Update: 2011-09-22 11:41 AM +0800


Sanskrit English Dictionary


from: Online Sanskrit Dictionary, February 12, 2003 . http://sanskritdocuments.org/dict/dictall.pdf  090907

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{I.ta.} इत
{I.ya.} इय
{I.wa.} इव
{I.Sha.} इश
{I.Sa.} इष
{I.ha.} इह
{AIk~} / {aik~}/


UKT notes
• Ikshvaku (Skt: इक्ष्वाकु "Sugarcane", Pal: Okkāka) - {OAc~} (Tib-Bur) to {AIk~} (IE)
• Ila - the transgender

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{I.ta.} इत
Not entered in OnlineSktDict

इति  iti 
Skt: इति  iti  adv.  so, thus. indecl. in this way  -  SpkSkt
Pal: iti, ti, and before a vowel  icc , adv.  thus, used as a mark of indirect narration - UPMT-PED042

इतिहास  itihaasa 
Skt: इतिहास  itihaasa  h.  chronicle.  m.  history  - SpkSkt
Pal: itihāsa  m.  legendary lore, tradition - UPMT-PED042

¤ इतिवृत्त  itivRtta  n.  occurrence, incidence, event  - SpkSkt

¤ इतिहासविद्  itihaasavid  ...  historian  - SpkSkt

¤ इतिहासकक्ष्या  itihaasakakSyaa  f.  history class - SpkSkt

¤ इतिकर्तव्यता  itikartavyataaa  ... method, way of doing anything - SpkSkt

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{I.ya.} इय

• इयं (iyaM) 
Skt: इयं (iyaM) - this - OnlineSktDict

¤ इल (Ila)
इल (Ila) - Ila is an androgyne in Hindu mythology, known for his/her sex changes. -- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ila_Hinduism  110420

See my note on Ila - the androgyne : sex change

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{I.wa.} इव

• इव (iva) 
Skt: इव (iva) - just like or as if - OnlineSktDict

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{I.Sha.} इश

• इशत् (ishat.h) 
Skt: इशत् (ishat.h) - a little - OnlineSktDict

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{I.Sa.} इष
Not entered in OnlineSktDict

¤ इषु  iṣu 
Skt: इषु  iṣu  m.f.  arrow - SpkSkt
Pal: isu  mf.  an arrow - UPMT-PED043

UKT: Note {sa.} in Skt changing into {ŝa.} in Pal indicating that this {sa.} is a alveolar fricative and not palatal stop and should be written in Romabama as {Sa.} and not {ca.}. The vowel {I.} remains unchanged. - UKT 100521

¤ इषित  iṣita  ppp.  sent  - SpkSkt

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• इषुभिः (ishhubhiH) 
Skt: इषुभिः (ishhubhiH) - with arrows - OnlineSktDict

• इष्ट (ishhTa)
Skt: इष्ट (ishhTa) - of all desirable things - OnlineSktDict

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• इष्टं (ishhTaM) 
= इ ष ् ट ं
Skt: इष्टं (ishhTaM) - leading to heaven - OnlineSktDict

• इष्टाः (ishhTaaH)
Skt: इष्टाः (ishhTaaH) - palatable - OnlineSktDict

• इष्टान् (ishhTaan.h)
Skt: इष्टान् (ishhTaan.h) - desired - OnlineSktDict

¤ इष्टि  iṣṭi 
= इ ष ् ट ि  
Skt: इष्टि  iṣṭi  - f. request - SpkSkt

• इष्टिका iṣṭikā
= इ ष ् ट ि क ा
Skt: इष्टिका (ishhTikaa) - f. brick - OnlineSktDict
Skt: इष्टिका  iṣṭikā  f. brick  - SpkSkt
  also: इष्टका  iṣṭakā  f. brick - SpkSkt

• इष्ट्वा (ishhTvaa)
Skt: इष्ट्वा (ishhTvaa) - worshiping - OnlineSktDict

¤ इषुध्या  iṣudhyā 
= इ ष ु ध ् य ा  
Skt: इषुध्या  iṣudhyā  - f. request - SpkSkt

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{I.ha.} इह

• इह (iha)
Skt: इह (iha) - here - OnlineSktDict

• इहैव (ihaiva)
Skt: इहैव (ihaiva) - in the present body - OnlineSktDict

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{AIk~} / {aik~}/

• इक्षु ikṣu (ikShuH)
= इ क ् ष ु
Skt: इक्षु ikṣu (ikShuH) - sugarcane - OnlineSktDict
Skt:  m.  sugarcane - SpkSkt
Pal: ucchu  m.  sugar-cane -- UPMT-PED046
Pal: {OAk~hsu.} -- UHS-PMD0204

• इक्ष्वाकवे (ikShvaakave) 
Skt: इक्ष्वाकवे (ikShvaakave) - unto King Iksvaku - OnlineSktDict

See my note on King Ikshvaku .

¤ इक्षु    ikṣu   m.   sugarcane
¤ इक्षुरस   ikṣurasa   m.   sugarcane juice = इ क ् ष ु र स    

UKT: As we go from Pali-Myanmar (Tibeto-Burman?) {OAc~} to Sanskrit (Indo-European) {AIk~} in the name [Okkāka --> Ikshvaku we find two changes taking place at the same time:
1. palatal coda changing into velar coda (POA: outer into inner part of the mouth)
2. back vowel changing into front vowel (POA: inner part of the mouth to outer part).
This observation needs to be confirmed in examples. I'm waiting for comments from my peers. -- UKT 100318
Example in word for 'sugar cane'.
• Pali  -->  Sanskrit
• palatal coda --> velar coda
  {AIc~} --> {AIk~} (codas are in red)
  / {aic~}/  --> / {aik~}/
• back vowel --> front vowel
  {U.} / {u.}/  -->  {I.} / {i.}/


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UKT notes


From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ikshvaku 100317

Ikshvaku (Skt: इक्ष्वाकु 'Sugarcane', Pal: Okkāka) was the first king of the Ikshvaku dynasty and founder of the Solar Dynasty of Kshatriyas in Vedic civilization in ancient India.

#1 Solar Dynasty of Kshatriyas is of interest because in one of his discourses to Agnivesana (sp?) or King Bimasara (sp?) Buddha had said that he belonged to the Solar Dynasty. Facts to be checked. My recollection is from my wife's brother-in-law U Aye Maung's "Little known facts of  Buddhism" (sp?) (in Burmese-Myanmar). - UKT 1004
#2 Pal Okkāka (Skt Ikshvaku इक्ष्वाकु 'Sugarcane') (Pal-Myan {AUk~ka-ka.}) is mentioned in GlassPalace, vol. 1, p023.

In Hinduism

Ikshvaku was the first King to implement the Manusmriti, or the religious rules of Hindu living composed through divine inspiration, and from the Vedas by his father. He is remembered in Hindu scriptures as a righteous and glorious king. In some versions, he is the son of Vaivasvata Manu (formerly the Emperor Satyavrata of Dravida), one of the two central characters along with the Lord Matsya incarnation of Lord Vishnu in the Matsya Purana. He is born to Manu after the deluge which sends the King's ship to the top of the Malaya Mountains in the Dravida country. [1][2]

Excerpt from: Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dravida 100318
Southern India, also known as the Dravida in the Indian anthem[1], is the area encompassing India's states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu as well as the union territories of Lakshadweep and Pondicherry, occupying 19.31% of India's area.
   UKT: An extensive article that should be read particularly because of the maritime relations with southern Myanmar. However, please note that northern Myanmar has more links with northern India via land routes, e.g.: people have been walking to and from Nepal to Myitkyina even in modern times (according to personal 1980 narration of U Thein Aung aka Chandra Prasad, Lecturer in Chemistry, Bassein Univ., Myanmar, of his own father, a Gurhka, walking from his old home in Nepal to Myitkyina in northern Myanmar. -- 100318

In Vedic history

Ikshvaku was perhaps one of the earliest monarchs of India, and played a pivotal role in the transformation of the ancient Vedic religion into modern Hinduism and its propagation throughout India.

In Jainism history

Ikshvaku clan said to began from the 1st Tirthankar Rushabdev who is regarded as the first King on the earth of this Avsarpini cycle. Ikshvaku name of this clan was given by Lord Saudharmendra. When Tirthankar Rishabhdev was one year old, Lord Saudharmendra came to Rishabdev's father, Nabhi for formalizing the family name. He carried sugarcane in his hand and baby Rishabh was sitting in his fathers lap. When Rishabh saw the sugarcane he eagerly extended his tiny hands to grab it. Lord Saudharmendra gave the sugar-cane to the baby and seeing his affinity for sugarcane, he formally named the family as Ikshvaku. Most Thirthankaras of Jainism belong to the House of Ikshvaku, and few from other clans.

From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:Jainism 100318
Jain cosmology: According to Jain beliefs, the universe was never created, nor will it ever cease to exist. Nor is it controlled by an all powerful deity. Time is divided into Utsarpinis (Progressive Time Cycle) and Avsarpinis (Regressive Time Cycle). An Utsarpini and an Avsarpini constitute one Time Cycle (Kalchakra). Every Utsarpini and Avsarpini is divided into six unequal periods known as Aras. During the Utsarpini half cycle, ethics, progress, happiness, strength, age, body, religion, etc. , go from the worst conditions to the best. During the Avsarpini half-cycle, these notions deteriorate from the best to the worst. Jains believe we are currently in the fifth Ara of the Avsarpini phase, with approximately 19,000 years until the next Ara. After this Avsarpini phase, the Utsarpini phase will begin, continuing the infinite repetition of the Kalchakra.

House of Ikshvaku

Across the length and breadth of Greater India, numerous royal families have claimed to have belonged to the so-called House of Ikshvaku, which was the synonymous with the Solar Dynasty. Great kings like Bhagiratha and Dasaratha were also kings in the line before Lord Rama

Go back Ikshvaku-note-b

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Ila - the transgender

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ila_Hinduism 110420 

Ila is an androgyne in Hindu mythology, known for his/her sex changes. As a man, he is known as Ila (Skt: इल) or Sudyumna and as a woman, is called Ilā (Skt: इला). Ilā is considered the chief progenitor of the Lunar Dynasty (Somavamsha) of Indian kings - also known as the Ailas ("descendants of Ilā").

While many versions of the tale exist, Ila is usually described as a daughter or son of Vaivasvata Manu and thus the sibling of Ikshvaku, the founder of the Solar Dynasty (Arkavamsha or Suryavansha). In versions in which Ila is born a girl, she is changed to a boy by divine grace soon after her birth. After mistakenly entering a sacred grove as an adult, Ila is either cursed to change his/her gender every month or cursed to become a woman. As a woman, Ilā married god Budha, son of Soma and bore him a son called Pururavas, the father of the Lunar Dynasty. After the birth of Pururavas, Ilā is transformed into a man again and fathered three sons.

In Vedic literature, Ilā is praised as Idā (Skt: इडा), the goddess of speech, and described as mother of Pururavas. The tale of Ila's transformations is told in the Puranic literature as well as the Hindu epics Ramayana and Mahabharata.


According to the Linga Purana and the Mahabharata, Ilā was born as the eldest daughter of Vaivasvata Manu, the progenitor of mankind, and his wife Shraddha. However, the parents desired a son and so prayed and performed austerities to the deities Mitra and Varuna, who changed Ilā's sex. The boy was named Sudyumma.[1][2] The Bhagavata Purana, Devi-Bhagavata Purana,[3] Kurma Purana, Harivamsa, Markandeya Purana and Padma Purana (referred to as "Bhagavata Purana et al. texts" further) narrate a variant: Ila's parents could not have any children for a long time and approached sage Agastya for a solution. The sage performed a yagna (fire sacrifice) dedicated to Mitra and Varuna to attain a son for the couple. Due either to an error in the ritual, or a failure to offer the appropriate sacrifice, Mitra and Varuna instead sent a daughter to the couple. In one version, the couple supplicated the deities, who transformed Ilā's gender. In another version, this transformation happens after the erroneous hymns are rectified, and the son is called Ila.[2][4][5][6] According to a variant, Shraddha wished for a daughter; Sage Vasistha heeded her wish while performing the sacrifice and thus, a daughter was born. However, Manu desired a son so Vashistha appealed to god Vishnu to change the sex of the daughter. Ilā was renamed Sudhyumna.[7] The accounts describe as Ila either the eldest or the youngest child of Manu. As the child of Manu, Ila had nine brothers, the most notable was Ikshvaku, the founder of the Solar Dynasty (Arkavamsha or Suryavansha).[8][9][10] As the son of Manu, Ila is the grandson of Surya, the Sun-god.[11] According to another account found in the Vayu Purana and the Brahmanda Purana, Ilā was born female and remained a female.[10]

In the Ramayana, Ila is born as a son of Kardama, the Prajapati born of god Brahma's shadow. Ila's tale is told in the Uttara Kanda chapter of the Ramayana, while describing the greatness of the Ashvamedha - the horse sacrifice.[5][12]

Curse and marriage to Budha

In the Ramayana, Linga Purana, and Mahabharata, Ila grows to become the king of Bahlika. While hunting in a forest, Ila accidentally tresspassed Śaravana ("Forest of Reeds"), the sacred grove of goddess Parvati, the wife of Shiva. Upon entering Śaravana, all male beings except for Shiva, including the trees and animals, are transformed into females. [Wiki-note01]. In the Ramayana, even Shiva had assumed the form of a female to please the goddess.[13] One legend tells that a female yakshini disguised herself as a deer and purposefully led king Ila to the grove in order to save her husband from the king.[14] The Linga Purana and Mahabharata emphasize the sex change of Ila to be a deliberate act of Shiva to start the Lunar Dynasty.[1] The Bhagavata Purana et al. texts tell that Ila's entire entourage as well as his horse also changed their genders.[4]

According to the Ramayana, when Ila approached Shiva for help, Shiva laughed with scorn but the compassionate goddess Parvati reduced the curse and allowed Ila to switch genders every month. However, as a male he would not remember his life as a female, and as a female she would not remember her life as a male. While Ilā roamed the forest in her new form with her female attendants, Budha, the god of planet Mercury and the son of the moon-god Chandra noticed her. Although he had been practicing asceticism, Ilā's beauty caused him to fall in love with her at first sight. Budha turned Ilā's attendants into Kimpurushas (hermaphrodite, lit. "is it a man?")[10][15] and ordered them to run away, promising that they would find mates as Ilā had.[13]

Ilā married Budha and spent an entire month making love to him. However, Ilā woke one morning as Ila and remembered nothing about the past month. Budha told Ila that his retinue had been killed in a rain of stones and convinced Ila to stay with him for a year. During each month she spent as a woman, Ilā had pleasure with Budha. During each month as a man, Ila turned to pious ways and performed austerities under the guidance of Budha. In the ninth month, Ilā gave birth to Pururavas, who grew to become the first king of the Lunar Dynasty. Then, as per the advice of Budha and Ila's father Kardama, Ila pleased Shiva with a horse-sacrifice, and Shiva restored Ila's masculinity permanently.[5][13]

Another legend from Vishnu Purana credits the god Vishnu of restoring Ilā's manhood as Sudyumma.[2][16] The Bhagavata Purana et al. texts tell that after Pururavas's birth, the nine brothers of Ila or sage Vasistha – the family priest of Ila – pleased Shiva to compel him to give the boon of alternate month manhood to Ila, turning him into a Kimpurusha.[3][4][9] Linga Purana and Mahabharata record the birth of Pururavas, but do not narrate the end of Ila's alternating gender condition. In fact, Mahabharata describes Ilā to be the mother as well as the father of Pururavas.[17] According to another account found in the Vayu Purana and the Brahmanda Purana, Ilā was born female, married Budha, then was transformed into a male called Sudyumna. Sudyumna was then cursed by Parvati and transformed once again into a female, but became a man once again through Shiva's boon.[10]

In almost all versions of the tale, Ila wants to live as a man, but in the Skanda Purana version of tale, Ila desires to be a woman. The king Ela (Ila) entered Parvati's grove at Sahya mountain and became the woman Ilā. Ilā wished to remain a woman and serve goddess Parvati (Gauri) and Ganga, the river goddess. However, the goddesses dissuaded him and told him that life as a woman was a curse and full of sorrow. Ilā bathed in a sacred pool and returned as Ela, bearded and deep-voiced.[5][18]

Later life and descendants

The descendants of Ilā through Pururavas are known as Ailas after Ilā or as the Lunar Dynasty due to their descent from Budha, the son of the moon-god Chandra.[5] Most versions of tale call Ilā the father as well as the mother of the Ailas.[19] The Linga Purana and Mahabharata, in which Sudyumma's curse does not end, state that as a male, Sudyumma also bore three sons named Utkala, Gaya and Vinatashva (also known as Haritashva and Vinata).[10] The three sons ruled the kingdom for their father as Sudyumma was unable to do so himself due his alternating gender. The sons and their principalities are called the Saudyumnas. Utkala, Gaya, and Vinatashva ruled Utkala country, Gaya, and eastern regions including northern Kurus respectively.[20][21] With the assistance of sage Vasistha, Sudyumma regained control of the entire kingdom. He was succeeded by Pururavas.[1]

In the Matsya Purana, Ila was disinherited after becoming a female or kimpurusha. Ila's father passed his inheritance directly to Pururavas, ignoring the three sons Ila-Sudyumma bore as a male. Pururavas ruled from Pratishtanapura (present-day Allahabad), where Ila stayed with him.[9][22] The Ramayana says that having returned to manhood, Ila ruled Pratishtana while his son Shashabindu ruled over Bahlika.[13] The Devi-Bhagavata Purana tells that as a man Sudyumma governed the kingdom and as a woman remained indoors. His subjects were disturbed by his sex changes and did not respect him as they once had. When Pururavas attained adulthood, Sudyumma left his kingdom to Pururavas and went to the forest for penance. Sage Narada told Sudyumma a nine-syllable mantra, Navakshara, which would please the Supreme Goddess. Pleased with his austeriies, the Goddess emerged before Sudyumma, who was in his female form Ilā. Sudyumma praised the Goddess, who merged the king's soul with herself and thus, Ilā gained salvation.[3]

The Bhagavata Purana, Devi-Bhagavata Purana and Linga Purana declare that Ila ascended to heaven with both male and female anatomy.[19] Ila is considered the chief progenitor of the Lunar Dynasty through Pururavas and of the Solar Dynasty through his brother Iksavaku and sons Utkala, Gaya, and Vinatashva.[9][23] The marriage of Ilā, a descendant of the Sun, and Budha, the son of the Moon, is the first union of the solar and lunar races recorded in the scriptures.[24]

In Vedic literature

In Vedic literature, Ilā is also known as Idā. Idā in the Rigveda, signifies food and refreshment, personified as the goddess of speech.[25] Ilā-Idā is also associated with Sarasvati, the goddess of knowledge.[6] Ilā-Idā is mentioned a number of times in the Rigveda, mostly in the hymns known as Āprīsūktas. She is often mentioned along with Sarasvati and Bharati (or Mahi) and Pururavas is described as her son.[26] Idā is the instructor of Manu, in performing ritual sacrifices. According to Sayana - a commentator on the Vedas, she presides over the Earth.[25]

In the Shatapatha Brahmana, Manu performed a fire-sacrifice in order to have children. Idā emerged from the sacrifice. She was claimed by Mitra-Varuna, but she lived with Manu and together they initiated the race of Manu.[25][27] In this text, Idā is the goddess of the sacrificial meal. She is described as the Mānavi (daughter of Manu) and Ghṛtapadī (with the ghee-dripping foot) and she is represented by a cow, also known as Idā during a sacrifice.[28][29] Pururavas is mentioned as the son of Ilā in the text.[30]

Wiki-note01 - Śaravaṇa ("Forest of Reeds") is described as the place where Skanda, the son of Shiva, was born. The Devi-Bhagavata Purana narrates that once the sages intruded on the love-making of Shiva and Parvati so Shiva cursed the forest that all male beings entering it would be transformed into females. Wiki-note01b

Go back Ila-note-b

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