Update: 2011-09-22 11:08 AM +0800

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Sanskrit English Dictionary

a1k-thut-025b2-2.htm

from: Online Sanskrit Dictionary, February 12, 2003 . http://sanskritdocuments.org/dict/dictall.pdf  090907

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Before you go into the table of contents (TOC) it is worthwhile to look at the akshara matrix first.

{ak} अक्  - approx. /ćk/
{ak~ka.} अक्क
      The next entry ought to have been {ak~hka.} अक्ख .
    {ak~hka.}/ {ak~Sa.} अक्ष = अ क ् ष
      no entry in Monier-Williams as {ak~hka.} अक्ख
    {ak~hka.ka.}/ {ak~Sa.ka.} अक्षक 
    {ak~hka.ta.}/ {ak~Sa.ta.} अक्षत
    {ak~hka.da.}/ {ak~Sa.da.} अक्षद 
      {ak~hka.ma.}/ {ak~Sa.ma.} अक्षम
      {ak~hka.ya.}/ {ak~Sa.ya.} अक्षय
    {ak~hka.ra.}/ {ak~Sa.ra.} अक्षर
  {ak~hki.}/ {ak~Si.} अक्षि
{ak~ta.} अक्त
{ak~na.} अक्न
{ak~ra.} अक्र = अ क ् र or {a.kra.}
/ {ak~la.} अक्ल
/ {ak~lé} अक्ले

UKT notes
AkshamalaCycle of Jupiter (astrology) • Fricative-sibilant problem in Bur-Myan
Skt-Dev conjunct क्ष kṣSanskrit {ak~sa.} अक्ष and Pal-Myan {ak~hka.}
Vasistha
A word on free translation: Whenever, an entry is solely from UHS-PMD without any similar entry from UPMT-PED, I am giving my own free translation which I may have to change upon gaining new knowledge of the Pal-Myan language. -- UKT110621

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{ak} अक्  - approx. /ćk/
no entry in OnlineSktDict

¤ अक् ak = अ क ्
Skt: ak - ak cl. 1. P. akati, to move tortuously (like a snake) L
  # Cf. √ag and √ ańc - MonWilliWash
Pal: aka - m. one who walks crookedly, an evil action - UPMT-PED001

UKT: You'll notice that the vertical conjunct orthography sometimes found in OnlineSktDict is being replaced by horizontal construction like those in SpokenSktDict. In the next entry I have given both the horizontal and vertical for Myanmar.

 

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{ak~ka.} अक्क

¤ अक्का akkā
Skt: akkā -  akkā f. (Voc. akka Pāṇ.) a mother (used contemptuously)
  # N. of a woman ; [supposed to be a term of foreign origin, Lat. ācca.] - MonWilliWash
Pal: akkā - f. the mother - UPMT-PED002
Pal: not entd in UHS

UKT: {ak~ka.} अक्क ought to be followed by {ak~hka.} अक्ख . However in the Monier-Williams we see  kS अक्ष akṣa (the stand-in for {hka.}) preceding अक्ख {ak~hka.}.

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{ak~hka.}/  {ak~Sa.} अक्ष = अ क ् ष
not entd in OnlineSktDict

UKT note: Skt {ak~Sa.} अक्ष and Pal-Myan {ak~hka.}
   Remember क्ष = क ् ष is a Skt stand-in for Pal-Myan {hka.} and when it follows a vowel, it is split up into क ् ष followed by a substitution of ष by ख. This note of mine should be checked further. -- UKT110515

¤ अक्ष akṣa
Skt: अक्ष akṣa - m. axle - SpkSkt
Skt: akṣa 1 - ákṣa m. an axle, axis (in this sense also n. L.)
  # a wheel, car, cart
  # the beam of a balance or string which holds the pivot of the beam
  # a snake L # terrestrial latitude (cf. -karṇa, -bhā, -bhāga)
  # the collar-bone ŚBr # the temporal bone Yājń
  # N. of a measure (= 104 aṅgula) ; [Lat. axis # Gk. ? ;
    Old Germ. ahsa ; [Page 3, Column 1] Mod. Germ. āchse ; Lith. assis.] - MonWilliWash
Pal: akkha - m.  (√akkh) the axle of a wheel; a die; a snake; a lawsuit;
  the plant Terminalia bellerica ; the tical weight; a born-blind; the width of the earth;
  a controlling faculty; the salt of the sea; vitriol - UPMT-002
Pal: {ak~hka.} - - UHS-PMD0005

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{ak~hka.ka.}/ {ak~Sa.ka.} अक्षक = अ क ् ष क

¤ अक्षक  akṣaka = अ क ् ष क  
Skt: अक्षक  akṣaka - mn. collar-bone - SpkSkt
Pal: akkhaka - m. the collar-bone - UPMT-PED002
Pal: {ak~hka.ka.} - - UHS-PMD0005

The following entry has been mistakenly put in here.
The correspondence between Skt and Pal is in doubt and is under review.
It would have to be moved into an appropriate folder. - UKT110622

Skt: क्षणदा kṣaṇadā - f.  lightning - SpkSkt
Skt: क्षणिका kṣaṇikā - f. lightning - SpkSkt
Pal: akkhaṇā - f. lightning - UPMT-PED002
Pal: {ak~hka.Na} - - UHS-PMD0005

Note: Both " क्षणदा kṣaṇadā and क्षणिका kṣaṇikā - f.  lightning - SpkSkt" are without {a.} as the initial grapheme - checked by UKT on 110621

 

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{ak~hka.ta.}/ {ak~Sa.ta.} अक्षत = अ क ् ष त
not entd in OnlineSktDict

¤ अक्षत akṣata = अ क ् ष त
Skt: अक्षत akṣata - adj. uninjured, un-thrashed, unbroken, whole, not crushed, Shiva,
   boil or sore not produced by cutting, eunuch, un-husked barley-corns - SpkSkt
Pal: {ak~hka.ta.} - - UHS-PMD0005
    Free translation of UHS: {ak~hka.ta.} - adj. un-attacked, undamaged - UKT110621

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{ak~hka.da.}/ {ak~Sa.da.} अक्षद  = अ क ् ष द

¤ अक्षदेविन् akṣadevin
Skt: अक्षदेविन् akṣadevin - m. gambler - SpkSkt
Pal: {ak~hka.dé-wi} - - UHS-PMD0005
    Free translation of UHS: {ak~hka.dé-wi} - mfn. dice gambler - UKT110622

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 {ak~hka.ma.}/ {ak~Sa.ma.} अक्षम = अ क ् ष म
p025b2-2

• अक्षम (akShama)  = अ क ् ष म
Skt: अक्षम (akShama)  - (adj ) incapable - OnlineSktDict
Skt: akṣama - a-kṣama mf(ā) n. unable to endure, impatient
  # incompetent (with Loc., Inf. or ifc.), envious
  # (ā), f. or -tā f. impatience, envy # incompetence, inability (with Inf.) - MonWilliWash
Pal: {ak~hka.ma.} - - UHS-PMD0006

¤ अक्षमा  akṣamā  = अ क ् ष म ा  
Skt: अक्षमा  akṣamā  f.  jealousy, impatience, intolerance, anger, passion  - SpkSkt
Pal: {ak~hka.ma} - - UHS-PMD0006

¤ अक्षमालिका akṣamālikā = अ क ् ष म ा ल ि क ा
Skt: अक्षमालिका akṣamālikā  f. rosary - SpkSkt
Skt: akṣamālā - ○mālā f. a string or rosary of beads, especially of Eleocarpus seeds
  # N. of Arundhatī, wife of Vasishṭha (from her wearing a rosary) Mn. ix, 23
  # N. of the mother of Vatsa - MonWilliWash
Pal: akkha-mālā  f.  a rosary  - UPMT-PED002

See my notes on Akshamala and Vasishtha

 

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  {ak~hka.ya.}/ {ak~Sa.ya.}
p025b2-3

• अक्षयं (akShayaM)
Skt: अक्षयं (akShayaM)  - unlimited - OnlineSktDict

¤ अक्षय akṣaya
Skt: अक्षय akṣaya - adj.  eternal, exempt from decay,
  undecaying, undying, imperishable, inexhaustible - SpkSkt
Skt: akṣaya - a-kṣaya mf (ā)n. exempt from decay, undecaying
  # m. N. of the twentieth year in the cycle of Jupiter # N. of a mountain Hariv
  # (ā), f. the seventh day of a lunar month, if it fall on Sunday or Monday
  # the fourth, if it fall on Wednesday - MonWilliWash
Pal:   {ak~hka.ya.} - - UHS-PMD0006

See my note on Cycle of Jupiter

• अक्षयः (akShayaH)
Skt: अक्षयः (akShayaH) - eternal - OnlineSktDict

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{ak~hka.ra.}/ {ak~Sa.ra.} अक्षर = अ क ् ष र
p025b2-4

• अक्षर akṣara (akShara) = अ क ् ष र
Skt: अक्षर (akShara) - letter - OnlineSktDict
Skt: अक्षर  akṣara n.   letter of alphabet - SpkSkt
Skt: akṣara - a-kṣára mfn. imperishable
   # unalterable # m. a sword L # Śiva L # Vishṇu L
  # (ā), f. ákṣarā below # (am), n. a syllable # the syllable om Mn
  # a letter m. ṛāmatūp. # a vowel # a sound # a word
  # N. of Brahma # final beatitude religious austerity, sacrifice L
  # water RV. i, 34, 4 and i, 164, 42 [Page 3, Column 3]
  # Achyranthes Aspera - MonWilliWash
Pal: a-kkhara - n. the imperishable, nibbāṅa; austerity; the sky; water - UPMT-PED002
Pal: {ak~hka.ra.} - - UHS-PMD0006

UKT: अक्षर akṣara
¤ अक् ष र  --> {a.} {ka.}् {sa.}{ra.}
¤ {ak~sa.ra.} --> {ak~hka.ra.}

 

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p025b2-5

• अक्षरं (akSharaM) 
Skt: अक्षरं (akSharaM) - indestructible - OnlineSktDict

• अक्षरः (akSharaH) 
Skt: अक्षरः (akSharaH) - infallible - OnlineSktDict

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p025b2-6

• अक्षराणां (akSharaaNaaM)
Skt: अक्षराणां (akSharaaNaaM) - of letters - OnlineSktDict

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p025b2-7

• अक्षरात् (akSharaat.h)
Skt: अक्षरात् (akSharaat.h)  - beyond the infallible - OnlineSktDict

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{ak~hki.}/ {ak~Si.} अक्षि = अ क ् ष ि
p025b3

• अक्षि akṣi (akShi)
Skt: अक्षि (akShi) - (n) eye - OnlineSktDict
Skt: akṣi - ákṣi n. (√1. Uṇ.) [instr. akṣṇā dat. akṣṇe, &c., fr. akṣan,
   substituted for akṣi in the weakest cases. Vedic forms are: abl. gen. akṣṇás
   # loc. akṣán (once akṣiṇi !) # du. nom, acc. akṣī́ RV., ákṣiṇī, ákṣyau, and akṣyáu AV. ŚBr. and AitBr
   # instr. akṣī́bhyām # gen. akṣyós VS., akṣyós and akṣós (!) AV
   # pl. nom. acc. ákṣīṇi AV., akṣāṇi RV # ifc. akṣa is substituted, 4. ahṣa ], the eye
   # the number two # ī́ ), n. du. the sun and moon RV. i, 72, 10
  # [Gk. ?, ? ; Lat. [Page 3, Column 3] oculos ; AṢ. aegh ; Goth. augo ;
  Germ. āuge ; Russ. oko ; Lith. aki-s.]
Pal: akkhi - n. (√akkh) the eye - UPMT-PED002
Pal: {ak~hki.} - - UHS-PMD0006

¤ अक्षीब  akṣība = अ क ् ष ी ब  
Skt: अक्षीब  akṣība - n. sea-salt - SpkSkt
Skt: akṣība - akṣība and akṣiba mfn. not intoxicated, sober L
   # m. Guilandina or Hyperanthera Moringa L
   # (am), n. sea salt L - MonWilliWash
Pal: akkhiva - n. the sea-salt - UPMT-PED002
Pal: {ak~hki-wa.} - - UHS-PMD0007

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{ak~Sau:Ta.} अक्षोट 

¤ अक्षोट  akṣoṭa  = अ क ् ष ो ट
Skt:  अक्षोट  akṣoṭa  n.  walnut - SpkSkt
Skt: akṣoṭa - akṣoṭa m. a walnut (Pistacio nut?) Ragh
  # the tree Pīlu #the tree Aleurites Triloba.
  Also spelt akṣoḍa (Suśr.), akṣoḍaka, ākṣoṭa, ākṣoḍaka, ākhoṭa - MonWilliWash
Pal: akkhoṭa - m. the walnut - UPMT-PED002
Pal: {ak~hkau:La.} - - UHS-PMD0007

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{ak~ta.} अक्त
not entd in OnlineSktDict

¤ akta
Skt: akta 1 - akta mfn. (√ aj), driven - MonWilliWash
Skt: akta 2 - aktá mfn. (√ ańj), smeared over, diffused, bedaubed,
  tinged, characterized. Often ifc. (cf. raktâkta)
  # (am), n. oil, ointment - MonWilliWash

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{ak~na.} अक्न
not entd in OnlineSktDict

¤ aknopana
Skt: aknopana - a-knopana mfn. not moistening drying Nir - MonWilliWash

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{ak~ra.} अक्र = अ क ् र or {a.kra.} 
   If treated as similar to Bur-Myan medial it would have to be written as: {a.kra.}
not entd in OnlineSktDict

¤ akra
Skt: akra 1 - á-kra mfn. (√kṛ), inactive RV. i, 120, 2 - MonWilliWash
Skt: akra 2 - akrá as, m. a banner RV
  # a wall, fence (prākāra), according to Durga on Nir. vi, 17 - MonWilliWash

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/ {ak~la.} अक्ल
not entd in OnlineSktDict

¤ aklama
Skt: aklama - a-klama m. freedom from fatigue - MonWilliWash

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/ {ak~lé} अक्ले
p004top-4

• अक्लेद्यः (akledyaH)
Skt: अक्लेद्यः (akledyaH) - insoluble - OnlineSktDict
Skt: akledya - a-kledya mfn. not to be wetted - MonWilliWash

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UKT notes

Akshamala

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Akshamala 100419
UKT: I couldn't get the Devanagari spelling from SpkSkt 100419

Akshamala, is a garland of beads, made of pearls, bones, shalagram shila, dried seeds, berries, or sometimes of skulls. It is the attribute of many gods and deities in Hinduism. In general, an Akshamala is composed of fifty beads, corresponding to the characters of Sanskrit alphabet, the 'garland of bija' (Skt: Varnamala). In some cases, it may consist of 81 or 108 beads; both are significant numbers in Hinduism.

Akshamala is also a vedantic thesaurus written in Telugu by Mangu Koneti Rao (1905-1996). See [1]
UKT: End of Wikipedia stub.

From: www.tibetanbuddhistaltar.org/.../ 100524

About Malas

The meaning of the Sanskrit word “Mala” is “garland.”  The word for Mala in Tibetan is Akshamala.  For Buddhist practitioners a mala is considered an essential tool.  Below is a brief explanation about Malas, their purpose, meaning, and use.

What is a Mala?

From a practical and outer point of view, a mala can simply be understood as a method for counting Mantra recitation.  There are typically 108 beads on a Mala string.  Traditionally, when counting mantras, only 100 of the 108 are recorded in the accumulation.  The extra 8 are not counted because of errors that may have occurred during the recitation.  However, a Mala can be a great deal more than just a counting device.

Symbology of a Mala

On a deeper level, the Mala represents the Form and Speech of the Deity.  It can be viewed as the Root Deity and the entire assembly or mandala of that Deity.  For example, if you are doing a Chenrezig practice, the large bead on the Mala represents Chenrezig and the other beads represent the entourage of the Deity.  In this view, the Mala is a support for one’s practice and can become an object of refuge for the practitioner.

Before using a Mala, it is essential to ask a Lama to bless it.  After that, it must be treated with reverence and not touched by other people or animals.

How to Use a Mala

Traditionally one holds the mala in one’s left hand.  With each recitation a bead is pulled forward. Symbolically, this represents the “Vajra Hook” which brings forth blessings and virtue.  The basic instruction is to use the thumb to move the bead forward.

UKT: What is "Vajra Hook" a term in Tibetan Buddhism? Google search does not function today in Yangon - I will come back to this later. -- UKT110622

While reciting mantra, it is auspicious to hold the mala to one’s heart.  This is symbolic of “protecting one’s heart” with meritorious and virtuous activity.

The large bead on the Mala is called the Guru Bead or Mother Bead. One never crosses over this bead, just as one would never step over something precious and rare.  Out of respect and gratitude, one reverses direction after 108 recitations.

Types of Malas

A variety of materials may be used to make a mala:  wood or metal beads, seeds, raksha beads (the dried fruit of the raksha tree), as well as precious gemstones or jewels.

Guru Rinpoche gave specific instructions on various types of malas and their use.  For example, he said that a mala made of iron or steel multiplies the virtue of accumulating mantra recitations in a general way. With a copper mala, the virtue increases four times.  A Raksha mala increases it 20 million times.  A pearl or ruby mala increases it 100 million times.  The virtue is multiplied by 100,000 if one uses a silver mala.  The potential benefit from using a Bodhi seed mala is limitless for any form of practice.

Mantra Recitation

To understand the meaning and purpose of Malas, one should also understand Mantra recitation.  The Sanskrit word “Mantra” literally means “protection of the mind.”  For each practice that is dedicated to a Meditational Deity, there is a mantra specific to that Deity.  A Mantra is a collection of precious seed syllables representing the condensed essence of all the pure qualities and attributes of a Deity.  Reciting a Mantra in this profound, virtuous way helps our own pure qualities to come forth.  These qualities are ultimately non-dual with the Deity’s.  For example, Chenrezig’s mantra is “Om Mani Padme Hung.”  If a practitioner recites this mantra with a pure heart and proper motivation, seeking to be of benefit to sentient beings, with faith, devotion, and proper understanding of the method, then only benefit will arise in the mind.  One’s natural compassionate nature will be cultivated and nurtured.  Over time, transformation of one’s negative qualities will be replaced by virtuous, pure qualities that are inherent within us all.  This method of recitation helps us to awaken to our true nature.

UKT: End of Tibetan Buddhist article.

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Cycle of Jupiter

UKT: I have arrived at a full cycle of 60 years, and a half cycle of 30 years independently of the following article or its contents some decades ago when I was practicing (as a professional) Hindu astrology in Myanmar. I have applied it to my own life-time. As I am now 77 years old (as of 110622), I can see "some" events in my life recurring every 30 year and 60 year. For events that had happened when I was too young in age, I base my predictions on events that had happened to my father and mother - particularly to my father. Please remember I am a material scientist (meaning: I try to look at things without any bias), and a skeptical chemist (meaning: I would not bet my life on astrology but use it as a guide when the future looks very unpredictable). - UKT110622

From: http://www.astrologyweekly.com/dictionary/jupiter-cycle.php 110622

Nicholas deVore - Encyclopedia of Astrology 

The ancients noted these first and second order recurrence cycles in connection with the orbits of Jupiter and Saturn, which they termed the great chronocrators, because of the way the cycles subdivided time into large units of hundreds of years, and the economic and political evolution which followed in step with these advancing cycles.

Jupiter conjoins Saturn in 19.859 years at an advance of about 123 degrees. After three conjunctions, 59.577 years, it recurs at a mean advance of 8.93° - the first order recurrence cycle of Jupiter-Saturn. With this 9-degree advance every 60 years, in 40 conjunctions the advance moves around the circle and in 794.37 years returns to within 0.93° of the starting point - the second order recurrence cycle. This 1° discrepancy would thus locate a third order recurrence cycle in 360 times 800 years, roughly speaking, a period too far in excess of recorded history to be useful as a frame of reference.

The first order recurrence cycle of Jupiter-Saturn, 59.577 years - all values are mean values, based on mean motions - is probably the 60-year cycle of which the ancients spoke so much: the period of "social lag," or the time between the introduction of a new invention or social innovation (Uranus), and its adoption and spread on the institutional level of organized society (Jupiter-Saturn). [UKT ¶]

The second order recurrence cycle of these two planets is the Great Mutation cycle which meant so much in the Mundane Astrology of the ancients. More recent is the discovery of a cycle of this length by a modern non-astrological historical investigator, Dr. J. S. Lee, who with the aid of Lin Yutang and Dr. Hu Shih, one of China's great scholars, studied the incidence of civil conflict in China from 1100 B.C to 1930 A.D. His graph of the amount of civil conflict in five-year intervals from 230 B.C. to 1930 A.D. reveals an 809-year cyclic interval from the Chin Dynasty of 221 B.C. to the Sui Dynasty of 589 A.D.; followed by a 779-year cyclic interval from this Dynasty to the Ming Dynasty of 1368 A.D. Averaging Bogy and 779y gives a mean value of 794y, which would end the third cycle about 2.159 A.D. In the first half of each cycle, other than for two short-lived peaks of violence the country was completely peaceful and prosperous, with unity prevailing. In the second halves there are 5 peaks of violence and no interval of sustained peace. The start of each of the three cycles was marked by great building and engineering activities: in the Chin, by the Great Wall and huge palaces; in the Sui, by the Grand Canal and huge palaces; in the Ming, by the rebuilding of the Great Wall and several systems of canals. Notable, astrologically, is the fact that the first Jupiter-Saturn conjunction in a Water Sign, Scorpio, occurred 3 years before the Chin Dynasty, 18 years before the Sui Dynasty and 3 years before the Ming Dynasty. The change of clement, in this case from Air to Water, was anciently termed the Trigonalis, and deemed to be of prime political and economic import. According to Ralph Kraum, the conjunction of 1365 occurred on November 1, at 7° Scorpio. Dr. Lee has thus confirmed, regarding the Jupiter-Saturn rhythm, that when the conjunctions are in Water and Fire, all is well; while in Earth and Air' all is not so well. Thus it can be inferred that in the first half, Jupiter predominates; and in the second half, Saturn. This indicates that the astrological study of the broader influences which affect the rise and fall of civilization is best approached through recurrence cycles of position and relation of the major planets.

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Fricative-sibilant problem in Bur-Myan

UKT 110620

You should be aware that Bur-Myan grapheme {sa.} represents the r2c1 consonant in the Bur-Myan akshara matrix. Though it has the sound /s/ and is actually a dental-sibilant, it is always taken as the r2c1. However, its killed grapheme {c} has the sound /c/ of a palatal-plosive.
   This situation is met in the Bur-Myan word {ţic~sa} a part of which is written as a vertical conjunct. We find a parallel in the English word <success> /səkˈses/ (DJPD16-515) where the so-called "double c" is at the boundary of the first and the second syllable: the first <c> being the coda of the first syllable and the second <c> is the onset of the second. The first <c> has the velar-plosive sound /k/ (which may be taken as /c/, and the second <c> has the dental-sibilant sound /s/.
   To show the difference in sounds, Skt-Dev has two graphemes च (palatal-plosive) and ष (dental-sibilant). As long as Romabama is used for Bur-Myan, we have no problem. However, when we use Romabama for Skt-Myan we run straight into the need for two graphemes. As a temporary measure, I have used the same grapheme for both sounds for both the coda and onset, but different graphemes {c} (palatal-plosive coda) and {S} (nasal-dental onset).
   This solves the problem of transcribing the English word <kiss> into Bur-Myan: {kíS}. [Compare with Bur-Myan {hkít} 'time period or age' (MED2010-064), and {ţít~ta} 'box'. (MED2010-517)]. Alternatively, <kiss> can be spelled {kiS}. You'll notice that from the vowels used, {í} and {i}, I have arrived at this transcription from two different roots.

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Sanskrit-Devanagari conjunct क्ष kṣ

by UKT 100301

Skt: अक्षर akṣara
¤ अक् ष र  --> {a.}{ka.}् {Sa.}{ra.}
¤ {ak~Sa.ra.} --> {ak~hka.ra.}

We see the {ak~hka.ra.} of Pal-Myan becoming {ak~Sa.ra.} of Skt-Myan. If it were a Centum-Satem change, is it possible that Pali was a Centum being changed to Sanskrit a Satem? If so can we conclude that Pali (or Magadhi) preceded Sanskrit in India? And that Pali was not derived from "The Perfect" language Sanskrit to suit an aboriginal language which had lacked a written form.

As a material scientist and a skeptical chemist (Sceptical Chymist  and  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Boyle 110620) at that, the above conjecture of mine is purely imagination. Yet, as a human being, just like Kekulé day-dreaming of the benzene ring  (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benzene 110620) , I do day-dream. Waiting for comments from my peers.

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Sanskrit {ak~sa.} अक्ष and Pali {ak~hka.}

UKT - The following is on an observation I have made. It is being checked, with the result that the following note of mine is badly written. -- UKT110515

Refer to Wikipedia on http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indo-European_languages 110515

The split between Satem and Centum  in the Proto-Indo European (PIE) languages was probably a result of the split between Proto Indo-European speakers and Proto Tibeto-Burmese (P-TibBur) speakers. I am basing my suggestion on the word for a common dietary item - the common salt.

Bur-Myan: {hsa:}
Eng-Lat: <salt>

The ancient Pyus of Myanmar had probably used the word {ka:} for 'salt' as attested by the fact that in the modern salt-making areas of Hanlingyi, {ka:} is used for describing items connected with salt-making. Based on article by U Nyo Win (of Halingyi) http://acl.arts.usyd.edu.au/~hudson/halin_salt_nyo_win.pdf   (my download date about 2003 June).
   U Nyo Win noted that salt making was of Mon's origin adopted by the Pyus, and the terms had come from the Mon language. U Nyo Win was quoting modern day Myanmar scholars, who in my opinion had become tainted by the British colonizer-historians of the 19th and 20th centuries. These colonizer-historians had been justifying the colonization of the Burmese kingdom by the British in the 19th century.

It seems that क्ष = क ् ष is a Skt stand-in for Pal-Myan {hka.}. When क्ष kS follows a vowel, it is split up into क ् ष followed by a substitution of ष by ख. This note of mine should be checked further. -- UKT110515

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Vasistha

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vasistha 110618

Vashist (Skt: वशिष्ठ [= व श ि ष ् ठ ] , Thai: Vasit) in Hindu mythology is one of the Saptarishis (Seven Great Sages Rishi) in the seventh, i.e the present Manvantara,[1] and the Rajpurohit / Rajguru of the Suryavansha or Solar Dynasty. He was the mānasaputra ("mind son") of Brahma. He had in his possession the divine cow Kamadhenu, and Nandini her child [calf], who could grant anything to their owners. Arundhati is the name of the wife of Vashista.

Vashista is credited as the chief author of Mandala 7 of the Rigveda. Vashista and his family are glorified in RV 7.33, extolling their role in the Battle of the Ten Kings, making him the only mortal besides Bhava to have a Rigvedic hymn dedicated to him. Another treatise attributed by him is "Vashista Samhita" - a book on Vedic system of electional astrology.

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Vashista head

A copper item representing a human head styled in the manner described for the Rigvedic Vashista has been dated to around 3700 B.C. in three western universities using among other tests carbon 14 tests, spectrographic analysis, X-ray dispersal analysis and metallography (Hicks and Anderson. Analysis of an Indo-European Vedic Aryan Head - 4500-2500 B.C., in Journal of IE studies 18:425-446. Fall 1990.). This indicates that some Rigvedic customs were already known at a very early time. The head was not found in an archaeological context, as it was rescued from being melted down in Delhi.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

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