Update: 2011-09-22 10:37 AM +0800

TIL

Sanskrit English Dictionary

a1va1-019b3-2.htm

from: Online Sanskrit Dictionary, February 12, 2003 . http://sanskritdocuments.org/dict/dictall.pdf  090907

Downloaded, set in HTML, and edited by U Kyaw Tun, M.S. (I.P.S.T., U.S.A.), and staff of TIL Computing and Language Centre, Yangon, Myanmar. Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone.

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Contents of this page
{a.wa.} अव  / {a.bya.} अब्य
{a.wa} अवा
{a.wi.} अवि
{a.wé} अवे
{a.wè:} अवै
{a.wau:} अवो

UKT notes
• Avatar अवतार avatāra • Sita - Daughter of the Earth

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{a.wa.} अव
p019b3-2

UKT: Since Burmese-Myanmar does not have the labio-dental /v/, transliteration of the entries are substituted with {a.wa.} , etc.

• अव (ava) 
  Skt: अव (ava) - protect - OnlineSktDict
  Pal: prep.  away, off, down  - UPMT-PED028

• अवकरिका (avakarikaa)
Skt: अवकरिका (avakarikaa) - (f) dustbin, garbage bin - OnlineSktDict

• अवकलन (avakalana)
Skt: अवकलन (avakalana) - differentiation - OnlineSktDict

• अवगच्छ (avagachchha)
Skt: अवगच्छ (avagachchha) - must know - OnlineSktDict

• अवगम् (avagam.h)
Skt: अवगम् (avagam.h) - to comprehend, understand - OnlineSktDict

• अवगमं (avagamaM)
Skt: अवगमं (avagamaM) - understood - OnlineSktDict

• अवग्रह (avagraha)
Skt: अवग्रह (avagraha) - (m) famine - OnlineSktDict

• अवचय (avachaya)
Skt: अवचय (avachaya) - (m) gathering, collection - OnlineSktDict

• अवचिनोति  (avachinoti)
Skt: अवचिनोति  (avachinoti) - to pluck - OnlineSktDict
  Skt: avacinoti  {ava- ci}  v.  pluck, collect, gather  - SpkSkt

¤ अवछिनत्ति { अव- छिद् }  avachinatti  {ava- chid}  v.  cut down, cut off  - SpkSkt
¤ अवजिघ्रति { अव- घ्रा }   avajighrati { ava- ghrā }   v3   smell at -- SpkSkt

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p019b4

• अवच्यः (avachyaH)
Skt: अवच्यः (avachyaH) - unblamable - OnlineSktDict

• अवजानन्ति (avajaananti)
Skt: अवजानन्ति (avajaananti) - deride - OnlineSktDict

• अवतार , avatāra (avataara).
Skt: अवतार , avatāra (avataara) - a divine incarnation particularly of Vishnu, e.g. Buddha - OnlineSktDict

See my note on Avatar .

 

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p020top

• अवतारयति (avataarayati)  
Skt: अवतारयति (avataarayati) - to keep down, to get down - OnlineSktDict

• अवति (avati) Skt: pp. to protect
Skt: अवति (avati) - (1 pp) to protect - OnlineSktDict
  Pal: {a.wa.ti.} - UHS-PMD0133
  Pal: अवति avati - v. (√av) to protect  - UPMT-PED030

• अवतिष्ठति (avatishhThati)
Skt: अवतिष्ठति (avatishhThati) - remains - OnlineSktDict

• अवतिष्ठते (avatishhThate)
Skt: अवतिष्ठते (avatishhThate) - becomes established - OnlineSktDict

• अवतु (avatu)
Skt: अवतु (avatu) - (may the lord) protect - OnlineSktDict

• अवधीरणा (avadhiiraNaa)
Skt: अवधीरणा (avadhiiraNaa) - (f) a repulse, repulsion - OnlineSktDict

• अवध्यः (avadhyaH)
Skt: अवध्यः (avadhyaH) - cannot be killed - OnlineSktDict

• अवन (avana)
Skt: अवन (avana) - protection - OnlineSktDict

• अवनिं (avaniM)
Skt: अवनिं (avaniM) - earth - OnlineSktDict
  Pal: {a.wa.ni.} - UHS-PMD0134
  Pal: अवनि  avani , f. earth - UPMT-PED031

• अवनिपाल (avanipaala)
Skt: अवनिपाल (avanipaala) - of warrior kings - OnlineSktDict

¤ अवदिपयति { अव- दीप् }   avadipayati {ava- dīp}   v. caus.   set on fire - SpkSkt
¤   अवधूपयति { अव - धूपय }  avadhūpayati {ava - dhūpaya} v. demon  fumigate  - SpkSkt

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p020b1

• अवनीतन्य (avaniitanya) 
Skt: अवनीतन्य (avaniitanya) - the daughter of the Earth (siita) - OnlineSktDict

See my note on Sita - Daughter of the Earth.

• अवयव (avayava)
Skt: अवयव (avayava) - part - OnlineSktDict

• अवरं (avaraM)
Skt: अवरं (avaraM) - abominable - OnlineSktDict

• अवरुद्धवेग (avaruddhavega)
Skt: अवरुद्धवेग (avaruddhavega) - retardation - OnlineSktDict

• अवरूणद्धि (avaruuNaddhi)
Skt: अवरूणद्धि (avaruuNaddhi) - to obstruct - OnlineSktDict

• अवरोहति (avarohati)
Skt: अवरोहति (avarohati) - to descend - OnlineSktDict

• अवलिप्त (avalipta)
Skt: अवलिप्त (avalipta) - proud, haughty - OnlineSktDict

• अवलेहः (avalehaH)
Skt: अवलेहः (avalehaH) - (m) pickle - OnlineSktDict

¤ अवलेह  avaleha  m.  licking  - SpkSkt

• अवशः (avashaH)
Skt: अवशः (avashaH) - helplessly - OnlineSktDict

• अवशिष्यते (avashishhyate)
Skt: अवशिष्यते (avashishhyate) - remains - OnlineSktDict

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p020b2

• अवशोषण (avashoshhaNa)
Skt: अवशोषण (avashoshhaNa) - absorption - OnlineSktDict

• अवष्टभ्य (avashhTabhya)
Skt: अवष्टभ्य (avashhTabhya) - entering into - OnlineSktDict

• अवसं (avasaM)
Skt: अवसं (avasaM) - automatically - OnlineSktDict

• अवसन् (avasan.h)
Skt: अवसन् (avasan.h) - III pI. imperfect of vas, to live - OnlineSktDict

• अवसन्नाः (avasannaaH)
Skt: अवसन्नाः (avasannaaH) - inadequate - OnlineSktDict

• अवसरः (avasaraH)
Skt: अवसरः (avasaraH) - (m) opportunity, chance - OnlineSktDict
Skt: अवसर avasara m. chance - SpkSkt

• अवसर्पति (avasarpati)
Skt: अवसर्पति (avasarpati) - to slide (as from a waterslide) - OnlineSktDict

• अवसादयेत् (avasaadayet.h)
Skt: अवसादयेत् (avasaadayet.h) - put into degradation - OnlineSktDict

• अवस्था (avasthaa)
Skt: अवस्था (avasthaa) - a state of the mind - OnlineSktDict

• अवस्थातुं (avasthaatuM)
Skt: अवस्थातुं (avasthaatuM) - to stay - OnlineSktDict

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p020b3

• अवस्थात्रयः (avasthaatrayaH)
Skt: अवस्थात्रयः (avasthaatrayaH) - three states of bodily consciousness (awake, sleep, dream) - OnlineSktDict

• अवस्थितं (avasthitaM)
Skt: अवस्थितं (avasthitaM) - situated - OnlineSktDict

• अवस्थितः (avasthitaH)
Skt: अवस्थितः (avasthitaH) - situated - OnlineSktDict

• अवस्थिताः (avasthitaaH)
Skt: अवस्थिताः (avasthitaaH) - situated - OnlineSktDict

• अवस्थितान् (avasthitaan.h)
Skt: अवस्थितान् (avasthitaan.h) - arrayed on the battlefield - OnlineSktDict

• अवहासार्थं (avahaasaarthaM)
Skt: अवहासार्थं (avahaasaarthaM) - for joking - OnlineSktDict

• अवज्ञा (avaGYaa)
Skt: अवज्ञा (avaGYaa) - contempt - OnlineSktDict

• अवज्ञातं (avaGYaataM)
Skt: अवज्ञातं (avaGYaataM) - without proper attention - OnlineSktDict

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{a.wa} अवा
p020b3-2

• अवाची (avaachii)
Skt: अवाची (avaachii) - (f) south - OnlineSktDict

• अवाच्य (avaachya)
Skt: अवाच्य (avaachya) - unkind - OnlineSktDict

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p020b4

• अवाप्तव्यं (avaaptavyaM)
= अ व ा प ् त व ् य ं
Skt: अवाप्तव्यं (avaaptavyaM) - to be gained - OnlineSktDict

• अवाप्तुं (avaaptuM)
= अ व ा प ् त ु ं
Skt: अवाप्तुं (avaaptuM) - to achieve - OnlineSktDict

• अवाप्नोति (avaapnoti)
Skt: अवाप्नोति (avaapnoti) - gets - OnlineSktDict

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p021top

• अवाप्य (avaapya)  
Skt: अवाप्य (avaapya) - achieving - OnlineSktDict

• अवाप्यते (avaapyate)
Skt: अवाप्यते (avaapyate) - is achieved - OnlineSktDict

• अवाप्स्यथ (avaapsyatha)
Skt: अवाप्स्यथ (avaapsyatha) - you will achieve - OnlineSktDict

• अवाप्स्यसि (avaapsyasi)
Skt: अवाप्स्यसि (avaapsyasi) - will gain - OnlineSktDict

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{a.wi.} अवि
p021top-2

• अविकल्पेन (avikalpena)
Skt: अविकल्पेन (avikalpena) - without division - OnlineSktDict

• अविकार्यः (avikaaryaH)
Skt: अविकार्यः (avikaaryaH) - unchangeable - OnlineSktDict

• अविचारी (avichaarii)
Skt: अविचारी (avichaarii) - adj. thoughtless - OnlineSktDict

• अविदित (avidita)
Skt: अविदित (avidita) - without knowledge, unknowingly - OnlineSktDict

• अविदुशः (avidushaH)
Skt: अविदुशः (avidushaH) - of one who does not know - OnlineSktDict

• अविद्या (avidyaa)
Skt: अविद्या (avidyaa) - of one who does not know - OnlineSktDict

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p021b1

• अविद्वांसः (avidvaa.nsaH)
Skt: अविद्वांसः (avidvaa.nsaH) - the ignorant - OnlineSktDict

• अविधिपूर्वकं (avidhipuurvakaM)
Skt: अविधिपूर्वकं (avidhipuurvakaM) - in a wrong way - OnlineSktDict

• अविनश्यन्तं (avinashyantaM)
Skt: अविनश्यन्तं (avinashyantaM) - not destroyed - OnlineSktDict

• अविनाश (avinaasha)
Skt: अविनाश (avinaasha) - undestructible, name of Vishnu - OnlineSktDict

• अविनाशि (avinaashi)
Skt: अविनाशि (avinaashi) - imperishable - OnlineSktDict

• अविनाशिनं (avinaashinaM)
Skt: अविनाशिनं (avinaashinaM) - indestructible - OnlineSktDict

• अविपश्चितः (avipashchitaH)
Skt: अविपश्चितः (avipashchitaH) - men with a poor fund of knowledge - OnlineSktDict

• अविभक्तं (avibhaktaM)
Skt: अविभक्तं (avibhaktaM) - without division - OnlineSktDict

• अविरति (avirati)
Skt: अविरति (avirati) - sensuality - OnlineSktDict

• अविरोध (avirodha)
Skt: अविरोध (avirodha) - no opposition - OnlineSktDict

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p021b2

• अविज्ञेयं (aviGYeyaM)
Skt: अविज्ञेयं (aviGYeyaM) - unknowable - OnlineSktDict

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{a.wé} अवे
p021b2-2

• अवेक्षे (avekShe)
Skt: अवेक्षे (avekShe) - let me see - OnlineSktDict

• अवेक्ष्य (avekShya)
Skt: अवेक्ष्य (avekShya) - considering - OnlineSktDict

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{a.wè:} अवै
p021b2-3

• अवैध (avaidha)
Skt: अवैध (avaidha) - (adj) illegal - OnlineSktDict

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{a.wau:} अवो
p021b2-4

• अवोत्तरात्तात् (avottaraattaat.h)
Skt: अवोत्तरात्तात् (avottaraattaat.h) - protect me from the northern direction - OnlineSktDict

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UKT notes

Avatar अवतार , avatāra

The following is from Wikipedia:
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avatar 100115
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avatar 110425
My additions are within [...]

In Hinduism, Avatar or Avatāra (Skt: अवतार, [Bur: {a.wa.ta-ra.}] for "descent" [viz., from heaven to earth]) refers to a deliberate descent of a deity from heaven to earth, and is mostly translated into English as "incarnation", but more accurately as "appearance" or "manifestation".[1] --  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avatar 100115

 

Edited from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Da%C5%9B%C4%81vat%C4%81ra 100114

Daśāvatāra refers to the ten principal avatars. In Vaishnava philosophy, an avatar (Skt: अवतार, avatāra), most commonly refers to the 'descent' and daśa refers to 'ten' in number. The ten most famous incarnations of Vishnu or sometimes Krishna are collectively known as the Dashavatara. This list is included in the Garuda Purana (1.86.10-11) and denotes those avatars most prominent in terms of their influence on human society.

The majority of avatars in this list of ten are categorised as 'lila-avatars'. The first four are said to have appeared in the Satya Yuga (the first of the four Yugas or ages in the time cycle described within Hinduism). The next three avatars appeared in the Treta Yuga, the eighth incarnation in the Dwapara Yuga and the ninth in the Kali Yuga. The tenth is predicted to appear at the end of the Kali Yuga in some 427,000 years time.[1] Also according to the Vishnu Purana the Kali-yuga will end with the apparition of Kalki-avatara, who will defeat the wicked, liberate the virtuous, and initiate a new Satya Yuga.[2]

Historical perspective

Adoption of Buddha as one of the avatars of Vishnu under Bhagavatism believed to be a catalyzing factor in assimilation of relationships during Gupta period 330-550 C.E. Thus Mahayana Buddhism is sometimes called Buddha-Bhagavatism. [3] It is by this period that it is commonly accepted among academics that the concept of avatars of Vishnu [ {bi.þa.no:nût}] was fully developed.[4]

UKT notes:
• Early Pagan (107–849 A.D.) period extending from King Thamudarit (reign: 107-152 A.D.) to Hkelu (reign: 829-846 A.D.) [dates of Early Pagan are unattested] and Pagan (849–1287 A.D.) period extending from King Pyinbya (reign: 846-878 or 874–906) to Narathihapate (reign: 1254-1287) cover the Gupta period in India with which there were strong cultural links because of overland routes. Of course, there was the city of Tagaung in the north founded before the Gautama Buddha's period by King Abiraza, and so we must conclude that cultural links had been very strong indeed. - UKT 110424 based on http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Burmese_monarchs 110424
• As a Buddhist born in Myanmar, I belonged to the Theravada {hté-ra.wa-da.} school of Buddhism which rejects the notions of a Supreme God and an indestructible Soul as baseless hypotheses. The Pali used in Myanmar, the Pal-Myan (Pali-Myanmar, written in Myanmar script) define Vishnu {bi.þa.no:nût} in the following terms:

Pal: Kaṇhā - adj. black, dark, evil ; m. Viṣṇu, the evil one; n. sin . - UPMT-PED064
Pal: {ka-Nha.} - UHS-PMD0283

The meanings given in Pali-Myan clearly show an animosity between Buddhism (Theravada) and Hinduism (including Mahayana)? The reason, I believe to be is because the repressive caste system condoned by Hinduism-Brahmanism . Read: 
¤ Ban Sanskrit in Buddhism - ban-sanskrit.htm
¤ Early Buddhism and Bhagavagītā - Budd-Bhagavagita.htm
¤ Historical Vishnuism - his-vishnuism.htm
¤ Mahayana Buddhism - mahayana.htm
Note: Up to today the above four are in the same folder with "Ban Sanskrit in Buddhism". I hope to make a comparative study of Early Buddhism, Bhagavagita, Vishnuism and Mahayana if and when the time comes. -- UKT 100414. The above hyperlinks are found not working on 110425.

The evolution of historical Vishnuism produced what is now a complex system of Vaishnavism, which is often viewed as a synthesis of the worship of Vishnu, Narayana, Vasudeva and Krishna which is archived by the time of Bhagavad Gita (c. 4 BCE to 3 century CE).[5]

Twelve Alvars, saints who spread the sect to the common people with their devotional hymns. Early alvars did not distinguish or listed the avataras of Vishnu, nor did they distinguished Krishna to be an avatara. Their poems in praise of Vishnu and Krishna in Tamil language are collectively known as Naalayira (Divya Prabandha).[6][7]

Similarity to Darwinism and evolution

Life originated in water in unicellular form to start with. This was followed by aquatic life forms, and subsequently Amphibians (i.e. creatures who could live equally well in water as well as on land) came into existence. Homo Sapiens evolved during a very later stage of evolution. Scientists have postulated various theories about this evolution. Darwin, Mendel & others postulated various theories on this subject.

British geneticist and evolutionary biologist, J B S Haldane, observed that the Dasavataras are a true sequential depiction of the great unfolding of evolution. The first few avatars of Vishnu show an uncanny similarity to the biological theory of evolution of life on earth.[16]

01. Matsya, the fish, appeared in the Satya Yuga.
   First avatar is a fish, one which is creature living in water.
   If we compare it with biological evolution on different Geological Time Scale first developed life was also in the form of fish which originated during Cambrian period.

02. Kurma, the tortoise, appeared in the Satya Yuga.
   Second avatar was in the form of Tortoise (reptiles).
   In geology also first reptiles comes as second important evolution which originated in Mississippian period just after Amphibians.

03. Varaha, the boar, appeared in the Satya Yuga.
   Third avatar was in the form of Boar.
   Evolution of the amphibean to the land animal.

04. Narasimha, the half-man/half-lion appeared in the Satya Yuga
   The Man-Lion (Nara = man, simha = lion) was the fourth avatar.
   But in geology no such evidences are mentioned. It may have been related with Ape Man The term may sometimes refer to extinct early human ancestors, such as the undiscovered missing link between apes and humans.

05. Vamana, the dwarf, appeared in the Treta Yuga.
   Fifth Avatar is the dwarf man.
   It may be related with the first man originated during Pliocene. It may be related with Neanderthals. Neanderthals were generally only 12 to 14 cm (4½–5½ in) shorter than modern humans, contrary to a common view of them as "very short" or "just over 5 feet".

06. Parashurama, Rama with the axe, appeared in the Treta Yuga.
   The man with an axe was the sixth avatar.
   It has the similarities with the first modern man originated during Quaternary [geologic] period or the man of Iron age.

UKT: The four avatars of Vishnu that are of importance for chronological reasons to a Bur-Myan Buddhist are probably:
06. Parashurama, sage with the axe who killed the thousand-armed king Kartavirya Arjuna
07. Rama, the king of Ayodhya and the hero of the Hindu epic Ramayana
08. Krishna, the king of Dwarka, a central character in the Bhagavata Purana and the Mahabharata and reciter of Bhagavad Gita. However, in the original Dasavatara stotra, Balarama, the elder brother of Krishna, is stated as the eight incarnation, while Krishna (Lord Kesava) is the source of all the incarnation.[19]
09. Gautama Buddha

Lord Rama, Lord Krishna and Lord Buddha were the seventh, eighth and ninth other avatars of Lord Vishnu. It indicates the physical and mental changes and evolution in the man from its time of appearance.
   Note: Balarama is considered as one of the Dasavatar in South Indian traditions, and Buddha is not considered as part of the list. [8] [9]
In some lists Balarama, the elder brother of Krishna, takes the place of Gautama Buddha as the ninth avatar of Vishnu. According to the Bhagavata Purana Balarama is said to have appeared in the Dwapara Yuga (along with Krishna) as an incarnation of Ananta Shesha. He is also counted as an avatar of Vishnu by the majority of Vaishnava movements. Such lists contain no mention of Buddha.
   Kalki ("Eternity", or "time", or "The Destroyer of foulness"), who is expected to appear at the end of Kali Yuga, the time period in which we currently live. The tenth and the last avatar of Vishnu, Kalki, is yet to appear. Kalki will appear at the end of the Kalyuga. This avatar will appear seated on a white horse with a drawn sword blazing like a comet. He shall come finally to destroy the wicked, to restart the new creation and to restore the purity of conduct in people's lives. 

UKT: More in Wikipedia article.

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Sita - Daughter of the Earth

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sita 100308

Sita or Seeta (Skt: सीता "Sītā"; "furrow" / Khmer: នាង សីដា? Neang Sida / Malay: Siti Dewi / Indonesian: Dewi Sinta / Thai: นางสีดา Nang Sida / Lao: ນກະງ ສກະນດກະ Nang Sanda / Burmese-Myanmar: {þi-ta dé-wi} Thida Dewi / Tagalog: Putri Gandingan / Maranao: Tuwan Potre Malaila Tihaia) is the wife of Rama, the seventh avatāra of Vishnu in the Hindu tradition. Sita is one of the principal characters in the Ramayana, a Hindu epic named after her husband Lord Rama. Goddess Sita was born in Sitamarhi (Punaura) in Bihar (India) and soon after her birth, taken to Janakpur in present day Nepal by her father, King Janak. She is esteemed as the standard setter for wifely and womanly virtues for all Hindu women. Understood theologically in Hinduism, Sita is an avatāra of Lakshmi.

UKT: The majority of the Myanmar population being Buddhists, just take {þi-ta dé-wi} to be a human wife of King Rama who himself was also human. Both husband and wife were just characters in an ancient play, and the term {dé-wi} merely stands as an honorific title applied to a queen. Most of the younger generation would just refer to her as {þi-ta}/{thi-ta} leaving the {dé-wi} which literally means "goddess" out. However, I personally know a few who worship them as Nats in the Burmese-Myanmar tradition and offer them a puja every year. -- UKT 100308

Sita was a foundling, discovered in a furrow in a ploughed field, and for that reason is regarded as a daughter of Bhudevi, the Goddess Mother Earth. She was found and adopted by Janaka, hence she was also called Janki, king of Mithila in present day Nepal and his wife Sunayana. Since she was the princess of Mithila, she was (and is also) known as Maithili. Upon her coming of age, a swayamwara was held to select a suitable husband for her, and she was wed to Rama, prince of Ayodhya, an avatara of Vishnu.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

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End of TIL file