Update: 2011-09-22 08:46 AM +0800


Sanskrit English Dictionary


from: Online Sanskrit Dictionary, February 12, 2003 . http://sanskritdocuments.org/dict/dictall.pdf  090907

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{a.pa.} अप
{a.pa} अपा
{a.pi.} अपि
{a.pi} अपी
{a.pu.} अपु
{a.pRi.} अपृ
{a.pι} अपे
{a.pθ:} अपै
{a.pau:} अपो
{a.pya.} अप्य
{a.pra.} अप्र
{a.pra} अप्रा
{a.pri.} अप्रि
{ϋp~tha.} अप्स
{ϋp~thu.} अप्सु
{a.hpa.} अफ

UKT notes
• Apsara

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{a.pa.} अप
not entered in OnlineSktDict

अप  apa
Skt:  prefix  off, away - SpkSkt
Pal: apa अप adv. prep.  away, from - UPMT-PED018
Pal: {a.pa.} - UHS-PMD0085

ontents of this page


• अपकृ (apakRi)
= अ प क ृ .
Skt: अपकृ (apakRi) - to harm - OnlineSktDict
  Pronounced as  / /{a.pa.kRi.} - NOT /{a.pa.kyi.}/ , NOR /{a.pa.kri.}/.

• अपकेन्दण (apakendraNa)
Skt: अपकेन्दण (apakendraNa) - centrifugation - OnlineSktDict

€ अपकीर्ति { ङ्व्षूुरेच्व् } apakīrti { ṅvṣūurecv}
Skt: अपकीर्ति { ङ्व्षूुरेच्व् } apakīrti { ṅvṣūurecv}  f.  infamy - SpkSkt

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• अपङ्ग (apa.nga)
Skt: अपङ्ग (apa.nga) - handicapped - OnlineSktDict

€ अपचेतयति { अप- चित् }  apacetayati {apa- cit} 
Skt: अपचेतयति { अप- चित् }  apacetayati {apa- cit}  v.caus.  desert - SpkSkt

• अपची (apachii)
Skt: अपची (apachii) - to decrease - OnlineSktDict

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• अपठम् (apaTham.h)
Skt: अपठम् (apaTham.h) - read - OnlineSktDict

• अपण्डित (apaNDita)
Skt: अपण्डित (apaNDita) - someone who is not a scholar - OnlineSktDict

€ अपयशस्   apayaśas  
Skt: अपयशस्   apayaśas   n.   infamy - SpkSkt

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• अपत्य (apatya)
Skt: अपत्य (apatya) - Progeny - OnlineSktDict

• अपनुद्यात् (apanudyaat.h)
Skt: अपनुद्यात् (apanudyaat.h) - can drive away - OnlineSktDict

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• अपमा (apamaa)
Skt: अपमा (apamaa) - comparison - OnlineSktDict

• अपमानयोः (apamaanayoH)
Skt: अपमानयोः (apamaanayoH) - and dishonour - OnlineSktDict

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• अपर (apara)
Skt: अपर (apara) - other - OnlineSktDict
Pal: apara  adj.  other, subsequent, western  - UPMT-PED019

• अपरं (aparaM)
Skt: अपरं (aparaM) - junior - OnlineSktDict

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• अपररात्र (apararaatra)
Skt: अपररात्र (apararaatra) - (m) dawn - OnlineSktDict

• अपरस्पर (aparaspara)
Skt: अपरस्पर (aparaspara) - without cause - OnlineSktDict

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• अपरा (aparaa)
Skt: अपरा (aparaa) - lower - OnlineSktDict

• अपराजितः (aparaajitaH)
Skt: अपराजितः (aparaajitaH) - who had never been vanquished - OnlineSktDict

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• अपराजीत (aparaajiita)
Skt: अपराजीत (aparaajiita) - Unconquered - OnlineSktDict

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• अपराणि (aparaaNi)
Skt: अपराणि (aparaaNi) - others - OnlineSktDict

• अपरान् (aparaan.h)
Skt: अपरान् (aparaan.h) - others - OnlineSktDict

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• अपरिग्रह (aparigraha)
Skt: अपरिग्रह (aparigraha) - abstention from greed, non-possessiveness - OnlineSktDict

• अपरिग्रहः (aparigrahaH)
Skt: अपरिग्रहः (aparigrahaH) - free from the feeling of possessiveness - OnlineSktDict

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• अपरिमेयं (aparimeyaM)
Skt: अपरिमेयं (aparimeyaM) - immeasurable - OnlineSktDict

• अपरिहार्ये (aparihaarye)
Skt: अपरिहार्ये (aparihaarye) - of that which is unavoidable - OnlineSktDict

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• अपर्याप्तं (aparyaaptaM) = अ प र ् य ा प ् त ं
Skt: अपर्याप्तं (aparyaaptaM) - immeasurable - OnlineSktDict

• अपलायनं (apalaayanaM)
Skt: अपलायनं (apalaayanaM) - not fleeing - OnlineSktDict

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• अपवर्ग (apavarga)
Skt: अपवर्ग (apavarga) - heaven, liberation - OnlineSktDict

• अपवहनं (apavahanaM)
Skt: अपवहनं (apavahanaM) - seducetion - OnlineSktDict

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• अपवाद (apavaada)
Skt: अपवाद (apavaada) - exceptional - OnlineSktDict

• अपविघ्नः (apavighnaH)
= अ प व ि घ ् न ः
Skt: अपविघ्नः (apavighnaH) - without obstacles - OnlineSktDict

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• अपश्यत् (apashyat.h)
Skt: अपश्यत् (apashyat.h) - he could see - OnlineSktDict

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• अपस्मार (apasmaara)
Skt: अपस्मार (apasmaara) - forgetful - OnlineSktDict

• अपस्मारः (apasmaaraH) 
Skt: अपस्मारः (apasmaaraH) - m. epilepsy - OnlineSktDict
Pal: apamāra - m. epilepsy - UPMT-PEDict018
Pal: apasmāra - m. epilepsy - UPMT-PEDict019
Pal: {a.paώ~ma-ra.} - UHS-PMDict0091

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• अपहरण (apaharaNa)
Skt: अपहरण (apaharaNa) - stealing - OnlineSktDict
*Pal: apahāra - m. (√har) taking away - UPMT-PED019
*Pal: {a.pa.ha-ra.} - - UHS-PMD0091

• अपहरणं (apaharaNaM)
Skt: अपहरणं (apaharaNaM) - abduction, kidnapping - OnlineSktDict

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• अपहर्तारं (apahartaaraM)
Skt: अपहर्तारं (apahartaaraM) - the remover, destroyer - OnlineSktDict

€ अपहन्ति { अप - हन् }  apahanti { apa-han } 
Skt: अपहन्ति { अप - हन् }  apahanti { apa-han }  v.2  parry - SpkSkt

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• अपहृत (apahRita)
Skt: अपहृत (apahRita) - stolen - OnlineSktDict

• अपहृतचेतसां (apahRitachetasaaM)
Skt: अपहृतचेतसां (apahRitachetasaaM) - bewildered in mind - OnlineSktDict

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{a.pa} अपा
not entered in OnlineSktDict

€ अपाकशाक  apākaśāka
Skt:  n.  ginger  - SpkSkt
Pal: apākasāka  n.  green ginger  -  UPMT-PED019

UKT: SpkSkt 100511 gives the following in addition to above:
€ आर्द्रक  ārdraka  n.  ginger
€ शुण्ठी  śuṇṭhī  f.  dry ginger
€ चान्द्राख्य  cāndrākhya  n. fresh ginger
€ राहुच्छत्त्र  rāhucchattra  n. green ginger

• आपतति { आ- पत् }  āpatati {ā- pat}  v.1  appear  - SpkSkt

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• अपात्रेभ्यः (apaatrebhyaH) 
Skt: अपात्रेभ्यः (apaatrebhyaH) - to unworthy persons - OnlineSktDict

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• अपान (apaana)
Skt: अपान (apaana) - one of the vital airs, controls the elimination of bodily wastes - OnlineSktDict

• अपानं (apaanaM)
Skt: अपानं (apaanaM) - the air going downward - OnlineSktDict

• अपाने (apaane)
Skt: अपाने (apaane) - in the air which acts downward - OnlineSktDict

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• अपापो (apaapo)
Skt: अपापो (apaapo) - without sins - OnlineSktDict

• (apaayinaH)
Skt: (apaayinaH) - disappearing - OnlineSktDict

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• अपारा (apaaraa)
Skt: अपारा (apaaraa) - one who has no limits - OnlineSktDict

• अपावृतं (apaavRitaM)
Skt: अपावृतं (apaavRitaM) - wide open - OnlineSktDict

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{a.pi.} अपि

• अपि (api)
Skt: अपि (api) - also - OnlineSktDict
Pal: api  part.  also, even, though, merely; expresses interrogation  -  UPMT-PED020

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{a.pi} अपी

• अपीतेषु (apiiteshhu)
Skt: अपीतेषु (apiiteshhu) - (m.Loc.PI.) having not drunk (water) - OnlineSktDict

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{a.pu.} अपु

• अपुण्य (apuNya)
Skt: अपुण्य (apuNya) - vice - OnlineSktDict

• अपुनरावृत्तिं (apunaraavRittiM)
Skt: अपुनरावृत्तिं (apunaraavRittiM) - to liberation - OnlineSktDict

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• अपुष्प (apushhpa)
Skt: अपुष्प (apushhpa) - one without flowers - OnlineSktDict

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{a.pRi.} अपृ

• अपृथिव्योः (apRithivyoH)
Skt: अपृथिव्योः (apRithivyoH) - to the earth - OnlineSktDict

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{a.pι} अपे

• अपेक्ष् (apekSh.h)
Skt: अपेक्ष् (apekSh.h) - to expect - OnlineSktDict

• अपेक्षा (apekShaa)
Skt: अपेक्षा (apekShaa) - (f) expectation, hope - OnlineSktDict

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{a.pθ:} अपै

• अपैशुनं (apaishunaM)
Skt: अपैशुनं (apaishunaM) - aversion to fault-finding - OnlineSktDict

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{a.pau:} अपो

• अपोहनं (apohanaM)
Skt: अपोहनं (apohanaM) - forgetfulness - OnlineSktDict

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{a.pya.} अप्य

• अप्ययौ (apyayau)
Skt: अप्ययौ (apyayau) - disappearance - OnlineSktDict

€ अप्यस्ति { अपि- अस् }  apyasti {api- as }  
Skt: अप्यस्ति { अपि- अस् }  apyasti {api- as }   verb 2 +loc.   be in -- SpkSkt

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{a.pra.} अप्र

• अप्रकाशः (aprakaashaH)
Skt: अप्रकाशः (aprakaashaH) - darkness - OnlineSktDict

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• अप्रतिमप्रभाव (apratimaprabhaava)
Skt: अप्रतिमप्रभाव (apratimaprabhaava) - O immeasurable power - OnlineSktDict

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• अप्रतिष्ठं (apratishhThaM)
Skt: अप्रतिष्ठं (apratishhThaM) - without foundation - OnlineSktDict

• अप्रतिष्ठः (apratishhThaH)
Skt: अप्रतिष्ठः (apratishhThaH) - without any position - OnlineSktDict

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• अप्रतीकारं (apratiikaaraM)
Skt: अप्रतीकारं (apratiikaaraM) - without being resistant - OnlineSktDict

• अप्रदाय (apradaaya)
Skt: अप्रदाय (apradaaya) - without offering - OnlineSktDict

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• अप्रमेय (aprameya)
Skt: अप्रमेय (aprameya) - the un-understandable - OnlineSktDict

• अप्रमेयं (aprameyaM)
Skt: अप्रमेयं (aprameyaM) - immeasurable - OnlineSktDict

• अप्रमेयस्य (aprameyasya)
Skt: अप्रमेयस्य (aprameyasya) -  immeasurable - OnlineSktDict

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• अप्रवृत्तिः (apravRittiH)
Skt: अप्रवृत्तिः (apravRittiH) - inactivity - OnlineSktDict

UKT: I have always have a feeling that Sanskrit (an IE - Indo-European language) is more rhotic than Pali or more specifically the Pali-Myanmar we use in the country of Myanmar (which I presumed to be a Tibeto-Burman (Tib-Bur) language). However, because no sound-recording devices had been invented to record the ancient Pali and Sanskrit pronunciations, I will have to make use of the Pali-Latin and Sanskrit-Latin spellings to make the comparison. To confirm my suspicion I have compared Pali words and their equivalent Sanskrit words (transliterations). There are more r's in Sanskrit than in Pali. The following example, from Dhammapada, are taken from: http://www.theosociety.org/pasadena/dhamma/dhamglos.htm

€ अप्रमत्त  apramatta  adj.  vigilant  - SpkSkt 
€ अप्रमाद  apramāda  adj.  cautious - SpkSkt

• appamada 020 - vigilance, conscientiousness (Canto II) See SED-intro.htm

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{a.pra} अप्रा

• अप्राप्तत् (apraaptat.h) = अ प ् र ा प ् त त ्
Skt: अप्राप्तत् (apraaptat.h) - uttained, obtained - OnlineSktDict

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• अप्राप्य (apraapya)
Skt: अप्राप्य (apraapya) - failing to attain - OnlineSktDict

• अप्रामामाण्य (apraamaamaaNya)
Skt: अप्रामामाण्य (apraamaamaaNya) - Unjustified - OnlineSktDict

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{a.pri.} अप्रि

• अप्रियं (apriyaM)
Skt: अप्रियं (apriyaM) - the unpleasant - OnlineSktDict

• अप्रियः (apriyaH)
Skt: अप्रियः (apriyaH) - and the undesirable - OnlineSktDict

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{ϋp~ώa.}/{ϋp~tha.} अप्स
not entered in OnlineSktDict

UKT: Note in the following entry, in Skt-Dev <s> is given as स which is the equivalent of {ώa.}, and the conjunct is {p~ώa.}. However, in both Pal-Lat (UPMT) and Pal-Myan (UHS) , the conjunct is {c~hsa.}. In Skt-Dev, the POAs of the conjunct are bilabial and dental, and latter is given with a hissing sound. However in Pali, the conjunct is made up of palatals with no hissing sounds. This is an instance of Sanskrit speakers belonging to one group of languages - the IE, and Prakrit (Pali and Magadhi) speakers belonging to another group - the Tib-Bur. - UKT 110829

€ अप्सरस्  apsaras
= अ प ् स र स ्  
Skt: f.  nymph -- SpokenSkt.
Pal: अच्छरा accharā - f. a celestial nymph, the snapping of a finger. -- UPMT-PEDict006
Pal: {ic~hsa.ra} -- UHS-PMDict0016

See my note on Apsara


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{ϋp~ώu.}/{ϋt~thu.} अप्सु

• अप्सु (apsu)
Skt: अप्सु (apsu) - in water - OnlineSktDict

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{a.hpa.} अफ

• अफल (aphala)
Skt: अफल (aphala) - one without fruit - OnlineSktDict

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• अफलप्रेप्सुना (aphalaprepsunaa)
Skt: अफलप्रेप्सुना (aphalaprepsunaa) - by one without desire for fruitive result - OnlineSktDict

• अफलाकाङि्क्षभिः (aphalaakaa.nkShibhiH) (sp?)
Skt: अफलाकाङि्क्षभिः (aphalaakaa.nkShibhiH) - by those devoid of desire for result - OnlineSktDict

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UKT notes


From: Wikipedia : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apsara 100212

An Apsara (Skt: अप्सराः apsarāḥ, plural अप्सरसः apsarasaḥ, stem apsaras-, a feminine consonant stem), Apsara (អប្សរា) or Tep Apsar (ទេព​អប្សរ) in Khmer, (Pal.) Accharā or A Bố Sa La Tư (Vietnamese), Bidadari (Malay, Indonesian, and Tausug languages), Apson (Thai: อัปสร), also known as Vidhya Dhari, is a female spirit of the clouds and waters in Hindu and Buddhist mythology. Frequently encountered English translations of the word "Apsara" are "nymph," "celestial nymph," and "celestial maiden."

Apsaras are beautiful, supernatural girls: they appear as young women of great beauty and elegance who are proficient in the art of dancing. They are the wives of the Gandharvas, the court servants of Indra. They dance to the music made by their husbands, usually in the palaces of the gods, and entertain gods and fallen heroes. In their assignment as caretakers of fallen heroes, they may be compared to the valkyries of Norse mythology.

Apsaras are said to be able to change their shapes at will, and specially rule over the fortunes of gaming and gambling. Urvasi, Menaka, Rambha and Tilottama are the most famous among them. Apsaras are sometimes compared to the muses of ancient Greece, with each of the 26 Apsaras at Indra's court representing a distinct aspect of the performing arts. Apsaras are associated with water; thus, they may be compared to the nymphs, dryads and naiads of ancient Greece. They are also associated with fertility rites. In Hinduism, the lower Apsaras are sometimes regarded as nature spirits who may lure men to their deaths; in this respect they may be compared to the Slavic Rusalki or the Greek sirens.

UKT: The above 9 pix are from the Wikipedia article http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apsara 100212

Apsaras in ancient literature

The Rig Veda tells of an Apsara who is the wife of Gandharva; however, the Rig Veda also seems to allow for the existence of more than one Apsara. The only Apsara specifically named is Urvashi. An entire hymn deals with the colloquy between Urvashi and her mortal lover Pururavas. [1] Later Hindu scriptures allow for the existence of numerous Apsaras, who act as the handmaidens of Indra or as dancers at his celestial court.

In many of the stories related in the Mahabharata, Apsaras appear in important supporting roles. The epic contains several lists of the principal Apsaras, which lists are not always identical. Here is one such list, together with a description of how the celestial dancers appeared to the residents and guests at the court of the gods:

"Ghritachi and Menaka and Rambha and Purvachitti and Swayamprabha and Urvashi and Misrakeshi and Dandagauri and Varuthini and Gopali and Sahajanya and Kumbhayoni and Prajagara and Chitrasena and Chitralekha and Saha and Madhuraswana, these and others by thousands, possessed of eyes like lotus leaves, who were employed in enticing the hearts of persons practising rigid austerities, danced there. And possessing slim waists and fair large hips, they began to perform various evolutions, shaking their deep bosoms, and casting their glances around, and exhibiting other attractive attitudes capable of stealing the hearts and resolutions and minds of the spectators." [2]

Exploits of individual apsaras

The Mahabharata documents the exploits of individual Apsaras, such as Tilottama, who rescued the world from the rampaging asura brothers Sunda and Upasunda, and Urvashi, who attempted to seduce the hero Arjuna.

A story type or theme appearing over and over again in the Mahabharata is that of an Apsara sent to distract a sage or spiritual master from his ascetic practices. One story embodying this theme is that recounted by the epic heroine Shakuntala to explain her own parentage.[3] Once upon a time, the sage Viswamitra generated such intense energy by means of his asceticism that Indra himself became fearful. Deciding that the sage would have to be distracted from his penances, he sent the Apsara Menaka to work her charms. Menaka trembled at the thought of angering such a powerful ascetic, but she obeyed the god's order. As she approached Viswamitra, the wind god Vayu tore away her garments. Seeing her thus disrobed, the sage abandoned himself to lust. Nymph and sage engaged in sex for some time, during which Viswamitra's asceticism was put on hold. As a consequence, Menaka gave birth to a daughter, whom she abandoned on the banks of a river. That daughter was Shakuntala herself, the narrator of the story.

Natya Shastra, the principle work of dramatic theory for Sanskrit drama, lists the following apsaras: Manjukesi, Sukesi, Misrakesi, Sulochana, Saudamini, Devadatta, Devasena, Manorama, Sudati, Sundari, Vigagdha, Vividha, Budha, Sumala, Santati, Sunanda, Sumukhi, Magadhi, Arjuni, Sarala, Kerala, Dhrti, Nanda, Supuskala, Supuspamala and Kalabha.

In the visual arts

Images of Apsaras are found in several temples of ancient Java dating from the era of the Sailendra dynasty to that of the Majapahit empire. Usually they are not found as decorative motifs but as integral parts of a story in bas-relief, as for example at Borobudur, Mendut, Prambanan, Plaosan, and Penataran. At Borobudur apsaras are depicted as divinely beautiful celestial maidens, pictured either in standing or in flying positions, usually holding lotus blossoms, spreading flower petals, or waving celestial clothes as if they were wings enabling them to fly. The temple of Mendut near Borobudur depicted groups of devatas, divine beings flying in heaven, which included apsaras.

Traditionally apsaras are described as celestial maidens living in Indra's heaven (Kaιndran). They are well known for their special task: being sent to earth by Indra to seduce ascetics who by their severe practices may become more powerful than the gods. This theme occurs frequently in Javanese traditions, including the "Kakawin Arjunawiwaha", written by mpu Kanwa in 1030 during the reign of king Airlangga. The story tells that Arjuna, in order to defeat the giant Niwatakawaca, engaged in meditation and asceticism, whereupon Indra sent apsaras to seduce him. Arjuna, however, managed to conquer his lust and then to win the ultimate weapons from the gods to defeat the giant.

Later in the Javanese tradition the apsara was also called Hapsari, also known as Widodari (from Sanskirt word Vidhyadhari, vidhya: knowledge, dharya: having, bearer, or bringer) , and finally known as Bidadari in the modern Indonesian language. The Javanese Hindu-Buddhist tradition also influenced Bali. In Balinese dance the theme of celestial maidens often occurred. Dances such as Sanghyang Dedari and Legong depicted divine maidens in their own way. In the court of Mataram Sultanate the tradition of depicting heavenly maidens in dances still alive and well. The Javanese court dances of Bedhaya portray apsaras.

Apsaras in the art and architecture of Cambodia

Apsaras represent an important motif in the stone bas-reliefs of the Angkorian temples in Cambodia. Descriptions of the temples often distinguish between two types of depictions of female celestials: depictions of figures who are dancing or are poised to dance, which are called "Apsaras;" and depictions of figures who are standing still, facing forward, in the manner of temple guardians or custodians, which are called "Devatas." [4]

Carved apsaras are particularly common at Angkor Wat, the largest of the ancient Angkorian temples. Scholars have counted more than 1,860 at the 12th Century monument, some carved on pillars, some on walls, some high up on towers. A study published in 1927 by Sappho Marchal cataloged remarkable diversity of hair, headdresses, garments, stance, jewelry and decorative flowers, which Marchal concluded were based on real-life practices of the Angkor period. Some apsaras appear with arms around each other and seem to be greeting the viewer. “The devatas seem to epitomize all the elements of a refined elegance,” wrote Marchal. [5]

Khmer classical dance, the indigenous ballet-like performance art of Cambodia, is frequently called " Apsara Dance." This appellation reflects the belief that the Khmer classical dance of today is connected by an unbroken tradition to the dance practiced in the courts of the Angkorian monarchs, which in turn drew its inspiration from the mythological court of the gods and from its celestial dancers, the Apsaras.

Apsaras were also an important motif in the art of Champa, medieval Angkor's neighbor to the east along the coast of what is now central Vietnam. Especially noteworthy are the depictions of apsaras in the Tra Kieu Style of Cham art, a style which flourished in the 10th and 11th centuries A.D.

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