Update: 2011-09-22 08:28 AM +0800


Sanskrit English Dictionary


from: Online Sanskrit Dictionary , February 12, 2003 . http://sanskritdocuments.org/dict/dictall.pdf  090907

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UKT: See my notes on Short vowel (Checking the inherent vowel {a.}/{aa.}.)
The "short vowel" is not exactly the same as the "creak" of Bur-Myan. It behaves as intermediate between the "creak" and "modal" of Bur-Myan.
See my note on the Two-three tone problem.
See TIL A Practical  Sanskrit Dictionary by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
   which unfortunately gives an older system of transcription.
See downloaded Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary files in TIL library.
   My attempt to include entries from Monier-Williams has to be dropped, because
   Monier-Williams gives more than what is needed adding to confusion
Sorting {a.ka.} to {a.nga.} is a problem, because of two or three reasons:
  Skt-Dev spells {a.hka.} in two ways: using a base akshara {ak~hka.}, and
    a conjunct {ak~Sa.}.
  Paucity of words using {nga.t} which is quite common in Bur-Myan.
   I have sorted out the following entries that involve r1.
  Confusion due to English transcriptions. - 110822

{a.ka.} - a1ka1-003b2.htm
  {ak} /k/ - a1k-thut-025b2-2.htm
    includes अक्ष = क ् ष / {ak~Sa.} as a stand-in for {ak~hka.}
{a.hka.} - a1hka1-004top5.htm
{a.ga.} - a1ga1-004top7.htm
{a.Ga.} - a1gga1-004b2-5.htm
{a.nga.} - a1nga1-004b3.htm . ({ng} = <ng>). Here we see the {king:si:} for the first time.
  The term literally means 'ridden by a centipede', and is really {ing}

The following fricative-stops also serve as an introduction to
BEPS Pali English Dictionary which I hope to write later - UKT110520

/ {a.sa.}/{a.kya.} - a1ca1-004b3-7.htm (plosive stop) अच
   UKT note to TIL editors: this and the following files concerning r2 must be edited together.
   UKT note to general reader: See also {a.Sa.} a1ssa1-023top-2.htm (fricative sibilant) अष
   Though {a.sa.} and {a.Sa.} are not differentiated in Bur-Myan, they are
   differentiated in Romabama to handle English, Sanskrit, and other sibilant languages
   See also {a.pa.} - a1pa1-013top-3.htm
{a.za.} - a1za1-005b1-4.htm
  The role of conjunct ज्ञ = ज ् ञ as a stand-in for Pal-Myan is being studied -- UKT110701 
{a.Za.} - a1zza1-in-Pal-Myan.htm
  See UHS-PMD-0018 to 0021
{a.a.} - a1nya1-005b2-2.htm ({} = <ny>)

{a.Ta.} - a1row3ta1-005b2-5.htm
{a.Na.} - a1row3na1-005b3.htm
  {aN}/{N} ? : I haven't come to a final decision on the Romabama spelling,
  but {N} seems to be the best. - UKT110610

{a.ta.} - a1ta1-005b3-2.htm : here, we have the free vowel {a.}, and
    in the next file we will see this vowel checked.
  {t} /ʌt/- a1t-t-006b1-4.htm : checked vowel {} /ʌ/
  - also pay attention to medial-like onsets such as {ya.ping.}, {ra.ric}, {wa.hsw:}
{a.hta.} - a1hta1-006b2-5.htm
{a.da.} - a1da1-006b3-4.htm
{a.Da.} - a1dda1-007top-5.htm
{a.na.} - a1na1-008b2-7.htm
  {n} - a1n-t-011b3-2.htm

The pronunciation of / {n}/ is almost the same as / {n}/ , except that in the first case the vowel is partially checked, whereas the vowel in the second case is totally unchecked. This explains the difference in Romabama vowel {} and {}

{a.pa.} - a1pa1-013top-3.htm
{a.ba.} - a1ba1-014b3-5.htm
{a.Ba.} - a1bba1-015top-3.htm
{a.ma.} - a1ma1-016b3-4.htm
  {m} - a1m-t-017b1-3.htm

The pronunciation difference between / {m}/ vs / {n}/ is greater than that in / {n}/ vs / {n}/, because of the closure of the lips in case of /m/. 

{a.ya.} - a1ya1-017b2-5.htm : {} not found
{a.ra.} - a1ra1-017b4-2.htm
  {r} - a1r-t-018top-5.htm
{a.la.} - a1la1-019b1-2.htm : {a.l} included
{a.wa.} - a1va1-019b3-2.htm (labio-dental /v/ is absent in Bur-Myan. Was it also absent in Vedic?)
  {a.bya.} - a1vya1-021b2-5.htm (the /vy/ is usually represented as {bya.} in Bur-Myan.)

The fricatives are so mixed up that you should study them together. An additional problem met in Sanskrit (Skt-Dev), but not in Bur-Myan and Pal-Myan, is due to the Sanskrit speakers (presumably belonging to the Indo-European linguistic group) being unable to differentiate the true hissing sound /ʃ/ from the bidental thibilant /θ/ realized in both Burmese (Tibeto-Burman linguistic group) and English (denoted in Romabama as {} = <th> - Latin small letter thorn).

/ {a.Sha.}/ {a.rha.}/ {a.hya.} - a1Sha1-022top-2.htm (fricative sibilant)
  {aSh} - a1Sh-t-022b2-4.htm  : pronounce <ash> /ʃ/ ( ʃ - Latin small letter esh)
{a.Sa.} a1Sa1-023top-7.htm (fricative sibilant)
  See also / {a.sa.}/{a.kya.} - a1ca1-004b3-7.htm (plosive stop)
{a.a.} - a1a1-023b1-3.htm (fricative thibilant, {} = <th> - Latin small letter thorn)
  {a}/{ath} - a1-t-024b1-4.htm

  {a.ha.} - a1ha1-025top.htm : includes other glottal sounds such as
  {ak~} - moved into its own folder - a1k-thut-025b2-2.htm - 110619
  ज्ञ {-z~a.} - {iz~a.} अज्ञ p025b3-2 - still in this folder - 110619

See inset pix for enlarged {a.sha.} and {i:sh} /ʃ/ graphemes

Note to digitizer/Devanagari transcriber : you can copy and paste the following:
Ā ā  Ē ē  Ī ī  Ō ō  Ū ū
Ḍ ḍ  Ḥ ḥ  Ḷ ḷ  Ḹ ḹ Ṁ ṁ  Ṃ ṃ  Ṅ ṅ    Ṇ ṇ  Ṛ ṛ  Ṝ ṝ  Ś ś  Ṣ ṣ  Ṭ ṭ    ɕ ʂ
Instead of Devanagari ः {wic~sa.} use "colon" :
Root sign √
Sanskrit-Devanagari : श ś [ɕ]; ष ṣ [ʂ]; स s [s] 

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UKT notes

Short vowel {a.}/{aa.}
Checking the inherent vowel

- by UKT


In Bur-Myan, but not necessarily in Pal-Myan, it is mostly the "short vowels" that are checked. So, we rely on the difference between "checked-free" instead of "short-long".

Checking a short-vowel with plosive-stops is quite different from checking with nasals. The nasals are more sonorous than the plosive-stops, but not as sonorous as the liquids. Nasals are some times described as semi-obstruents, and the liquids as semi-sonorants.

You should remember that the term "checking a vowel" is used for describing a rime (V) with a coda-consonant in the syllable of the canonical form C(V). When the is a nasal, the rime comes to have vowel like qualities and we have three pitch-registers as in vowels - the creak, the modal, and the emphatic. It is interesting to note that checking with a nasal - in fact checking with any consonant affects the preceding vowel: {ing}, {i}, {aN}/{uN}, {n}, {m}. This fact is missed by Western phoneticians, who usually leaves the peak vowel unchanged. As an illustration, let's leave the peak vowel unchanged in the series: as {ang} {an} {am}. We arrive at unrealistic pronunciations in Bur-Myan. -- I am waiting for comments from my peers. UKT 110319.

A liquid in coda does not check the vowel at all. In fact the (V) is just like any other vowel. In Bur-Myan, can be considered to be "silent" as in {bol}. {bol} is pronounced as / {bo}/.

Checking the "short" vowels of the series (with consonant <t> or <k>) - see pix on the right

  {a} अ --> {t}, {ak}
  {} अे --> {it},
  {i} इ --> {ait},
  {u} उ --> {oat}, and,
  {au} ओ --> {aut}
Can this type of "borrowing" a Burmese pronunciation to pronounce the Sanskrit sounds "help" (hinder?)
a Burmese-speaker . This observation needs to be checked further. However, for indexing, I have no choice
but to adopt it. -- UKT 100321

Go back short-vow-note-b

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The two-three tone problem


UKT note of 110514: After working through BEPS Sanskrit-English Dictionary version 1, which I have completed early in May 2011, I realized that Pal-Lat as given by U Pe Maung Tin, may not be the same as Pal-Myan as given by U Hoke Sein, as far as the pronunciation is concerned. Though I can still accept Pal-Lat as an IE, I can no longer accept Pal-Myan as an IE. I would prefer to classify it with Bur-Myan, and call it an Tibeto-Burman (Tib-Bur) language. Sanskrit is an IE no doubt, but the Prakrit spoken by Gautama Buddha to the ordinary folks - not the learned Brahmins - of the Magadha region was a regional dialect - a Tibeto-Burman language. - UKT 110514

Our task of comparing Eng-Lat to Bur-Myan is not easy because English have only two "tones" for vowels the short and the long, whereas Burmese has three, the creak, the modal, and the emphatic. The one way to reconcile them is to think in terms of 5 registers:

creak, short, modal, long, emphatic

The Bur-Myan "creak" register is strictly not a vowel, because it could not be sung continuously like regular vowels. It may be looked on as a "semi-consonant".

The English short vowel is sometimes close to creak and sometimes to modal. Similarly the English long vowel is between modal and emphatic. For the vowel /a/, we have

{aa.}, {a}, {/ə/}, {aa}, {aa:}
-- the short-a // and the long-a /a/ are transcribed as a and ā in Pal-Lat. Since both Bur-Myan and Eng-Lat do not have dedicated graphemes to represent the central vowel, schwa /ə/, I have to use {/ə/} for the modal. The Bur-Myan schwa is found in words like {a.ni} meaning the "colour red" in which schwa is represented by {a.} or {a}. [In Romabama the "middle dot " is reserved for schwa.] In some Bur-Myan words {a.} stands for the sound of {aa.}, but in others as schwa {/ə/} or {a}.  The following example is provided by my colleague, Saya Kalasan, a noted Manipuri-Burmese {poaN~Na:} author on Astrology-Astronomy, who speaks and writes Sanskrit and Hindi in addition to Burmese and English:

{am/ am/ am. a: ha/ a. ko a. lwun: t//}

Now which is the "consonant" {a.} and which is the "vowel"?

The correspondence between two tones of English and three tones of Burmese is a problem (as far as I know), and lacks a concise name, because of which I will refer to it as the Two-Three Tone problem.

Go back Two-three-tone-problem-note-b

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End of TIL file