date (8) __________  to Greek and Roman times.

     By the Middle Ages, (9) __________ throughout civilized Europe lived in terror of the (10) __________ . The French, for example, took werewolves so seriously that (11) __________ executed them! As recently as 1720, a werewolf discovered (12) __________ Austria was hanged, mutilated and burned to prevent it (13) __________ coming back as a vampire.

     According to French-Canadian (14) __________ , a loup-garou may take the form of another animal (15) __________  as a dog or a bear. Whatever the animal, (16) __________ person becomes a loup-garou for failing to go to (17) __________   -- especially at Easter Mass -- for seven years.

     The only (18) __________ this person can permanently return to human form is (19) __________ have someone strike the beast forcefully enough to draw (20) __________ . Once delivered, the victim is left with a permanent scar, the only evidence of a murderous past.

LCA-2

LCA.02. Laura Secord
A Legendary Canadian Hero

Laura Ingersoll Secord
This is a summary of important dates in the life of Laura Ingersoll Secord. First, listen to the text. Second, listen to the text and fill in the blanks. Third, listen to the text and complete the blanks. Discuss the answers with the teacher and other students.

1775   Laura Ingersoll was born in Massachusetts Colony.

1783   ________________________________________

1795   Laura's father took the family to the Niagara Penisula in Upper Canada.

1797   ________________________________________

_____ The Americans declared war on Britain and Canada.

1813   ________________________________________

_____ Laura lived in poverty with her invalid husband and seven children.

1841    ________________________________________

_____ The public learned of Laura's role in the victory against the Americans.

1860    ________________________________________

LCA-3

LCA.03. Jerry Potts, Plainsman
A Legendary Canadian Hero

Jerry Potts
This is a summary of the life of Jerry Potts. First, listen to the text. Second, listen to the text and complete each statement below by choosing the best response. Third, listen to the text and check your responses. Discuss the answers with the teacher and other students.

1. Jerry Potts was born in 1840
     a) in India.
     b) in Scotland.
     c) in Montana.

2. Andrew Dawson was the man who
     a) murdered the father of Jerry Potts.
     b) adopted Jerry Potts as a baby.
     c) took good care of Jerry Potts as a boy.

3. Jerry Potts's mother taught him how to
     a) speak several Indian (First Nations) languages.
     b) live in the Blood Indian culture.
     c) hunt, trap, and track game.

4. Jerry Potts was able to find a way to get to unknown places
     a) by using a map or a compass.
     b) by looking at the stars in the sky.
     c) by relying on his extraordinary talent.

5. Jerry Potts became famous as a great fighter because
     a) he scalped 16 people in one battle.
     b) he was wounded in battle only once.
     c) he possessed supernatural powers.

6. When Jerry Potts and his best friend used to drink,
     a) they would gamble and fight with each other.
     b) they would shoot at each other's moustaches.
     c) they would trade whisky with other people.

7. Jerry Potts worked with the Mounties because he wanted to
     a) bring peace back to his people.
     b) become a guide and a diplomat.
     c) shape the history of the West.

LCA-4

LCA.04 - not in the original book

LCA.05. The Chinook
A Canadian Tall Tale

The Chinook
This is a text of amazing but true facts about the chinook. First, listen to the text. Second, listen to the text and answer each question below. Third, listen to the text and check your answers. Discuss the answers with the teacher and other students.

1. By how much can a chinook raise the air temperature?
     __________________________________________________
     __________________________________________________

2. How fast can chinook winds blow per hour?
     __________________________________________________
     __________________________________________________

3. When a chinook visits southern Alberta, what summer sport can be played?
     __________________________________________________
     __________________________________________________

4. According to Indian legend, what is the chinook and where does it come from?
     __________________________________________________
     __________________________________________________

5. According to weather specialists, what is the chinook and where does it come from?
     __________________________________________________
     __________________________________________________

6. What effect can a chinook have on cattle and farmers?
     __________________________________________________
     __________________________________________________

7. What effect can a chinook have on fruit trees?
     __________________________________________________
     __________________________________________________

8. What effect can a chinook have on the topsoil?
     __________________________________________________
     __________________________________________________

LCA-5

LCA.06. How Summer Came to Canada
retold by William Toye

The Micmac
Read the key words and the sentences below. First, listen to the text. Second, listen to the text and fill in the blanks with an appropriate word or expression from the list of key words. You will not use all the words. Third, listen to the text and complete the blanks. Discuss the answers with the teacher and other students.

Key words:

fur fiddler Europe Micmac
lakes Prince Edward Island Algonquin fish
farm hunt rivers poet
Nova Scotia Newfoundland

1. The language of the Micmac is called __________ .
2. Micmac is an Eastern  __________ language.
3. Original Micmac settlements were along bays and  __________ .
4. In the summer, the Micmac would  __________ .
5. In the winter, the Micmac would  __________ .
6. The Micmac were among the first aboriginal peoples to meet settlers from   __________ .
7. The Micmac were once very involved in the  __________ trade.
8. Leo Cremo is a fiddler from  __________ .
9. Rita Joe is a  __________ from.Prince Edward Island.
10. The Micmac live mainly in the Maritimes,  __________ , and Quebec.

LCA-6

LCA.07. Raven and the Whale
retold by Ronald Melzack

Raven Legends
First, listen to the text. Second, listen and write T if the sentence is true according to the text, F if the sentence is false according to the text, and DS if the text doesn't say. Third, listen to the text and complete the activity. Discuss the answers with the teacher and other students.

1. Raven legends come from British Columbia. _____
2. Canoes were used for exploring. _____
3. Canoes are painted by women. _____
4. The totem pole was never placed near water. _____
5. Families made their own totem poles. _____
6. The First Nations population of British Columbia is 70 000. _____

LCA- 7

LCA.08. The Magnificent Voyage of Emily Carr
Jovette Marchessault, translated by Linda Gaboriau

STUDENT A

Tom Thomson was born in 1887 in rural Ontario. He grew up on a farm with his parents and __________ brothers and sisters. He took his first art lesson in __________ , and got a job as a commercial artist the following with Grip Limited in Toronto. It was at this company  __________ he met and became friends with other artists who would day form the Group of Seven.

     In 1912, Thomson's career  __________ a dramatic change. He travelled to Algonquin Park, sketching and  __________ its landscape for the very first time. After returning, he  __________ his work to create one of his most famous paintings, "__________ Lake." The painting was bought the following year by the   __________ of Ontario. The sale brought Thomson $250 at  __________ a when he was earning just 75 cents an hour.

     In  __________ fall of 1913, Thomson met James MacCallum, a medical doctor  __________ a great love of art. MacCallum offered to pay Thomson's   __________ for one year so that he could concentrate on his __________ . Thomson accepted and left his job as a commercial artist.  __________ the few remaining years of his life, Thomson spent three  __________ a year travelling about Algonquin Park. In the winters, he  __________ return to Toronto, where he reworked many of his sketches  __________ finished paintings.

     In 1917, Thomson disappeared while on a canoe  __________ . His body was found eight days later.

LCA- 8

STUDENT B

The Group of Seven was a group of artists who focused mainly on painting landscapes. The original members were Lawren Harris, A. Y.  __________ , Franklin Carmichael,
Franz Johnston, Arthur Lismer, J. E. H.  __________ , and F. H. Varley.

     All were friends,  __________ having met each other through their work as  __________ artists. A strong influence on the group was the   __________ of Tom Thomson, another commercial artist and  __________ . A lover of the outdoors, he had  __________ the members of the group to explore the possibilities  __________ painting the Canadian landscape. Thomson was never a   __________ of the group, having died three years before  __________   foundation in 1920.

     The goal of the Group of  __________ was to capture the spirit of Canada  __________ their art. In order to do this, they  __________ many trips into the Canadian wilderness, sketching and  __________ nature in its different seasons. Many sketches were  __________ finished or redone in the artists' studios.

     Throughout the group's __________ , changes in membership took place. In 1926, Franz Johnston resigned and was replaced  __________ A. J. Casson. In the early thirties, Edward  __________ and L. L. Fitzgerald were also admitted.

     Although  __________ disbanded in 1933, just 13 years after its formation, the Group of Seven remains the most famous group of Canadian painters.

LCA-9

LCA.09. The Fire Stealer
retold by William Toye

Algonquian Legends
Look at the following list of traditional Algonquian activities. First, listen to the text. Second, listen to the text and indicate whether the activities were done by men, women, or both men and women. Third, listen to the text and complete the activity. Discuss the answers with the teacher and other students.

1. hunting ________________________________________
2. farming ________________________________________
3. fishing ________________________________________
4. travelling ________________________________________
5. making canoes ________________________________________
6. gathering food ________________________________________
7. living in wigwams ________________________________________
8.caring for children ________________________________________
9. fighting ________________________________________
10. making tools ________________________________________

LCA-10

LCA.10- not in the original book

LCA.11. The Poor Cottage
Philippe-Joseph Aubert de Gaspé,
translated by Jane Brierly

Philippe-Joseph Aubert de Gaspé
This is a summary of important dates in the life of Philippe-Joseph Aubert de Gaspé. First, listen to the text. Second, listen to the text and fill in the blanks. Third, listen to the text and complete the blanks. Discuss the answers with the teacher and other students.

1786                      Philippe-Joseph Aubert de Gaspe was born in Quebec City.

1790s-early1800s ________________________________________ 

__________        He was the sheriff of Quebec City.

1837                    ________________________________________

__________      He published his first book, Les an9iens canadiens.

1866                  ________________________________________

__________     He died in Quebec City.

LCA-11

LCA.12. Water Poetry
Hector de Saint-Denys Garneau, F. R. Scott, and Raymond Souster

STUDENT A
Read to Student B

Francis Reginald Scott was born in Quebec City in 1899. His father, F. G. Scott, was an Anglican minister and a poet. F. R. Scott studied law at McGill University in Montreal and Oxford University in England. After he returned to Canada, Scott worked as a lawyer and taught at McGill. He also became involved in politics and was one of the leading members of the New Democratic Party. Much of F. R. Scott's poetry deals with social issues. A great many other poems demonstrate his love of Canadian landscapes and waterscapes. F. R. Scott died in Montreal in 1985.

Write

Raymond Souster

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

LCA-12

STUDENT B
Read to Student A

Raymond Souster was born in 1921 in Toronto. He has lived in Toronto nearly all his life and worked for more than forty-five years in a bank there. His first book of poems, When We were Young, was published in 1946. His most famous book is The Colour of the Times, which won the Governor General's Award for poetry in 1964. Some of Souster's better collections include A Local Pride and As Is .

Write

F. R. Scott

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

LCA-13

LCA.13. My Financial Career
Stephen Leacock

Stephen Leacock
This is a text about the life of Stephen Leacock. First, listen to the text. Second, listen to the text and answer each question below. Third, listen to the text and check your answers. Discuss the answers with the teacher and other students.

1. Where and when was Stephen Leacock born?
______________________________________________________________________

2. When did his family emigrate to Canada?
______________________________________________________________________

3. Where did they settle?
______________________________________________________________________

4. Where did Stephen Leacock study?
______________________________________________________________________

5. Where did he work in 1903?
______________________________________________________________________

6. What was the name of his first book?
______________________________________________________________________

7. When was it published?
______________________________________________________________________

8. What was the name of his first book of humour?
______________________________________________________________________

9. When was it published?
______________________________________________________________________

10. When did Stephen Leacock retire?
______________________________________________________________________

11. When did Stephen Leacock die?
______________________________________________________________________

12. When was the Stephen Leacock Medal for Humour created?
______________________________________________________________________

LCA-14

LCA.14. The Enchanted Caribou
retold by Elizabeth Cleaver

The Inuit
Read the key words and the sentences below. First, listen to the text. Second, listen to the text and fill in the blanks with an appropriate word or expression from the list of key words. You will not use all the words. Third, listen to the text and complete the blanks. Discuss the answers with the teacher and other students.

Key words:

Alaska Copper Inuktitut seals
Arctic drawings Mackenzie Ungava
artistic Greenland polar bears wall hangings
Baffin Island Inuit salmon walruses
char Inuk sculptures whales

1. The Inuit are the First Nations people who live along the __________ coast and islands of Canada.

2. The language of the Inuit is  __________ .

3.  __________ is an Inuktitut word meaning "the people."

4. A single member of this group is known as an __________ , meaning "one person."

5.  __________ , caribou, musk oxen,  __________ , and whales are among the most commonly hunted animals.

6. The most commonly caught fish are __________ , trout, and __________

7. The Inuit have a long  __________ tradition.

8. Today, many Inuit support themselves by selling their __________ , prints, drawings, and  __________ .

9. There are eight main Inuit groups in Canada: Baffin Island, Caribou,   __________ , Iglulik, Labrador, Mackenzie, Netsilik, and  __________ .

10. The Inuit are related to other aboriginal groups in  __________ and Greenland.

LCA-15

LCA.15. Naomi's Road
Joy Kogawa

A Letter from the Author
First, listen to the text. Second, listen to the text and fill in the blanks. Third, listen to the text and complete the blanks. Discuss the answers with the teacher and other students.


Dear Reader,

O Canada! What a vast, beautiful country. Here there are people from all around the world. And along with the Native Peoples, we are all Canadians together.

     This little story is told by a Canadian child (1) __________ Naomi Nakane.
She has black hair and lovely Japanese eyes and (2)  __________ face like a valentine. Naomi's story happened in the (3) __________  before you were born, in the 1940s. In her (4) __________  there was a war going on. Canada and Japan were (5) __________ . How sad that was. Suddenly she had to (6) __________ ashamed to be Japanese. She did not learn to (7) __________  or write Japanese  and she tried to forget how (8)  __________ speak Japanese. She never used  chopsticks with strangers.

     It (9)  __________ hard to understand, but Japanese Canadians were treated as enemies (10)  __________ home, even though we were good Canadians. Not one Japanese Canadian (11)  __________ ever found to be a traitor to our (12) __________ . Yet our cameras and cars, radios and fishing (13) __________   were taken away. After that our homes and (14) __________ and farms were also taken and we were (15) __________  to live in camps in the mountains. Fathers (16) __________  older brothers and uncles were made to work (17)  __________ roads in the Rocky Mountains. If you ever drive through (18)  __________ beautiful mountains, you may ride over some roads (19)  __________ by Japanese Canadians.

     Naomi's road is a different kind of (20)  __________ . It is the path of her life. If you walk with her a while, you will find the name of a very important road.

LCA-16

U Kyaw Tun

U Kyaw Tun first became an educator as an assistant lecturer in Chemistry in the Department of Chemistry, University of Rangoon in 1955. In that capacity he lectured to the first year Science students at Yankin College campus. The following year saw him lecturing the third year Science students (those taking Chemistry) at the main campus in addition to the first year Science students at Yankin College campus. He served for 33 years in various universities and colleges throughout Myanmar: Rangoon University, Rangoon Institute of Technology, Mandalay University, Bassein College, Workers’ College and Taunggyi College. His last posting from which he retired was Associate Professor and Head of Department of Chemistry, Taunggyi Degree College.
     Though trained as a scientist and engineer, U Kyaw Tun has a keen interest in the culture, history, religion and mythology of various peoples of the world. His knowledge of several languages: Myanmar, English, French, Pali, Swedish and German has helped him in his cultural studies. He has an extensive knowledge of Hindu astrology, specializing the Ashtakavarga system.
     U Kyaw Tun was a part-time columnist writing for the Working Peoples’ Daily in Myanmar and was a member on the editorial board of the North Renfrew Times in Canada. He has given several public lectures in Canada on Buddhism particularly to scientists and engineers, and to non-Buddhists.

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