Update: 2011-09-22 07:24 PM +0800


Sanskrit English Dictionary


from: Online Sanskrit Dictionary, February 12, 2003 . http://sanskritdocuments.org/dict/dictall.pdf  090907

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  {ya.} य
{ya.ka.} यक
{ya.za.} यज


UKT notes
Yagya - {yiz} Yajurveda Yaksha

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  {ya.} य

य (ya) = {ya.} IPA /j/
Skt: य (ya) - who - OnlineSktDict
Pal: ya - pron. who, which, what, he, who, whoever - UPMT-PED175

यं (yaM)
Skt: यं (yaM) - one to whom - OnlineSktDict

यंतु (ya.ntu)
Skt: यंतु (ya.ntu) - reach us - OnlineSktDict

यः (yaH)
Skt:  यः (yaH) anyone who - OnlineSktDict

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{ya.ka.} यक

यकृत् (yakRit.h)
Skt: यकृत् (yakRit.h) - liver - OnlineSktDict

यकृत्कोपः (yakRitkopaH)
Skt: यकृत्कोपः (yakRitkopaH) -  (m) hepatitis - OnlineSktDict

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not entd in OnlineSktDict

See my note on Yaksha/ Yakkha


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{ya.za.} यज

यजति (yajati)
Skt: यजति (yajati) - (1 pp) to sacrifice - OnlineSktDict

यजत्राः (yajatraaH)
Skt:  यजत्राः (yajatraaH) - doing yAga or yagya or sacrifice? - OnlineSktDict

यजन्तः (yajantaH)
Skt:  यजन्तः (yajantaH) - sacrificing - OnlineSktDict

यज्ञ yaja = य ज ् ञ
Skt: यज्ञ yaja - m. sacrifice, offering, praise, prayer, act of worship or devotion,
  devotion, worship, fire, worshipper, relating or belonging to sacrifice - SpkSkt

See my note on Yagya यज्ञ = य ज ् ञ


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यजन्ति (yajanti)
Skt:  यजन्ति (yajanti) - they worship - OnlineSktDict

यजन्ते (yajante)
Skt: यजन्ते (yajante) - they worship by sacrifices - OnlineSktDict

यजाम (yajaama)
Skt:  यजाम (yajaama) - I pl 'imperative' parasmaipada of yaj - OnlineSktDict

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यजिनः (yajinaH)
Skt:  यजिनः (yajinaH) - devotees - OnlineSktDict

यजु (yajuH) :
Skt: यजु (yajuH) - the Yajur Veda - OnlineSktDict

See my note on Yajurveda यजुर्वेदः

यजुर्वेदः yajurveda (yajurvedaH)
Skt:  यजुर्वेदः yajurveda (yajurvedaH) -  Yajur Veda - OnlineSktDict

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UKT notes

Yagya यज्ञ = य ज ् ञ

From: Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yagya 110426
UKT: Skt-Myan transliterations are mine.
The word यज्ञ yaja is so difficult to pronounce that it became {yiz} dropping out the {a.} :
  {yiz} - n. sacrificrificial offereings [Skt: {ya.za.}] - MED2010-386

In Hinduism, Yagya (Skt-Dev: यज्ञ , Skt-Myan: ? {ya.z~a.} -> {yiz~a.}, wikt:yajna; also Anglicized as Yajna, Yadna) is a ritual of sacrifice (Monier-Williams gives the meanings "worship, prayer, praise; offering, oblation, sacrifice") derived from the practice of Vedic times. It is performed to please the gods [deva] or to attain certain wishes. An essential element is the sacrificial fire - the divine Agni - into which oblations are poured, as everything that is offered into the fire is believed to reach the gods. As the name of the service, the term yagya is linguistically (but not functionally) cognate with Zoroastrian (Ahura) Yasna. Unlike Vedic Yajna, Zoroastrian Yasna has "to do with water rather than fire" (Drower, 1944:78; Boyce, 1975:147-191)

UKT: The "gods" in Zoroastrian are Asuras, the enemies of the Hindu gods, the Devas. This probably explains the above observation "to do with water rather than fire" (Drower, 1944:78; Boyce, 1975:147-191) - UKT110426

A Vedic (shrauta) yagya is typically performed by an adhvaryu priest, with a number of additional priests such as the hotar, udgatar playing a major role, next to their dozen helpers, by reciting or singing Vedic verses. Usually, there will be one or three fires in the centre of the offering ground and items are offered into the fire. Among the items offered as oblations in the yagya include large quantities of ghee, milk, grains, cakes, or soma. The duration of a yagya depends on the type; some can last a few minutes, hours or days and some even last for years, with priests continuously offering to the gods accompanied with sacred verses. Some yagyas are performed privately, others with a large number of people in attendance.

Post-Vedic yagyas, where milk products, fruits, flowers, cloth and money are offered, are called "yaga",[1] homa or havana.

A typical Hindu marriage is a yagya, because Agni is supposed to be the witness of all marriages. Brahmins and certain other castes receive a yagyopavita "sacred cord" at their upanayana rite of passage. The yagyopavita symbolizes the right of the individual to study the Vedas and to carry out yagyas or homas.

Temple worship is called agamic, while communication to divinity through Agni, is considered Vedic. Today's temple rites are a combination of both Vedic and Agamic rituals. The sacrificial division of Hindu scripture is the Karma-Kanda portion of the Vedas which describe or discuss most sacrifices. The Nambudiri Brahmins of Kerala are among the most famous Shrauta Brahmins who maintain these ancient rituals.

Today, only a few hundred individuals know how to perform these sacrifices and even fewer are able to maintain the sacred fires continuously and perform the shrauta rituals.[2] Only a few thousand perform the Agnihotra or basic Aupasana fire sacrifice daily .

Yagyas in the Vedas

There are 400 yagyas described in the Vedas. Of these, 21 are theoretically compulsory for the Twice-Born (Dvijas: Brahmin, Ksatriya and Vaisya). They are also called nityakarmas. The rest of the yagyas are optional, which are performed kamyakarma (for particular wishes and benefits). The Aupasana is not part of the above list, but is also compulsory .

Out of the 21 nityakarmas, only the Agnihotra and the Aupasana are to be performed twice daily, at dawn and dusk. The remaining ones have certain allotted frequencies over the course of the year. The more complicated the yagya, the less frequently it is performed. The most complex ones need to be performed only once in a lifetime. The first seven yagyas are called pākayagyas "cooked sacrifice", the second seven haviryagyas "oblation, burnt offering", and the third seven are called somayagyas "Soma sacrifice".

Seven are paka Yajas (aṣtaka, sthālipāka, parvana, srāvaṇi, āgrahayani, caitri and āsvīyuji). They involve consecrating cooked items.

Seven are Soma Yajas (agnistoma, atyagnistoma, uktya, shodasi, vājapeya, atirātra and aptoryama). The yāgā that involves the extraction, utility and consumption of Soma (in the general sense nectar, but extract of a particular tree specifically) is called a Soma Yaja. Others are usually referred to as haviryanas.

Seven are Havir Yajas (agniyādhāna, agni hotra, Darśa-Pūrṇamāsa, āgrayana, cāturmāsya, niruudha paśu bandha, sautrāmaṇi). They involve offering havis.

Five are the panca mahā Yajās.

Four are Vedavratas, which are done during Vedic education.

Remaining sixteen are one-time samskāras that are done at different stages in life. They are garbhādhānā, pumsavana, sīmanta, jātakarma, nāmakaraṇa, annaprāśana, chudākarma/caula, niskramana, karnavedha, vidyaarambha, upanayana, keshanta, snātaka and vivāha, nisheka, antyeshti. These are specified by the gṛhya sūtrās.Some gṛhya sūtrās like Vaikhanasa prescribe 2 more samskaras like Vishnu bali and Pravasagamana/Pindavardhana.

Yagyas such as Putrakameshti (for begetting sons), Ashvamedha (to rule), Rajasuya (royal consecration) etc. are among the 400 which are not compulsory.


This is the basic simple fire sacrifice that is to be performed at home twice daily. The Aupasana agni is lit at the time of the groom's wedding from his father's fire. The aupasana can be performed by all four varnas. It is also compulsory. However, it is not part of the 21 compulsory fire sacrifices, and is to be performed in addition to those.

The various sacred Agnis

The Aupasana Agni lit at the time of the grooms wedding is then divided into two in a sacrifice called Agnyadhana. One part becomes the Grhyagni the other becomes the Srautagni. These two fires are to be preserved throughout the individual's life. The son's fire is lit from the father's fire at the time of his wedding . At the time of the individuals demise, cremation is done with the fires that have been preserved during his lifetime and then the deceased individual's fires are extinguished.

The Grhyagni or Aupasanagni is used in the Paka Yajnas; such rituals are described in the Grihasutras, such as in the Ekagni Kanda of the Apastambha Sutra. Normally this fire is located in the centre or north of the hall which accommodates the sacred fires. This fire may be circular or square .

The rituals pertaining to the three Srautagnis are described in the Shrauta Sutras. Their performers are called Srautin. Fourteen of the 21 compulsory sacrifices are performed in the Srautagnis. They are called Garhapatya, Ahavaniya and Dakshinagni and collectively called the tretagni. The Garhapatya is circular in shape and is situated in the west of the offering ground. Fire is taken from the Garhapatya and kindled in the remaining two fires. The Dakshinagni is semi-circular, situated in the south and used for certain rituals, mainly for offerings to the forefathers. The Ahavaniya is square, situated in the east, and is used as the main offering fire of most Srauta sacrifices. The last three haviryagyas and all the seven somayagyas are performed in a specially built yagyashala.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

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From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yajurveda 100126

The Yajurveda (यजुर्वेदः = य ज ु र ् व े द ः  yajurveda, a tatpurusha compound of yajus "sacrificial formula', + veda "knowledge") is the third of the four canonical texts of Hinduism, the Vedas. By some, it is estimated to have been composed between 1,400 and 1000 BCE, the Yajurveda 'Samhita', or 'compilation', contains the liturgy (mantras) needed to perform the sacrifices of the religion of the Vedic period, and the added Brahmana and Shrautasutra add information on the interpretation and on the details of their performance.

There are two primary versions or Samhitas of the Yajurveda: Shukla (white) and Krishna (black). Both contain the verses necessary for rituals, but the Krishna Yajurveda includes the Brahmana prose discussions within the Samhita, while the Shukla Yajurveda has separately a Brahmana text, the Shatapatha Brahmana.

Shukla Yajurveda (white)

There are two (nearly identical) shakhas or recensions of the Shukla (White) Yajurveda, both known as Vajasaneyi-Samhita (VS):

Vajasaneyi Madhyandiniya (VSM), originally of Bihar
Vajasaneyi Kanva of originally of Kosala (VSK)

The former is popular in North India, Gujarat, parts of Maharashtra (north of Nashik) and thus commands a numerous following. The Kanva Shakha is popular in parts of Maharashtra (south of Nasik), Orissa, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. Sureshvaracharya, one of the four main disciples of Jagadguru Adi Shankara, is said to have followed the Kanva shakha. The Guru himself followed the Taittiriya Shakha with the Apastamba Kalpasutra. The Vedic rituals of the Ranganathaswamy Temple at Srirangam, the second biggest temple in India, are performed according to the Kanva shakha. Raghu vamsam; Dasaratha and Sri Rama's clan follows the Shukla Yajurveda branch. The White Yajurveda has two Upanishads associated with it: the Isha Vasya and the Brihadaranyaka Upanishads. The Brihadaranyaka Upanishad is the most voluminous of all Upanishads.

The VS has forty chapters or adhyayas (but 41 in Orissa), containing the formulas used with the following rituals:

1.-2.: New and Full Moon sacrifices
3.: Agnihotra
4.-8.: Somayajna
9.-10.: Vajapeya and Rajasuya, two modifications of the Soma sacrifice
11.-18.: construction of altars and hearths, especially the Agnicayana
19.-21.: Sautramani, a ritual originally counteracting the effects of excessive Soma-drinking
22.-25.: Ashvamedha
26.-29.: supplementary formulas for various rituals
30.-31.: Purushamedha
32.-34.: Sarvamedha
35.: Pitriyajna
36.-39.: Pravargya
40.: the final adhyaya is the famous Isha Upanishad

The VSM was edited and published by Weber (London and Berlin, 1852), and translated into English by Ralph T. H. Griffith (Benares, 1899) and Devi Chand (Hoshiarpur, 1957).

Krishna Yajurveda (black)

There are four recensions of the Krishna ("black") Yajurveda:

Taittirīya saṃhita  (TS) originally of Panchala
Maitrayani saṃhita  (MS) originally of the area south of Kurukshetra
Caraka-Katha saṃhita  (KS) originally of Madra and Kurukshetra
Kapiṣṭhala-Katha saṃhita  (KapS) of the southern Panjab, Bahika

Each of the recensions has or had a Brahmana associated with it, and most of them also have associated Shrautasutras, Grhyasutras, Aranyakas, Upanishads and Pratishakhyas.

The Taittiriya Shakha: The best known and best preserved of these recensions is the TS, named after Tittiri, a pupil of Yaska. It consists of 7 books or kandas, subdivided in chapters or prapathakas, further subdivided into individual sections (anuvakas). Some individual hymns in this Samhita have gained particular importance in Hinduism; e.g. TS 4.5 and TS 4.7 constitute the Rudram Chamakam, while 1.8.6.i is the Shaivaite Tryambakam mantra. The beejas bhūr bhuvaḥ suvaḥ prefixed to the (rigvedic) Savitur Gayatri mantra are also from the Yajurveda. The Taittiriya recension of the Black Yajurveda is the shakha now most prevalent in southern India. Among the followers of this Shakha, the Apastamba Sutras are the common. The Taittiriya Shakha consists of Taittiriya Samhita (having seven kandas), Taittiriya Brahmana (having three kandas), Taittiriya Aranyaka (having seven prashnas) (See Aranyaka Literature), Taittiriya Upanishad (having three prashnas or vallis - Shiksha valli, Ananda valli and Bhrigu valli) and the Mahanarayana Upanishad. The Taittiriya Upanishad and Mahanarayana Upanishad are considered to be the seventh, eighth, ninth and tenth prashnas of the Aranyaka. The words prapathaka and kanda (meaning sections) are interchangeably used in Vedic literature. Prashna and valli refer to sections of the Aranyaka.

There is another Short tract apart from the above and that is commonly known as Ekagni Kanda which mainly consists of mantra-s used in the marriage and other rituals.

Three recensions have been edited and published: the Taittiriya by Albrecht Weber in "Indische Studien", XI, XII (Berlin, 1871-72), the Maitrayani by Leopold von Schroeder (Leipzig, 1881-86) and the Kathaka by von Schroeder (Leipzig, 1900-09). The Taittiriya Samhita was translated into English by A. B. Keith (Oxford 1913).


According to tradition, the vedic seer Yajnavalkya studied the Yajurveda collection under the tutelage of sage Vaishampayana maternal uncle of Yajnavalkya. Yajnavalkya's birth was with a purpose as purported by Gods. He was an Ekasandhigrāhi, meaning he learnt anything with just once teaching. The two came to have serious differences in interpretation. On one occasion, Vaishampayana was so enraged that he demanded the return of all the knowledge he had imparted to Yajnavalkya. Yajnavalkya returned in indignation or (literally vomited) all the knowledge he had learnt. The other disciples of Vaishampayana, eager to receive this knowledge, assumed the form of tittiri birds and absorbed while being recited during the return (or ate the knowledge). Thus, that knowledge came to be called the Taittiriya Samhita (a derivation of tittiri). After having regurgitated the knowledge acquired from his teacher, Yajnavalkya worshipped Surya (the Sun God) and acquired new knowledge directly from Narayana who taught the Shukla Yajurveda taking the shape of a stallion (vāji-rūpa).

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From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yaksha 110525

Yaksha (Skt: यक्ष yakṣa = य क ् ष , Pal: यक्ख yakkha = य क ् ख ,

Yaksha (Skt: यक्ष yakṣa , Pal: यक्ख yakkha,[1] Thai: ยักษ์ yaksa, Korean: 야차/夜叉 yacha, Japanese: 夜叉 yasha, Chinese: 夜叉 ychā or yaochā, Bur: ႀေ-ဴက ba-lu, Tibetan: གནོད་སྦྱིན་ gnod sbyin) is the name of a broad class of nature-spirits, usually benevolent, who are caretakers of the natural treasures hidden in the earth and tree roots.[2] They appear in Hindu, Jain and Buddhist mythology.[2] The feminine form of the word is yakṣī (यक्षी)[3] or Yakshini (yakṣiṇī (यक्षिणी),[4] Pāli: yakkhī (यक्खी) or yakkhiṇī (यक्खिणी).

In Hindu, Jain, and Buddhist mythology, the yakṣa has a dual personality. On the one hand, a yakṣa may be an inoffensive nature-fairy, associated with woods and mountains; but there is also a darker version of the yakṣa, which is a kind of ghost (bhuta) that haunts the wilderness and waylays and devours travelers, similar to the rakṣasas.

In Kālidāsa's poem Meghadūta, for instance, the yakṣa narrator is a romantic figure, pining with love for his missing beloved. By contrast, in the didactic Hindu dialogue of the Yakṣapraśnāḥ ("questions of the Yakṣa"), it is a tutelary spirit of a lake that challenges Yudhiṣṭhira. The yakṣas may have originally been the tutelary gods of forests and villages, and were later viewed as the steward deities of the earth and the wealth buried beneath. In Indian art, male yakṣas are portrayed either as fearsome warriors or as portly, stout and dwarf-like. Female yakṣas, known as yakṣiṇīs, are portrayed as beautiful young women with happy round faces and full breasts and hips.

Yakṣas in Buddhism

UKT: Whenever the word Buddhism is involved, make sure what it means - Theravada, Mahayana, or even Waizzayana (sp?). - UKT110525

In Buddhist mythology, the yakṣa are the attendants of Vaiśravaṇa, the Guardian of the Northern Quarter, a beneficent god who protects the righteous. The term also refers to the Twelve Heavenly Generals who guard Bhaiṣajyaguru, the Medicine Buddha.

According to the Mahavamsa, Prince Vijaya encountered the royalty of the Yakkhas. King Maha Kalasena, Queen Gonda on the celebration of the marriage of their daughter Princess Polamitta in the Yakkha capital of Lankapura and conquered them. Lankapura may have been in Arithra or Vijithapura. The Yakkhas served as loyal subjects with the Vijiyan dynasty and the Yakkha cheiftan sat on equal height to the Sri Lankan leaders on festival days.

Yaksha and Yakshini in Jainism

Jains mainly worship idols of Jinas, Arhats, and Tirthankars, who have conquered the inner passions and attained God-consciousness status. Some section of jains believe that Yaksha and Yakshini look after the well beings of Thirthankarars. Usually, they are found in pair around the idols of Jinas as male (yaksha) and female (yakshini) guardian deities. Yaksha is generally on the right-hand side of the Jina idol and Yakshini on the left-hand side. In earlier periods, they were regarded mainly as devotees of Jina, and have supernatural powers. They are also wandering through the cycles of births and deaths just like the worldly souls, but have supernatural powers. Over time, people started worshiping these deities as well.[5]

Som sections of Jains looked at yaksas and yaksanis for the immediate returns, and gave them the places in their temples. Some Yaksa were and are known for bestowing fertility and wealth upon their devotes. Therefore, they had become very popular and their idols had been placed in Jain temples and Jains worship them. Jains offer them different things in favor of boons for children, wealth or freedom from fears, illness or disease.

Jainism provides very clear foundations and guidelines, and it is up to every individual jains to decide which idols to worship and which ones that should just be acknowledged. Sthanakvasi and Terapanthi Jains of the Svetambers sect and Taranpanthi Jains of Digambar sect do not believe in idol worshiping.

Prominent Yakshas and Yakshanis

Padvamati Devi

Padvamati Devi is the dedicated deity of Lord Parshvanath, the 23rd Tirthankar. 23rd Jain tirthankar Parshvanath is always represented with the hood of a snake shading his head. The Yaksha Dharanendra and the Yakshi Padmavati are often shown flanking him. Her color is golden and her vehicle is the snake with a cock's head. She has four arms and her two right hands hold a lotus and a Japa mala. The two left hands hold a fruit and a rein.

Chakreshware Devi

Chakreshware Devi is the dedicated attendant deity of lord Adinath. She is also called by another name, Apratichakra. The color of this goddess is golden. Her vehicle is the eagle. She has eight arms. In her four right hands she holds the blessing mudra, arrow, rope, and wheel. In her four left hands she holds the rein, the bow (the protective weapon of Indra), and the wheel.

Ambika Devi

Ambika Devi is the dedicated deity of Lord Neminath the 22nd Tirthankara. She is also called Ambai Amba and Amra Kushmandini. Her color is golden and the lion is her vehicle. She has four arms. In her two right hands she carries a mango and in the other a branch of a mango tree. In her one left hand she carries a rein and in the other she has her two sons.

Saraswathi Devi

Saraswathi, the goddess of knowledge, is considered to be the source of all learning. This divine energy is the source of spiritual light, remover of all ignorance, and promoter of all knowledge. She is respected and adored by all faiths, worldly persons, and saints. She has four arms, one holding a book, the other a Japa mala (a kind of rosary), and two hands holding a stringed musical instrument called a Veena. Her seat is a lotus and the peacock is her vehicle, representing equanimity in prosperity. In some places it is mentioned that the swan is her vehicle.

Lakshmi Devi

The goddess Lakshmi represents wealth. People worship her as the goddess of wealth, power, money, etcetera. Just like Saraswathi, She is respected and adored by all faiths, and popular amongst worldly persons. In the upper two hands, she is holding a lotus with an elephant, in the lower-right hand a Japa mala (a kind of rosary) and in the lower left hand a pot.

UKT: End of Wiki article.

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