Update: 2016-09-18 06:57 PM -0400


Burmese Grammar 1899 :
Orthoepy and orthography


by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA), Tun Institute of Learning (TIL). 
Based on Burmese Grammar and Grammatical Analysis by A. W. Lonsdale, Education Department, Burma, British Burma Press, Rangoon, 1899. Start: 2008 Aug. Copied from photocopy of the ink-on-paper book by UKT and staff of TIL . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

index.htm | Top

Contents of this page

Preface and original TOC -- ch00.htm

See a video on the Declaration of Independence during WWII.
  - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ML5lWWCfgRM 140125
Or see the downloaded video in TIL SD-Library - Bur-Indp-1942<> / bkp<> (link chk 160914),
  or in Book-Candle-Index LIB - Bur-Indp-1942Ի (link chk 160831)
Burmese Independence ceremony under Japanese Rule 1942. General Aung San quoted this ceremony as Fake Independence. You can see Dr Ba Maw, Thakhin KoDawMhine, General AungSan (Minister of Defence in military uniform), etc. See Wikipedia:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/State_of_Burma 160804

Introduction, Sentence, Clause, Phrase -- ch01-1.htm - update 160417
Relating Bur-Myan akshara in Romabama to IPA -- ch01-2.htm - update 160417
Origin of Myanmar akshara -- ch01-3.htm - update 160417
Classification of Consonants according to vocal organs -- ch02.htm - update 160417
The sounds of letters
  Vowels -- ch03-1.htm
  Consonants -- ch03-2.htm (still incomplete)
Formation of words (syllables)
  Changing the peak vowel -- ch04-1.htm
  Medials -- ch04-2.htm
  Coda consonants -- ch04-3.htm
  Syllables with conjunct consonants -- ch04-4.htm
  (Romabama vowels in rimes)
  Pali derived syllables with coda consonants -- ch04-5.htm
  Conjuncts including Kinsi {kn:si:} -- ch04-6.htm
    Tables of Pali conjuncts from MLC Myanmar Orthography 1986 (some tables still need to be filled)
Phonetic changes in Consonantal sounds -- ch05.htm
Tones and Abbreviations -- ch06.htm

Contents of this page

A bit of history that I have witnessed in making

With this little note of mine I salute those, among who are many of my relatives, who lost their lives preserving the sovereignty of the land of my fore-parents.

Burmese kings fought Britain in a series of wars, 1824-26, 1852 and 1885. Burma lost her independence and became a British colony on January 1, 1886. The country was liberated from Britain during World War II by Japan which granted her independence in 1943. The British reoccupied the country in 1945, but had to grant her independence in 1948. Although the short-lived independent Burma is now considered to be irrelevant, it was an internationally recognized sovereign country during WWII. It was recognized by Germany, Japan, and Italy - the Axis powers. That independent country with its own armed-forces fought the British and Americans during the War, and we as children were taught to hate the British colonists. Some viewed that episode in history as the Fourth Anglo-Burmese War, whereas the British-Burma colonial government in exile in India consider it to be just a rebellion. Whatever the case may be, it left many of us who had lived in that period confused.

The reader should note that Lonsdale wrote less than two decades after Burma lost her independence, and therefore the language and culture could still be expected to be unaltered by Western influence.

During the Second World War and Burma's brief independence in 1943-45, we as young school children were instilled with a strong love for our culture and language, while still retaining a respect towards other cultures and languages, such as English and Japanese.

Now a word about TIL's digitization of the book. I am using a photocopy of an old book which was already showing the effects of time, temperature and humidity and some of original words are not very readable. Though my able secretary Daw Khin Wutyi had done her best to remedy the situation, I have to guess what the original word or words were in many places. It would have been better if I could indicate the exact words which I had to deal with. But since it would effect the reading of the whole passage, I have not indicated the 'doctored' words.

To make my presentation more readable, in places in which I would like to insert my note, I have to break up the original paragraph. These places are indicated by the usual mark: [UKT ]

I am also trying to give the equivalent of Pali-Myan words to Skt-Dev in my work on A. A. Macdonell's A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary. - MC-indx.htm (link chk 160404)
The usual devil I have to face is, of course, the paucity of some phonemes in Eng-Latin. See my Doggie's Tale.


UKT notes
Doggie's Tale
Fossilized killed consonants


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UKT notes

Doggie's Tale

Mnemonic The Doggie Tale:
Little doggie cringe in fear -- ŋ (velar),
Seeing Ella's flapping ears -- ɲ (palatal)
And, the Shepard's hanging rear -- ɳ (retroflex).
Doggie so sad he can't get it out
"What's that Kasha क्ष when there's a Kha ?
And when there's Jana ज्ञ what I am to do with Jha ?"

Note to digitizer: you can copy and paste the following:
Ā ā Ē ē Ī ī Ō ō Ū ū
Ḍ ḍ Ḥ ḥ Ḷ ḷ Ḹ ḹ Ṁ ṁ Ṃ ṃ Ṅ ṅ Ṇ ṇ Ṛ ṛ Ṝ ṝ Ś ś Ṣ ṣ Ṭ ṭ ɕ ʂ
Instead of Skt-Dev ः {wic~sa.} use "colon" :
Root sign √
Skt-Deva : श ś [ɕ] /ʃ/; ष ṣ [ʂ] /s/; स s [s] /θ/;
Undertie in Dev transcription: ‿ U203F
IPA symbols: ɑ ɒ ə ɛ ɪ ɔ ʌ ʊ ʧ ʤ ʃ ɹ θ ŋ ɲ ɳ ʰ ʳ ʷ

Go back Dog-tale-note-b

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Fossilized killed consonants

-- UKT 111005, 121202

In the days when I was going to school as a child in the 1930s, the use of fossilized consonants shown below were quite common. Over these 60 years or so, Bur-Myan usage has slowly changed.


You will see many of these old usages in A. W. Lonsdale work, and I am keeping them as they were for old time sake in memory of my ancestors who are no more. I am looking forward to the day when I will join them! As a Bur-Myan Buddhist we always get ready to pass away -- a trait not understood by the Western world.

Note to TIL editor: I have trouble in giving bookmarks to AK-glyphs for these characters. I am using:

{nhk} --> nhEEk.gif
{rw}   --> rwEE1.gif
{I}      --> IIEE1.gif
{l-kaung:} --> lEE3kaung3.gif

Go back fossil-conson-note-b

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End of TIL file