Update: 2011-09-22 08:42 AM +0800


Sanskrit English Dictionary


from: Online Sanskrit Dictionary, February 12, 2003 . http://sanskritdocuments.org/dict/dictall.pdf  090907

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Though UPMT-PED is in Pal-Lat, for comparison to UHS-PMD in Pal-Myan, I have transcribed entries in UPMT in Pal-Myan. - UKT110625
I have given my free translation of UHS-PMD in English. - UKT110626
I haven't found entries with {a.hsa.} or {a.} checked by killed-{hsa.}. My observation should be confirmed by persons more knowledgeable than me. -- UKT0704

{a.sa.} अच  [Not to be written nor pronounced as {a.kya.}
  unless you are speaking Sanskrit.]
{a.sa} अचा
{a.si.} अचि
{a.s} अचे
{ic} अच्
{ic~hs} अच्छे
Pal-Myan words not present in Skt-Dev

The short vowels, such as //, can be checked with various consonants. And, mongst the rimes formed, those of the voiceless (tenuous and not aspirated) palatal and retroflex stops, {ic} {T}, and the unusual nasals {ng}, {i}, {N} are the most interesting in inter-language transcription, either because of their fricative or nasal sounds. Before we go into inter-transcription between Burmese and English, we will study the relationship between Pali and Sanskrit, because Pal-Myan is related to Bur-Myan (Tibeto-Burman), and Skt-Dev to Eng-Lat (Indo-European). Our study will serve as an introduction to BEPS Pali English Dictionary which I hope to write later - UKT110625.

UKT notes
Romabama spelling for palatal-plosive and alveolar-dental-sibilant: {sa.}/{Sa.} and {c}/{S}

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{a.sa.} अच

अचरं (acharaM)
Skt: अचरं (acharaM) - and not moving - OnlineSktDict
Skt: अचल acala - adj. immoveable - SpkSkt
Skt: अचल acala - a. immovable; m. mountain - Mac004
Skt: acara - a-cara or -carat ṛV., mfn. immovable - MonWilliWash
Pal: a-cala {a.sa.la.} - adj. (√cal) immovable. m. a mountain, pin - UPMT-PED005
Pal: {a.sa.la.} - - UHS-PMD0013
   [mfn. - unperturbed. m. mountain - UKT free transl. of UHS-PMD0013]

अचरा  acarā
Skt: अचरा  acarā - adj. immoveable - SpkSkt

   note: Here we see {la.} of Pali becoming {ra.} of Sanskrit. It is noteworthy that both UPT and UHS do not list acara . A word about Macdonell: be careful of Mac orthography which uses italics for some aksharas such as {sa.} . I'm preparing my version of Mac which gives both Devanagari and simple ACSII. Mac spelling generally agree with those of UPMT and UHS. -- UKT110531, 110626
   note: Whenever we mention {la.} , we must not forget Lagyi/Lakri {La.} which probably was prominent in Vedic (aka Vedic Sanskrit). Was Bur-Myan {La.} (consonant) related to the Vedic ऌ (short vowel-letter) and ॡ (long vowel-letter) and their vowel signs, ॢ and ॣ ? - UKT110625

अचरस्य (acharasya)
Skt: अचरस्य (acharasya) - and nonmoving - OnlineSktDict

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अचल acala
Skt: अचल acala (achala) - (adj) still, stationary - OnlineSktDict
Skt: अचल  acala  adj.  immovable, stationary, steady, still [unmoving], unmoving,
  immobile, constant, mountain - SpkSkt
Skt: acala - a-cala mf (ā) n. not moving, immovable
  # m. a mountain, rock # a bolt or pin # the number seven
  # N. of Śiva and of the first of the nine deified persons, called 'white Balas' among the Jainas
  # of a Devarshi VP
  # (ā), f. the earth
  # one of the ten degrees which are to be ascended by a Bodhisattva
    before becoming a Buddha - MonWilliWash
Pal: a-cala  {a.sa.la.} - adj.  (√cal) immovable;  m.  mountain, pin - UPMT-PED005
Pal: {a.sa.la.} - - UHS-PMD0013
   [mfn. - unperturbed. m. mountain - UKT free transl. of UHS]

Skt: अचल पद   acala pada
Skt: अचल पद   acala pada  nalgebra  constant, absolute term, n. math. constant term,
  absolute term - SpkSkt

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अचलं (achalaM)
Skt: अचलं (achalaM) - unmoving - OnlineSktDict

अचलः (achalaH)
Skt: अचलः (achalaH) - immovable - OnlineSktDict

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अचलप्रतिष्ठं (achalapratishhThaM)
Skt: अचलप्रतिष्ठं (achalapratishhThaM) - steadily situated - OnlineSktDict

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अचला acalā
Skt: अचला (achalaa) - unflinching - OnlineSktDict
Skt: अचल acala - a. immovable; m. mountain - Mac
Pal: {a.sa.la.} - - UHS-PMD0013

अचलेन acalana
Skt: अचलेन (achalena) - without its being deviated - OnlineSktDict
Skt: अचलन acalana - n. immovableness; persistence in (ab.); f. , earth. - Mac

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अचक्षुस् (achakShus.h) = अ च क ् ष ु स ्
Skt: अचक्षुस् (achakShus.h) - one without an eye - OnlineSktDict
Skt: acakṣus - a-cakṣus us n. a bad eye, no eye
   # (mfn.), blind - MonWilliWash
Pal: {a.sak~hku.ka.} - - UHS-PMD0013
   [ mfn - without knowledge or education. - UKT free translation of UHS-PMD0013 ]

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{a.sa} अचा

अचापलं (achaapalaM)
Skt: अचापलं (achaapalaM) - determination - OnlineSktDict

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{a.si.} अचि

अचिन्त्य acintya = अ च ि न ् त ् य
Skt: अचिन्त्य (achintya) - inconceivable - OnlineSktDict
Skt: अचिन्त्य acintya fp. inconceivable. - Mac
Pal: {a.sain-t-yya.} - - UHS-PMD0014

UKT: Though the epithet {a.sain-t-yya.} is often applied to Gautama Buddha, there is nothing inconceivable about him. Firstly, he was a historical figure, born of human parents. He went through a life-time of human life: disease, injury, physical suffering from heat and cold, hunger and thirst. He died a natural death and he was cremated. However, it was his wisdom that is beyond the understanding of the ordinary men and women. - UKT110626

अचिन्त्यं (achintyaM)
Skt: अचिन्त्यं (achintyaM) - beyond contemplation - OnlineSktDict

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अचिन्त्यः (achintyaH)
Skt: अचिन्त्यः (achintyaH) - inconceivable - OnlineSktDict

अचिर acira
Skt: अचिर acira a. brief, short, momentary:
   --, -m, ad. a short time ago; shortly; at short intervals, repeatedly:
   in., ab. without delay, soon: often with present=future. -- Mac
Skt: acira - a-cira mfn. not of long duration, brief
  # instantaneous, recent # (am, āt, eṇa), ind. not long, not for long
  # not long ago # soon, speedily # (ā), f. the mother of the Jaina saint Śānti - MonWilliWash
Pal: a-cira {a.si.ra.} - adj. short, brief - UPMT-PED005
Pal: {a.si.rn} - - UHS-PMD0014

अचिराद् (achiraad.h)
Skt: अचिराद् (achiraad.h) - without delay, in no time - OnlineSktDict

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अचिराद्भव (achiraadbhava) = अ च ि र ा द ् भ व
Skt: अचिराद्भव (achiraadbhava) - in no time from the cycle of birth & death - OnlineSktDict

अचिरेण (achireNa)
Skt: अचिरेण (achireNa) - very soon - OnlineSktDict

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{a.s} अचे

अचेतसः (achetasaH)
Skt: अचेतसः (achetasaH) - without KRishhNa consciousness - OnlineSktDict

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{ic} अच्
Not entered in OnlineSktDict

अच accha
Skt: अच accha - adj. not shaded, transparent, pure, pellucid, lucid, not dark.
   m. bear, crystal [transparent] - SpkSkt
Skt: accha 2 - accha  m. (corruption of ṛkṣa ), a bear - MonWilliWash
Pal: accha  {ic~hsa.} - adj. clear, transparent;  m. a bear, crystal - UPMT-PED005
Pal: {ic~hsa.} - - UHS-PMD0016

अच्छभल्ल  acchabhalla  =  अ च ् छ भ ल ् ल  
Skt: अच्छभल्ल  acchabhalla  m.  bear  - SpkSkt
Skt: accha 1 - a-ccha mfn. (fr. a + cha for chad or chaya, √chad), 'not shaded',
  'not dark, pellucid, transparent, clear
  # m. a crystal L - MonWilliWash

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{ic~hs} अच्छे = अ च ् छ े

अच्छद्यः (achchhedyaH)
Skt: अच्छद्यः (achchhedyaH) - unbreakable - OnlineSktDict

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{ic~yu.} अच्यु = अ च ् य ु

अच्युत (achyuta)
= अ च ् य ु त
Skt: अच्युत (achyuta) - O infallible one - OnlineSktDict
Skt: acyuta - -cyuta or a-cyut mfn. not fallen
  # firm, solid # imperishable, permanent # not leaking or dripping
  # m. N. of vishṇu # of Kṛishṇa # of a physician, the plant Morinda Tinctoria
  # N. of a gift to Agni ŚBr - MonWilliWash

अच्युतम् (achyutam.h)
Skt: अच्युतम् (achyutam.h) - the who does not slip - OnlineSktDict

अच्युत  acyuta 
Skt: अच्युत  acyuta  adj.  not slipping;  steadfast ; imperishable; firm - SpkSkt

अच्युतज  acyutaja
Skt: अच्युतज  acyutaja  m. class of jaina deities - SpkSkt
Skt: acyutaja - ○ ja m. pl. a class of Jaina deities - MonWilliWash

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Note: Romabama transliterations and the corresponding Pal-Myan for UPMT entries are mine. - UKT

UKT note: Compare the English transliterations with Romabama. The question remains, which of the pronunciations (that indicated by English transliterations or that indicated by Pal-Myanmar represented by Romabama) would be more closer to that of the ancient Magadhi. My position is IF the ancient Magadhi had been a Tib-Bur language like Burmese, the Romabama vowel pronunciation would be more close to the vowel pronunciation of the Buddha. - UKT 100520

Skt: acaṇḍa - a-caṇḍa mfn. not of a hot temper, gentle, tractable
   # (ī), f. a tractable cow - MonWilliWash
Pal: a-caṇḍa {a.sNDa.} - f. a tame cow, gentle lady - UPMT-PED005

Pal: acira-ppabhā {a.si.rp~pa.Ba} - f. (√bhā] lightning - UPMT-PED005
Pal: {a.si.rp~pa.Ba} - - UHS-PMD0014

Pal: a-cetaa {a.s-ti~a.} - n. (√cit) forgetfulness - UPMT-PED005

Pal: a-celaka {a.s-la.ka.} - adj. unclothed. m. a naked ascetic - UPMT-PED005
Pal: {a.s-la.ka.} - - UHS-PMD0014

Pal: accanā {ic~sa.na} - f. offering, worship - UPMT-PED005
Pal: {ic~sa.na} - - UHS-PMD0014

Pal: accanta {ac~sn~ta.} - adj. exceeding, extreme.
   aṁ, adv. very, exceedingly - UPMT-PED005
Pal: {ac~sn~ta.} - - UHS-PMD0014

Pal: accaya {ac~sa.ya.} - m. (ati √i + a) lapse, death, offence, sin - UPMT-PED005
Pal: {ac~sa.ya.} - - UHS-PMD0015

Pal: acci {ic~si.} - mfn. a ray of light, sunbeam, flame - UPMT-PED005
Pal: {ic~si.} - - UHS-PMD0015

Pal: acci-mā {ic~si.ma} - m. fire - UPMT-PED005
Pal: {ic~si.ma} - - UHS-PMD0015

Pal: a-ccuti {ic~su.ti.} - f. (√cu) the deathless, nibbāna - UPMT-PED005
Pal: {ic-su.ta.} - - UHS-PMD0015

Pal: accha {ic~hsa.} - adj. clear, transparent;  m. a bear, crystal - UPMT-PED005
Pal: {ic~hsa.} - - UHS-PMD0016

Pal: accharā {ic~hsa.ra} - f. a celestial nymph, the snapping of a finger - UPMT-PED006
Pal: {ic~hsa.ra} - - UHS-PMD0016

Pal: acchariya {ic~hsa.ri.ya.} - adj. wonderful - UPMT-PED006
Pal: {ic~hsa.ri.ya.} - - UHS-PMD0016

Pal: acchādana {ic~hsa-da.na.} - n. (√chad) a covering, lid, clothes - UPMT-PED006
Pal: {ic~hsa-da.na.} - - UHS-PMD0016

Pal: acchādeti {ic~hsa-d-ti.} - v. (ā √chad) to wear (clothes), dress, cover, hide
   ppp. Acchanna - UPMT-PED006
Pal: {ic~hsa-d-ti.} - - UHS-PMD0016

Pal: acchi {ic~hsi.} - f. the eye - UPMT-PED006
Pal: {ic~hsi.} - - UHS-PMD0016

Pal: acchindati {ic~hsain~da.ti.} - v. (ā √chid) to take away, rob, plunder, daka,
   m. a robber - UPMT-PED006
Pal: {ic~hsain~da.ti.} - - UHS-PMD0016

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UKT notes

Romabama spelling for palatal-plosive
and alveolar-dental-sibilant:
{sa.}/{Sa.} and {c}/{S}

by UKT written and rewritten: 091215, 110519, 110626

How come we ended up assigning {sa.} to two different sounds: the palatal-stop /c/ and alveolar-dental-fricative /s/ ? . As a stop-gap measure, I have to use a property of the Bur-Myan (Burmese-Myanmar) where the coda and the onset of disyllabic words like {ic~sa} have the /c/ and /s/ sounds for the same grapheme {sa}. Since the coda is a killed consonant, I can legitimately write {c} (without the inherent vowel which is likened to English short <a> //), leaving the onset as {sa.} or {Sa.}. The result is {ic~sa}/{thic~Sa}. However, for Romabama for embracing Hindi and Sanskrit, I need to differentiate the two sounds. As a stop gap measure, I am assigning {sa.} to /c/ and {sa.}/{Sa.} to /s/. But then, this stop gap measure is to be adopted only when absolutely necessary.

We find a similar situation in English-Latin <success> /sək'ses/ for the grapheme <c>. The English grammarians solve this problem by stating that there is no palatal /c/ in English, and assign the coda <c> to /k/. The Sanskrit grammarians solve a similar situation by assigning r2c1 च to /ʧ/. This sound is the Bur-Myan medial {kya.} and is not exactly like {hkya.}. {hkya.} is the familiar /ʧ/ sound of the Eng-Lat <church> /ʧɜːʧ/ (US) /ʧɝːʧ/.

Leaving aside the Bur-Myan, the typical Tib-Bur (Tibeto-Burman) language, and Pal-Myan which probably was a Tib-Bur language, and concentrating on Indo-European (IE) languages, we find that there are two main groups of languages under the names Centum and Satem languages: my Burmanization: {k:n-tm} and satem {sa.tm}. We shall concentrate on two languages only: English (representing Centum) and Sanskrit (representing Satem).
   See my collections on Centum-Satem languages in a1ssa1-023top-2.htm (fricative sibilant) अष . - UKT note 091215 rewritten on 110519.

Go back RBM-spelling-sa1-note-b

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