Update: 2011-09-22 10:32 AM +0800

TIL

Sanskrit English Dictionary

a1r-thut-018top-5.htm

from: Online Sanskrit Dictionary, February 12, 2003 . http://sanskritdocuments.org/dict/dictall.pdf  090907

Downloaded, set in HTML, and edited by U Kyaw Tun, M.S. (I.P.S.T., U.S.A.), and staff of TIL Computing and Language Centre, Yangon, Myanmar. Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone.

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{čr~ka.} अर्क
{čr~Ga.} अर्घ
{čr~sa.} अर्च
{čr~za.} अर्ज
{čr~hta.} अर्थ
{čr~Da.} अर्ध
{čr~pa.} अर्प
{čr~Ba.} अर्भ
{čr~ya.} अर्य
{čr~ha.} अर्ह - UKT note: Romabama vowel {čr~} is not fully satisfactory and may be changed as I get more involved with BEPS.

UKT: The question that is of utmost importance in transcription of Burmese to English and back is the treatment of the so-called "semi-vowels" sic "semi-consonants", the first member being {ya.}. What happens when a killed semi-consonant follows a vowel as in {čý}? Does the semivowel become a "vowel"? We note that it is used as a middle pitch-register in the Burmese-Myanmar series, {č.} {čý} {č:} . We also note that in Burmese-Myanmar, {ya.} and {ra.} behave very similarly. For example, {rűn-koan} is pronounced // /{yűn-koan}/ by most of the population except those of the west coast - the inhabitants of the {ra.hkaing} state. -- UKT 100307

UKT notes
ArjunaAryaman - Surya aka Sun God • Half-boat postureHalf-head stand postureHalf-locust postureHalf-lotus postureHalf-moon postureHalf-shoulder stand postureHalf-spinal twist posture

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{čr~ka.} अर्क

UKT: Ordinarily, I would have transcribed अर्क  as {ar~ka.} if I had not taken into consideration the (hypothetical) आर्क . When I pronounce the two words, I found that the vowel in the second is more open and that there is a dropping of the jaw. To account for this difference, I have to transcribe अर्क  as {čr~ka.}.

p018top-5

• अर्क (arka)
Skt: अर्क (arka) - essence, a name of Sun - OnlineSktDict

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{čr~Ga.} अर्घ
p018b1

• अर्घ (argha) = अ र ् घ
Skt: अर्घ (argha) - value - OnlineSktDict

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{čr~sa.} अर्च
p018b1-2

• अर्चति (archati)
Skt: अर्चति (archati) - (1 pp) to worship - OnlineSktDict

• अर्चितुं (archituM)
Skt:अर्चितुं (archituM) - to worship - OnlineSktDict

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{čr~za.} अर्ज
p018b1-3

• अर्जन (arjana)
Skt: अर्जन (arjana) - obtaining - OnlineSktDict

• अर्जनं (arjanaM)
Skt: अर्जनं (arjanaM) - the earning or acquiring or acqusition - OnlineSktDict

• अर्जुन (arjuna)
Skt: अर्जुन (arjuna) - a disciple of Krishna, hero of Mahabharata - OnlineSktDict

• अर्जुनं (arjunaM)
Skt: अर्जुनं (arjunaM) - unto Arjuna - OnlineSktDict

• अर्जुनः (arjunaH) .
Skt: अर्जुनः (arjunaH) - Arjuna - OnlineSktDict

See my note on Arjuna .

• अर्जुनयोः (arjunayoH)
Skt: अर्जुनयोः (arjunayoH) - and Arjuna - OnlineSktDict

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{čr~hta.} अर्थ
p018b1-4

• अर्थ (artha)
Skt: अर्थ (artha) - money - OnlineSktDict

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p018b2

• अर्थं (arthaM)
Skt: अर्थं (arthaM) - wealth - OnlineSktDict

• अर्थः (arthaH)
Skt: अर्थः (arthaH) - is meant - OnlineSktDict

• अर्थन् (arthan.h)
Skt: अर्थन् (arthan.h) - and economic development - OnlineSktDict

• अर्थनैपुण (arthanaipuNa)
Skt: अर्थनैपुण (arthanaipuNa) - (n) efficient in polity - OnlineSktDict

• अर्थप्राप्तिर्भवति (arthapraaptirbhavati) sp?
Skt: अर्थप्राप्तिर्भवति (arthapraaptirbhavati) - wealth-attainment becomes - OnlineSktDict

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p018b2-2

• अर्थयते (arthayate)
Skt: अर्थयते (arthayate) - (10 pp) to request - OnlineSktDict

• अर्थवान् (arthavaan.h)
Skt: अर्थवान् (arthavaan.h) - one with money - OnlineSktDict

• अर्थशास्त्र (arthashaastra)
Skt: अर्थशास्त्र (arthashaastra) - ecomonics - OnlineSktDict

• अर्थस्य (arthasya)
Skt: अर्थस्य (arthasya) - (masc.poss.sing.) wealth or meaning - OnlineSktDict

• अर्थार्थी (arthaarthii)
Skt: अर्थार्थी (arthaarthii) - one who desires material gain - OnlineSktDict

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p018b3

• अर्थियं (arthiyaM) 
Skt: अर्थियं (arthiyaM) - meant - OnlineSktDict

• अर्थे (arthe)
Skt: अर्थे (arthe) - in meaning - OnlineSktDict

• अर्थोपार्जनाय (arthopaarjanaaya)
Skt: अर्थोपार्जनाय (arthopaarjanaaya)  - for earning money - OnlineSktDict

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{čr~Da.} अर्ध
p018b3-2

• अर्ध (ardha) = अ र ् ध
Skt: अर्ध (ardha) - half - OnlineSktDict

• अर्धगोल (ardhagola)
Skt: अर्धगोल (ardhagola) - semicricle, dome - OnlineSktDict

• अर्धचन्द्रासन (ardhachandraasana) 
Skt: अर्धचन्द्रासन (ardhachandraasana) - the half-moon posture - OnlineSktDict

See my note on Half-moon posture .

• अर्धनवासन (ardhanavaasana) 
Skt: अर्धनवासन (ardhanavaasana) - the half-boat posture - OnlineSktDict

See my note on Half-boat posture

• अर्धनारीनटेश्वर (ardhanaariinaTeshvara) 
Skt: अर्धनारीनटेश्वर (ardhanaariinaTeshvara) - Shiva and his Shakti united as one - OnlineSktDict

See my note on Shiva and his Shakti .

• अर्धनारीश्वर (ardhanaarishvara)
Skt: अर्धनारीश्वर (ardhanaarishvara) - Shiva and his Shakti united as one - OnlineSktDict

• अर्धनिचोलः (ardhanicholaH)
Skt: अर्धनिचोलः (ardhanicholaH) - (m) frock - OnlineSktDict

¤ अर्ध-शुल्बीय   ardha-śulbīya   n.   bisulphate  

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p018b4

• अर्धपद्मासन (ardhapadmaasana) 
Skt: अर्धपद्मासन (ardhapadmaasana) - the half- lotus posture - OnlineSktDict

See my note on Half-lotus posture

• अर्धमत्स्येन्द्रासन (ardhamatsyendraasana) 
Skt: अर्धमत्स्येन्द्रासन (ardhamatsyendraasana) - the half spinal-twist posture - OnlineSktDict

See my note on Half-spinal-twist-posture

• अर्धशिर्षासन (ardhashirshhaasana) 
Skt: अर्धशिर्षासन (ardhashirshhaasana) - the half headstand posture - OnlineSktDict

See my note on Half-headstand posture

 

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p019top

• अर्धसर्वाङ्गासन (ardhasarvaa.ngaasana) 
Skt: अर्धसर्वाङ्गासन (ardhasarvaa.ngaasana) - the half-shoulderstand posture - OnlineSktDict

See Half-shoulderstand posture

• अर्धसलभासन (ardhasalabhaasana) 
Skt: अर्धसलभासन (ardhasalabhaasana) - the half-locust posture - OnlineSktDict

See my note on Half-locust posture

• अर्धोरुक (ardhoruka)
Skt: अर्धोरुक (ardhoruka) - (n) half-pant - OnlineSktDict

• अर्धोरुकम् (ardhorukam.h)
Skt: अर्धोरुकम् (ardhorukam.h) - (n) half-pant, shorts - OnlineSktDict

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{čr~pa.} अर्प
p019top-2

• अर्पण (arpaNa)
Skt: अर्पण (arpaNa) - Offer - OnlineSktDict

• अर्पणं (arpaNaM)
Skt: अर्पणं (arpaNaM) - contribution - OnlineSktDict

• अर्पित (arpita)
Skt: अर्पित (arpita) - surrendering - OnlineSktDict

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{čr~Ba.} अर्भ
p019top-3

• अर्भक (arbhaka)
Skt: अर्भक (arbhaka) - small - OnlineSktDict

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{čr~ya.} अर्य
p019top-4

• अर्यमा (aryamaa) -
Skt: अर्यमा (aryamaa) - Aryama  - OnlineSktDict

See my note on Aryama - Surya aka Sun God.

 

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{čr~ha.} अर्ह
p019top-5

• अर्ह (arha)
Skt: अर्ह (arha) - deserving - OnlineSktDict

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p019b1

• अर्हता (arhataa)
= अ र ् ह त ा
Skt: अर्हता (arhataa) - (f) qualification - OnlineSktDict

• अर्हति (arhati)
Skt: अर्हति (arhati) - (1 pp) to deserve - OnlineSktDict

• अर्हसि (arhasi)
Skt: अर्हसि (arhasi) - deserve - OnlineSktDict

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UKT notes

Arjuna

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arjuna 100224

Arjuna or Arjun (अर्जुन arjuna , pronounced [ɐrɟunɐ] in classical Sanskrit) is one [third] of the Pandavas, the heroes of the Hindu epic Mahābhārata. Arjuna[1], whose name means 'bright', 'shining', 'white' or 'silver' (cf. Latin argentum), was such a peerless archer that he is often referred to as Jishnu - the undefeatable. The third of the five Pandava brothers, Arjuna was one of the children borne by Kunti, the first wife of Pandu. Arjuna is considered to be an incarnation of Nara, the younger brother of Narayana.[2][3] He is sometimes referred to as the 'fourth Krishna' of the Mahabharata.[4] One of his most important roles was as the dear friend and brother-in-law of Lord Krishna, from whom he heard the Bhagavad Gita before the battle of Kurukshetra.

Life

Arjuna was an ambidextrous master archer and played a central role in the conflict between the Pandavas and their adversaries, the sons of Dhritarashtra known as the Kauravas. Arjuna was reluctant to take part in the battle because of the slaughter he knew he would cause in the enemy ranks, which included many of his own relatives. He was persuaded by his charioteer and close friend, Lord Krishna, to change his mind. [UKT ¶]

Their dialogue about issues related to the war — courage, a warrior’s duty, the nature of human life and the soul, and the role of gods, forms the subject of the Bhagavad Gita, one of the key episodes in the epic Mahābhārata. He also played a key role in the killing of Karna, his arch-rival, in reality an unknown brother, on the side of the Kauravas. He bears an additional eleven names: Kounteya, Phalguna, Jishnu, Kireeti, Shwetavaahana, Vheebhatsu, Vijaya, Pārtha, Savyasaachi, Dhananjaya and Parthiba.

...

Ulupi: While Arjuna was in Manipur , Ulupi, a Naga princess of noble character, became infatuated with him. She drugged him and abducted him to her realm in the netherworld that he might become her husband, but later restored Arjuna to the lamenting Chitrāngadā. Uloopi played a very major part in the upbringing of Babruvāhana and had much influence with him; he allowed her to restore Arjuna to life after he was slain in battle by Babruvāhana. One son was born to them and was named Iravan. Iravan died in the Kurukshetra War.

UKT: Manipur has a common border with Myanmar. The part of Myanmar closest to Manipur is the area of Yaw - the supposed home of wizards, witches and medicinal healers.

...

During the time of Pandava exile into woods, Arjuna left his other brothers and embarked on a journey to the Himalayas to meditate upon lord Shiva. He obtained celestial weapons from Shiva. From there he was taken by Indra into the domains of Devas (assumed to be in Tibet , beyond the Yaksha and Gandharva territories surrounding Kailas range and Manasa lake). He took part in several wars that took place in this region between Devas and a group of Asuras called Nivatakavachas. Arjuna is mentioned as helping Devas to fight against the Nivatakavachas (who dwells near the sea). A lengthy passage (Mbh 3. 166 to 3. 173) mentions how Arjuna went into the wonderful cities in the enemy territory and raided an Asura city named Hiranyapura, destroying it.

After the Kurukshetra War, Arjuna set for yet another expedition, for collecting tribute for king Yudhisthira's Ashwamedha sacrifice (MBh 14.82 to 14.87).

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

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Aryaman - Surya aka Sun God

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aryaman 100224

Aryaman (अर्यमन्, pronounced as "əryəmən"; nominative singular is aryamā) is one of the early Vedic deities (devas). His name signifies "bosom friend". He is an Aditya, a solar deity. He is supposed to be the chief of the manes [UKT: Spirits of the Dead -- AHTD] and the Milky Way is supposed to be his path.

Solar deity - excerpt from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_deity 100224
   A solar deity (also sun god(dess)) is a deity who represents the sun, or an aspect of it, usually by its perceived power and strength. Solar deities and sun worship can be found through-out most of recorded history in various forms. Hence, many beliefs have formed around this worship, such as the "missing sun" found in many cultures (see below). ...
   In Japanese mythology, the sun goddess Amaterasu is angered by the behavior of her brother, Susanoo, and hides in a cave, plunging the world into darkness until she is willing to emerge.
UKT: More in the original Wikipedia article.

Aryaman is another name for Surya or the Sun God. It stands for the dutiful nature of Sun in keeping his dharma of controlling time. Aryama is the culmination of two dhaatus: Aha and Yama. Aha means a unit of time and Yama stands for controller. As the creator of day and night, Aryama (Sun) controls the movement of time. In being duty bound to this activity, Sun provides us an example of being duty bound and being objective. The Hindu marriage oaths are administered with an invocation to Aryama being the witness to the event.

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Half-boat posture

From: http://yoga.about.com/b/2008/07/27/half-boat-pose-is-the-yoga-pose-of-the-week.htm 100513

In this half version of boat pose, the legs are bent at the knee rather than extended as in the full version. Why would you choose to do the half version? Well, it's a bit easier to keep the spine straight and the body balanced on the sit bones when your legs are bent. It's great to work towards straightening the legs, but don't do it if it causes you to slump or if you can't keep them up in a nice V shape. Over time, doing half boat will help strengthen the abs enough to do the full pose.

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Half- headstand-posture
Head Stand (Sirshasana)

From: http://www.abc-of-yoga.com/yogapractice/theheadstand.asp 100513

During the practice of Yoga exercises, we not only relax the muscles but we also build up strength, structure and stability in the right spots. In Head Stand, you build up power and structure in both the neck and the upper back and at the same time, you train your arm muscles and coordination. Likewise, standing in good alignment with your body upside down also has a calming effect on your thinking.

STEP 1: Stand on your knees on your Yoga Mat. Twine your hands together and keep some distance between the hand palms as if you are holding a tennis ball in the basin of both hands.

STEP 2: The shoulders will form the basis of the Head Stand. Try to let your upper arms "interlock" with the shoulder blades so that they support the shoulders. Let your upper back sink down and stretch your neck out from the crown. Raise your knees.

STEP 3: Support yourself on your lower arms and walk inwards until you have your back straight.

STEP 4: Step in with one leg and bring your crown to the floor and jump up one leg at a time. Push your wrists against the floor. There is hardly any weight on your elbows and as much weight as possible on your crown.

STEP 5: Stand perpendicular on your head and try to place your hips, chest and your legs in such a way that your upper back does not form a bump and your neck does not get sunken. Also, see to it that you do not let the center of gravity fall in your lower back instead of your upper back with the result that you clench the muscles of your lower back.

STEP 6: Focus on a point in front of you. Breathe in and out quietly and try to get completely still and experience the exercise in a meditative way.

Without the correct way of jumping up, it is practically impossible to stand in the Headstand in the right way. Likewise, when you jump up correctly, you will get the most out of this exercise. The neck is sensitive and when you are aligned incorrectly in the Headstand, you can easily get injured. Build up this exercise quietly and, if possible, practice the exercise a few times under the supervision of an experienced Yoga teacher. A safe alternative for this pose is standing on your head on a special Yoga Head Stand stool.

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Half-locust posture
and Full-locust posture

From: http://yoga108.org/pages/show/102 100514

Introduction

Shalabhasana, the locust, is the seventh of the 12 basic postures of hatha yoga, and the second of the three back-strengthening exercises that are part of a normal hatha yoga class. The main benefits of the locust are to build strength and flexibility in the back. The locust is the counter-stretch to the shoulder stand, the plough, and the seated forward bend. Before beginning the locust, the resting posture is done by laying on the stomach instead of the back.

Physical benefits

• Builds strength in the muscles of the lower back • Increases flexibility in the back • Especially recommended for relieving sciatica and pain in the lower back • Massages the internal organs • Improves digestion • Strengthens the arms and shoulders

Energetic (Pranic) benefits

• Stimulates swadhisthana chakra • Increases the digestive fire

Mental benefits

• Improves concentration

Technique:

1. Before beginning, rest on the stomach, your hands making a pillow under your head, one cheek resting on your hands. The toes should be touching together with the heels falling apart. Breathe deeply in this position, feeling your abdomen pressing into the floor on every inhale, relaxing your body a little bit more on every exhale. Between each of the back-strengthening exercises, be sure to alternate the side of your head resting on your hands so that both sides of your neck receive an equal relaxation.

There are two phases to shalabhasana during a yoga class. The first phase is called the half locust, where each leg is lifted and held one at a time. Following this is the full locust where both legs are lifted together. The half locust is a preparatory exercise for the full locust, strengthening and helping to warm up the muscles of the back.

The Half-locust

2. Bring your arms underneath your body with your elbows as close together as possible. The hands can be resting flat with the palms facing up or down, or you can make fists in any direction. While any hand variation is acceptable, palms facing down will give you the most strength in the arms and is generally recommended, however, it requires more shoulder flexibility to come all the way up into the posture.
• Bring your legs together on the mat.
• Rest your chin on the mat in front of you.

3. Inhale and lift your right leg as high as you comfortably can. Be sure to keep your hips parallel to each other and do not push into the floor with the left leg.
• You should feel that the muscles along the right side of the back are doing the work.
• Hold this position for 5-30 seconds as you continue to breathe.
• Exhale and release the right leg down to the mat.
• Relax the muscles of the right side of the body for several breaths.

4. Next, inhale and lift the left leg as high as you can. Keep your hips parallel to each other, not pushing into the floor with the right leg.
• You should feel that the muscles along the left side of the back are working very hard.
• Hold this position for 5-30 seconds while you continue to breathe.
• Exhale and release the leg down to the mat.
• Relax the muscles of the left side of the body and take several breaths.
• The half locust can be repeated before going on the full locust.

The Full-locust

The full locust begins the same way as the half locust.
• Readjust your arms underneath your body as described above with your elbows as close together as possible using your preferred hand position.
• Bring your legs together on the mat.
• Rest your chin on the mat in front of you.

5. Take three deep and controlled breaths and on the third inhale lift both legs as high as you can. Be sure to lift your legs with control. During a class with an AYA teacher, or another teacher trained in the Sivananda tradition, instructions will be given so that all the yogis take their three breaths together, everyone coming up into the posture at the same time.
• While in the asana be sure to keep your chin stretched out on the mat in front of you. Do not bend the legs at the knees too much. Keep the hips parallel to the floor and the hands together underneath the body.
• To help bring the legs up higher you can push with the arms. Normally the legs should come up about 2-3 feet off the ground. Sometimes the hips will lift a few inches off the ground as well.
• Hold the posture for 10 seconds at first, working up to 30 seconds or more. Do not hold your breath in this posture.

To come out of the locust exhale and with control bring the legs back down to the mat. Relax and breathe deeply.

Contra-indications

Do not practice shalabhasana if you are pregnant.

Advanced variations

Once the normal full locust posture is mastered and you are able to lift your legs to a 45 degree angle from the floor, it is possible to continue with more advanced variations. #6 and #7.

In the full locust posture with high legs, the body is in the exact opposite position of the shoulderstand.

Once you can hold the locust with high legs, bend the knees and relax, letting the feet gradually come down until they are resting on top of the head.

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Half-lotus posture
and Full-lotus posture

Half-lotus pose from: http://yoga.about.com/od/yogaposes/a/halflotus.htm 100513

Type of pose: Seated.
Benefits: Hip opener.

Instructions:

1. From staff pose – dandasana, bend the right knee and bring the right ankle to the left hip crease with the sole of the right foot facing upwards.

2. Settle the foot into the hip crease.

3. Bend the left knee and cross the left ankle under the right hip knee in a comfortable, cross-legged position.

4. Repeat, with the left foot on the bottom and the right foot on top. One side will probably feel easier, but try to do both sides whenever you sit in the pose for some time.

Advanced: When the hips begin to open, attempt full lotus.

Full-lotus pose from: http://www.santosha.com/padma.html 100513

The Sanskrit word padma means lotus. Besides the obvious reference to the similarity of the folded legs to lotus petals, the lotus hold special significance in reference to Yoga and Meditation. Though rooted in the mud, the lotus blossom rises above to blossom in the sun. Although it grows in pools of water the leaves of the lotus always remain dry. The symbolism of the lotus points to the purity of consciousness and the journey of transformation from ignorance to awakening.

Pronunciation: pad-mah-sa-na
Difficulty: (2-6) depending on flexibility of legs

"Place the right foot on the left thigh and the left foot on the right thigh...with the soles upward, and place the hands on the thighs, with the palms upwards...This is called Padma-asana, the destroyer of all diseases. It is difficult of attainment by everybody, but can be learned by intelligenThe Hatha-Yoga-Pradipika I.46-49

Instruction

1. Sit on the floor with legs stretched out straight in front.

2. Bend the right knee and grasp the right foot with both hands and place it on top of the left thigh bringing the heel as close to the navel as possible.

3. Bend the left knee and grasp the left foot with both hands and place it on top of the right thigh bringing the heel as close to the navel as possible.

4. Both knees should be on the ground and the soles of the feet are pointed upward. The spine is held straight but not rigid.

5. The position of the legs may be switched after a period of time if the posture becomes uncomfortable.

Comments

When in the padma-asana the hands can be placed in one of the following three positions:

1. Place one hand on top of the other, both palms up, and rest the hands on the heels (this is known as the dhyana-mudra). This variation is recommended for meditation.
2. Place the hands on the knees, palms down.
3. With palms up, place the hands on the knees, form a circle with the thumb and forefinger and extend the remaining fingers straight ahead (this is known as the chin-mudra). Recommended for pranayama (Yogic breathing).

The padma-asana facilitates relaxation, concentration and ultimately, meditation. The posture creates a natural balance throughout the body/mind. When the knees are stretched enough to remain in the padma-asana without discomfort the posture creates a feeling of effortlessness and ease that will soothe the nervous system, quiet the mind and bring about the condition of one-pointedness.

Durations/Repetitions:

The length of time to sit in the padma-asana depends on your intention. In the course of a typical asana routine you might hold it for several minutes or until you experience discomfort in the legs. When used as a meditation posture you hold it for the duration of the meditation.

Variations:

If you find the padma-asana difficult or painful, can try the ardha padma-asana variation or half lotus posture (ardha means half). Instead of placing both feet on the thighs, only one foot is place on top of the opposite thigh and the other is place under the opposite thigh. Periodically alternate positions to allow both knees to be stretched. Those who are unable to do either variation of this asana comfortably should practice the baddha kona-asana.

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Half-moon posture

From Yoga Journal http://www.yogajournal.com/poses/784 100513

The moon has a rich symbolic significance in yoga mythology. In hatha yoga, for example, the sun and the moon represent the two polar energies of the human body. In fact, the word hatha itself is often divided into its two constituent syllables, "ha" and "tha", which are then esoterically interpreted as signifying the solar and lunar energies respectively.

(are-dah chan-DRAHS-anna)
ardha = half
candra = glittering, shining, having the brilliancy or hue of light (said of the gods); usually translated as "moon"

Step by step

1. Perform Utthita Trikonasana to the right side, with your left hand resting on the left hip. Inhale, bend your right knee, and slide your left foot about 6 to 12 inches forward along the floor. At the same time, reach your right hand forward, beyond the little-toe side of the right foot, at least 12 inches.

2. Exhale, press your right hand and right heel firmly into the floor, and straighten your right leg, simultaneously lifting the left leg parallel (or a little above parallel) to the floor. Extend actively through the left heel to keep the raised leg strong. Be careful not to lock (and so hyperextend) the standing knee: make sure the kneecap is aligned straight forward and isn't turned inward.

3. Rotate your upper torso to the left, but keep the left hip moving slightly forward. Most beginners should keep the left hand on the left hip and the head in a neutral position, gazing forward.

4. Bear the body's weight mostly on the standing leg. Press the lower hand lightly to the floor, using it to intelligently regulate your balance. Lift the inner ankle of the standing foot strongly upward, as if drawing energy from the floor into the standing groin. Press the sacrum and scapulas firmly against the back torso, and lengthen the coccyx toward the raised heel.

5. Stay in this position for 30 seconds to 1 minute. Then lower the raised leg to the floor with an exhalation, and return to Trikonasana. Then perform the pose to the left for the same length of time.

Anatomical focus

• Ankles • Calves • Thighs • Knees • Groins • Shoulders • Chest • Spine • Abdomen

Therapeutic applications

• Anxiety • Backache • Osteoporosis • Sciatica • Fatigue • Constipation • Gastritis • Indigestion • Menstrual pain

Benefits

• Strengthens the abdomen, ankles, thighs, buttocks, and spine • Stretches the groins, hamstrings and calves, shoulders, chest, and spine • Improves coordination and sense of balance • Helps relieve stress • Improves digestion

UKT: More in the original article.

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Half-shoulder stand posture

From: http://www.yogabasics.com/inversions/half-shoulder-stand.html 100514

Instructions

1. Lying on your back with the arms along side the body with the palms down, bend the knees and kick and rock the legs up and back, bringing the bent knees to the forehead and placing the hands under the hips.

2. Cupping the hips like you are holding a big bowl of fruit, begin to lift the legs up, straightening them over your head. Support the weight of the body with the arms and the shoulders, having very little or no weight in the head and neck.

3. Find a position where you can balance the legs over the head and relax the leg muscles, using as little effort as possible to be still.

4. Breathe and hold 4-10 breaths.

5. To release: bend the knees back to the head, and carefully and slowly roll the spine back onto the floor. Breathe and hold for 2-4 breaths.

Benefits:

Half Shoulder Stand improves the circulation of blood and lymph, stimulates the thyroid and activates the immune system.

Contraindications:

Recent or chronic shoulder, neck or back injury or inflammation, unmedicated high blood pressure, menstruation, pregnancy (after 1st trimester).

Modifications:

Use a folded blanket under the shoulders.

Variations:

This pose is a variation of full Shoulder Stand pose.

Vinyasa

Use one or more of the following postures to build a sequence leading up to this pose: Bridge, Belly Twist.

Use one or more of the following postures to build a sequence ending after this pose: Wind Relieving pose, Joyful Baby, Plow.

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Half Spinal Twist (Ardha Matsyendrasana)

From: http://www.abc-of-yoga.com/yogapractice/halfspinaltwist.asp 100513

The Spinal Twist Yoga Pose, which takes its Sanskrit name from the great Yogic Sage Matsyendra, is one of the few Yoga Poses in the Basic Session that rotates the spine. Most bend the spinal column either backward or forward, but to become truly flexible it must be twisted laterally as well. The movement also tones the spinal nerves and ligaments, and improves digestion. Keep your spine erect and your shoulders leveled in the position. Breathe steadily. Twist a little more each time you exhale. Twist first to the left, as below, then repeat the sequence twisting to the right.

STEP 1: Kneel and sit on your feet with your heels pointing outward.

STEP 2: Then sit to the right of your feet, as illustrated.

STEP 3: Lift your left leg over your right, placing the foot against the outside of the right knee. Bring your right heel in close to your buttocks. Keep the spine erect.

STEP 4: Stretch your arms out to the sides at shoulder level, and twist around to the left.

STEP 5: Now bring the right arm down on the outside of the left knee and hold your left foot with your right hand, placing your left hand on the floor behind you. As you exhale, twist as far as possible to the left. Look over the left shoulder.

The Half-Spinal Twist or Ardha Matsyendrasana prepares the body for the full Yoga Posture. It is advisable to practice this pose under the supervision of a Yoga instructor.

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Shiva and Shakti :
the marriage of

From: http://www.mahashivratri.org/marriage-of-shiva-and-shakti.html 100114
Legends from Mahashivaratri Legends :
Marriage of Shiva and Shakti • Samudra Manthan • Legend of Shiva Linga
The Legend of Lubdhaka • The Legend of Ganga • Lord Shiva's Assurance

The legend of marriage of Shiva and Shakti is one the most important legends related to the festival of Mahashivaratri. The story tells us how Lord Shiva got married a second time to Shakti, his divine consort. According to legend of Shiva and Shakti, the day Lord Shiva got married to Parvati is celebrated as Shivaratri - the Night of Lord Shiva.

The Legend

Legend goes that once Lord Shiva and his wife Sati or Shakti were returning from sage Agastya’s ashram after listening to Ram Katha or story of Ram. On their way through a forest, Shiva saw Lord Rama searching for his wife Sita who had been kidnapped by Ravana, the King of Lanka. Lord Shiva bowed his head in reverence to Lord Rama. Sati was surprised by Lord Shiva’s behavior and inquired why he was paying obeisance to a mere mortal. Shiva informed Sati that Rama was an incarnation of Lord Vishnu. Sati, however, was not satisfied with the reply and Lord asked her to go and verify the truth for herself.

Using her power to change forms, Sati took the form of Sita appeared before Rama. Lord Rama immediately recognized the true identity of the Goddess and asked, "Devi, why are you alone, where's Shiva?" At this, Sati realized the truth about Lord Ram. But, Sita was like a mother to Lord Shiva and since Sati took the form of Sita her status had changed. From that time, Shiva detached himself from her as a wife. Sati was sad with the change of attitude of Lord Shiva but she stayed on at Mount Kailash, the abode of Lord Shiva.

Later, Sati’s father Daksha organised a yagna, but did not invite Sati or Shiva as he had an altercation with Shiva in the court of Brahma. But, Sati who wanted to attend the Yagna, went even though Lord Shiva did not appreciate the idea. To her great anguish, Daksha ignored her presence and did not even offer Prasad for Shiva. Sati felt humiliated and was struck with profound grief. She jumped into the yagna fire and immolated herself.

Lord Shiva became extremely furious when he heard the news of Sati’s immolation. Carrying the body of Sati, Shiva began to perform Rudra Tandava or the dance of destruction and wiped out the kingdom of Daksha. Everybody was terrified as Shiva’s Tandava had the power to destroy the entire universe. In order to calm Lord Shiva, Vishnu severed Sati's body into 12 pieces and threw them on earth. It is said that wherever the pieces of Shakti’s body fell, there emerged a Shakti Peetha, including the Kamaroopa Kamakhya in Assam and the Vindhyavasini in UP.

Lord Siva was now alone undertook rigorous penance and retired to the Himalayas. Sati took a re-birth as Parvati in the family of God Himalaya. She performed penance to break Shiva’s meditation and win his attention. It is said that Parvati, who found it hard to break Shiva’s meditation seeked help of Kamadeva - the God of Love and Passion. Kaamadeva asked Parvati to dance in front of Shiva. When Parvati danced, Kaamadeva shot his arrow of passion at Shiva breaking his penance. Shiva became extremely infuriated and opening his third eye that reduced Kaamadeva to ashes. It was only after Kamadeva’s wife Rati’s pleading that Lord Shiva agreed to revive Kaamadeva.

Later, Parvati undertook severe penance to win over Shiva. Through her devotion and persuasion by sages devas, Parvati, also known as Uma, was finally able to lure Shiva into marriage and away from asceticism. Their marriage was solemnized a day before Amavasya in the month of Phalgun. This day of union of God Shiva and Parvati is celebrated as Mahashivratri every year.

Another Version of the Legend

According to another version of the legend, Goddess Parvati performed tapas and prayers on the auspicious moonless night of Shivaratri to ward off any evil that may befall her husband. Since then, womenfolk began the custom of praying for the well being of their husbands and sons on Shivaratri day. Unmarried women pray for a husband like Shiva, who is considered to be the ideal husband.

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