Update: 2011-09-22 07:47 PM +0800


Sanskrit English Dictionary


from: Online Sanskrit Dictionary, February 12, 2003 . http://sanskritdocuments.org/dict/dictall.pdf  090907

Downloaded, set in HTML, and edited by U Kyaw Tun, M.S. (I.P.S.T., U.S.A.), and staff of TIL Computing and Language Centre, Yangon, Myanmar. Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone.

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{wya.} व्य / {bya.} : In Pali-Myanmar, these entries correspond to {bya.}. See also ब्र {bra.}
{wya} व्या / {bya}
{wyu.} व्यु / {byu.}
{wra.} व्र 

In Pali-Myanmar, {wa.} and {ya.}, and also {wa.} and {ra.} sometimes do not form conjuncts. e.g.,

{wa.ya.} - UHS-PMDict 0853
{wa.ra.} - UHS-PMDict 0853

Because of the introduction of /v/ into Skt-Dev, there can be two conjuncts /by/ and /vy/. My first source of Pal-Lat, the UPMT-PED (at least in the copy that I have) curiously does not list both /by/ and /vy/ for which I have to rely on PTS - Pali Text Soc. Pali-English-Dictionary, Pali Text Soc., 1999, pp738 . Unfortunately PTS that I have is in small print which is proving to be very hard on my failing eye-sight! - UKT 110415
   Lately (110419), I came to know that PTS is also available in digitized online version from Univ. Chicago. However up to today (110504), I haven't used it very much. - http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/pali/index.html

UKT: Noteworthy passages in this file:
• ... archeological evidence of the Brahmi script being used from at least 500 BC. [UKT: Since, 500 BC predates Asoka, my argument that the script should be called the Asoka script needs to be changed. My sole objection to the name Brahmi is because of its religious implication.]

UKT notes
Grapheme-shape hypothesisVyasa व्यास vyāsa

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{wya.} व्य / {bya.}: see also ब्र {bra.}

• व्यक्त (vyakta)
Skt: व्यक्त (vyakta) - made known - OnlineSktDict
Pal: byatta - adj. experienced, learned - PTS-PED492 . See also व्यत्त (vyatta)

UKT: See also व्यत्त (vyatta). The Pal-Myan pronunciation (based on Bur-Myan) indicates that the vowels in व्यक्त (vyakta) [= {byak~ta.}] and व्यत्त (vyatta) [= {byût~ta.}] are different. It should be noted that UHS does not list {byak~ta.}. I'm waiting for input from my peers. - UKT110415  


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• व्यक्तयः (vyaktayaH)
Skt: व्यक्तयः (vyaktayaH)  - living entities - OnlineSktDict

• व्यक्तिं (vyaktiM)
Skt: व्यक्तिं (vyaktiM) - personality - OnlineSktDict

• व्यक्तिगत (vyaktigata)
Skt: व्यक्तिगत (vyaktigata) - (adj) individual - OnlineSktDict

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• व्यजनम् (vyajanam.h)
Skt: व्यजनम् (vyajanam.h) - (n) fan - OnlineSktDict

• व्यतितरिष्यति (vyatitarishhyati)
Skt: व्यतितरिष्यति (vyatitarishhyati) - surpasses - OnlineSktDict

¤ व्यञ्जन vyañjana
Skt: व्यञ्जन vyañjana n. consonant (grammar) - SpkSkt
Pal: byañjana/ vyañjana - nt. 2. letter (of a word) as opposed to attha (meaning, sense, spirit); or pada (word) - PTS-PED492 and 652
Pal: {byiñ~za.na.} = - - UHS-PMD0712

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• व्यतीतानि (vyatiitaani)
Skt: व्यतीतानि (vyatiitaani) - have passed - OnlineSktDict

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• व्यत्त (vyatta)
Skt: व्यत्त (vyatta) - open - OnlineSktDict
*Pal: byatta - adj. [Skt: vyakta] - experienced, learned - PTS-PED492

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• व्यथन्ति (vyathanti)
Skt: व्यथन्ति (vyathanti) - are disturbed - OnlineSktDict

• व्यथयन्ति (vyathayanti)
Skt: व्यथयन्ति (vyathayanti) - are distressing - OnlineSktDict

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• व्यथा (vyathaa)
Skt: व्यथा (vyathaa) - trouble - OnlineSktDict

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• व्यथिष्ठाः (vyathishhThaaH)
Skt: व्यथिष्ठाः (vyathishhThaaH) - be disturbed - OnlineSktDict

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• व्यदारयत् (vyadaarayat.h)
Skt: व्यदारयत् (vyadaarayat.h) - shattered  - OnlineSktDict

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• व्यपदेश (vyapadesha)
Skt: व्यपदेश (vyapadesha) - (m) mention, name - OnlineSktDict

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• व्यपाश्रयः (vyapaashrayaH)
Skt: व्यपाश्रयः (vyapaashrayaH) - taking shelter of - OnlineSktDict

• व्यपाश्रित्य (vyapaashritya)
Skt: व्यपाश्रित्य (vyapaashritya) - particularly taking shelter - OnlineSktDict

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• व्यपेतभीः (vyapetabhiiH)
Skt: व्यपेतभीः (vyapetabhiiH) - free from all fear - OnlineSktDict

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• व्यभिचारिन् (vyabhichaarin.h)
Skt: व्यभिचारिन् (vyabhichaarin.h) - adj. deviate - OnlineSktDict

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• व्ययभाव (vyayabhaava)
Skt: व्ययभाव (vyayabhaava) - House of Expenditure/ Loss or 12th - OnlineSktDict

• व्ययम् (vyayam.h)
Skt: व्ययम् (vyayam.h) - (n) expenditure, spending - OnlineSktDict

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• व्यरंसीत् (vyara.nsiit.h)
Skt: व्यरंसीत् (vyara.nsiit.h) - passed, elapsed - OnlineSktDict

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• व्यर्थ (vyartha)
Skt: व्यर्थ (vyartha)  - (adj) useless, purposeless - OnlineSktDict

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• व्यवकलनम् (vyavakalanam.h)
Skt: व्यवकलनम् (vyavakalanam.h) - (n) subtraction - OnlineSktDict

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• व्यवच्छेत्सीः (vyavachchhetsiiH)
Skt: व्यवच्छेत्सीः (vyavachchhetsiiH) - cut or dissect - OnlineSktDict

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• व्यवसायः (vyavasaayaH)
Skt: व्यवसायः (vyavasaayaH) - enterprise or adventure - OnlineSktDict

• व्यवसायात्मिका (vyavasaayaatmikaa)
Skt: व्यवसायात्मिका (vyavasaayaatmikaa) - resolute in KRishhNa consciousness - OnlineSktDict

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• व्यवसितः (vyavasitaH)
Skt: व्यवसितः (vyavasitaH) - situated in determination - OnlineSktDict

• व्यवसिता (vyavasitaa)
Skt: व्यवसिता (vyavasitaa) - engaged - OnlineSktDict

• व्यवस्थितान् (vyavasthitaan.h)
Skt: व्यवस्थितान् (vyavasthitaan.h) - situated - OnlineSktDict

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• व्यवस्थितिः (vyavasthitiH)
Skt: व्यवस्थितिः (vyavasthitiH) - the situation - OnlineSktDict

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• व्यवस्थितौ (vyavasthitau)
Skt: व्यवस्थितौ (vyavasthitau) - put under regulations - OnlineSktDict

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• व्यवस्यति (vyavasyati)
Skt: व्यवस्यति (vyavasyati) - (verb Pr.III P.sing.PP) tries - OnlineSktDict

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• व्यवहारः (vyavahaaraH)
Skt: व्यवहारः (vyavahaaraH) - (m) business, transaction - OnlineSktDict

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• व्यवासिताः (vyavaasitaaH)
Skt: व्यवासिताः (vyavaasitaaH) - have decided - OnlineSktDict

• व्यशेम (vyashema)
Skt: व्यशेम (vyashema) - ? - OnlineSktDict

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• व्यसन (vyasana)
Skt: व्यसन (vyasana)  - addiction - OnlineSktDict

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{wya} व्या / {bya}

• व्याकरणं (vyaakaraNaM)
Skt: व्याकरणं (vyaakaraNaM) - (n) grammar - OnlineSktDict

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• व्याकुल (vyaakula)
Skt: व्याकुल (vyaakula) - alarmed (adj) - OnlineSktDict

• व्याकुलत्व (vyaakulatva)
Skt: व्याकुलत्व (vyaakulatva) - (neut) sorrow, concern - OnlineSktDict

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• व्याकुलिता (vyaakulitaa)
Skt: व्याकुलिता (vyaakulitaa) - she who has been afflicted/ affected - OnlineSktDict

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• व्याख्यानं (vyaakhyaanaM)
Skt: व्याख्यानं (vyaakhyaanaM) - (n) lecture - OnlineSktDict

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• व्याघ्रः (vyaaghraH)
Skt: व्याघ्रः (vyaaghraH)  - (m) tiger - OnlineSktDict
Pal: byaggha - [Skt: vyāgha] - a tiger - PTS-PED492
Pal: {byag~Ga.} - - UHS-PMD0711

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• व्यधः (vyaadhaH)
Skt: व्यधः (vyaadhaH) - (m) hunter - OnlineSktDict
Pal: {bya-Da.} - UHS-PMD0715

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• व्याधि (vyaadhi)
Skt: व्याधि (vyaadhi)  - disease - OnlineSktDict
Pal: byādhi - [Skt: vyādhi lit. 'upset'] sickness, disease - PTS-PED492 
Pal: {bya-Di.} - - UHS-PMD0715

• व्याधिमुक्ति (vyaadhimukti)
Skt: व्याधिमुक्ति (vyaadhimukti) - healing - OnlineSktDict

• व्याधी (vyaadhii)
Skt: व्याधी (vyaadhii) - illnesss - OnlineSktDict

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• व्यान (vyaana)
Skt: व्यान (vyaana)  - one of the vital airs, circulates energy all over the body - OnlineSktDict

• व्यापार (vyaapaara)
Skt: व्यापार (vyaapaara) - affair (masc) - OnlineSktDict

• व्यापारी (vyaapaarii)
Skt: व्यापारी (vyaapaarii) - (m) merchant, trader - OnlineSktDict

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• व्याप्तं (vyaaptaM)
Skt: व्याप्तं (vyaaptaM) - pervaded - OnlineSktDict

• व्याप्य (vyaapya)
Skt: व्याप्य (vyaapya) - pervading - OnlineSktDict

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• व्यामिश्रेण (vyaamishreNa)
Skt: व्यामिश्रेण (vyaamishreNa) - by equivocal - OnlineSktDict

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• व्याल (vyaala)
Skt: व्याल (vyaala) - elephant - OnlineSktDict
Skt: व्याल [ vyâla ] a. treacherous, wicked, vicious (esp. of elephants); m. vicious elephant; beast of prey; serpent:
  -grâha, -grâhin,
m. snake-catcher;
n. condition of a vicious elephant;
riga, m. beast of prey. - Macdonell (p. 300)

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• व्यावहारिक (vyaavahaarika)
Skt: व्यावहारिक (vyaavahaarika) - (adj) practical - OnlineSktDict

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• व्यास (vyaasa)
Skt: व्यास (vyaasa) - diameter - OnlineSktDict
Pal: {bya-þa.} - - UHS-PMDict-0716

• व्यासः (vyaasaH) .
Skt: व्यासः (vyaasaH) - Vyasa - OnlineSktDict

See my notes on व्यास vyāsa {bya-þa.}
My interest in Vyasa is because he was a teacher even though he might have been just a legendary one without actually being a historical person. It appears that there were others with similar names and titles. For instance, Vyasadeva mentioned in one of the entries below was one. Was he a different person? - 110416

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• व्यासङ्ग (vyaasa.nga)
Skt: व्यासङ्ग (vyaasa.nga) - varied interests, (involvement in) many hobbies - OnlineSktDict

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• व्यासप्रसादात् (vyaasaprasaadaat.h)
Skt: व्यासप्रसादात् (vyaasaprasaadaat.h) - by the mercy of Vyasadeva - OnlineSktDict

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• व्यासोच्छिष्ठं (vyaasochchhishhThaM)
Skt: व्यासोच्छिष्ठं (vyaasochchhishhThaM)  - vyAsa + uchchhishhThaM:by VyAsa + mouth-dropped - OnlineSktDict

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• व्याहरन् (vyaaharan.h)
Skt: व्याहरन् (vyaaharan.h) - vibrating - OnlineSktDict

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{wyu.} व्यु / {byu.}

• व्युदस्य (vyudasya)
Skt: व्युदस्य (vyudasya) - laying aside - OnlineSktDict

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• व्यूढं (vyuuDhaM)
Skt: व्यूढं (vyuuDhaM) - arranged in a military phalanx - OnlineSktDict

• व्यूढां (vyuuDhaaM)
Skt: व्यूढां (vyuuDhaaM) - arranged - OnlineSktDict

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• व्योमचारिणः (vyomachaariNaH)
Skt: व्योमचारिणः (vyomachaariNaH) - the people who wander over the sky (and 'pAtAla'&bhUtala') - OnlineSktDict

• व्योमन् (vyoman.h)
Skt: व्योमन् (vyoman.h) - (n) the sky - OnlineSktDict

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{wra.} व्र

• व्रज (vraja)
Skt: व्रज (vraja) - go - OnlineSktDict

• व्रजेत (vrajeta)
Skt: व्रजेत (vrajeta) - walks - OnlineSktDict

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• व्रण (vraNa)
Skt: व्रण (vraNa)  - injury, wound (masc, neut) - OnlineSktDict

• व्रत (vrata)
Skt: व्रत (vrata) - austerities - OnlineSktDict

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• व्रताः (vrataaH)
Skt: व्रताः (vrataaH) - avowed - OnlineSktDict

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• व्रात (vraata)
Skt: व्रात (vraata) - disciplined course - OnlineSktDict

• व्रिद्ध (vriddha)
Skt: व्रिद्ध (vriddha) - old, aged - OnlineSktDict

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UKT notes

Grapheme Shape Hypothesis

by UKT:

Hypothesis: The shape of a grapheme-pair reflects the way in which native speakers pronounce the associated phonemes.

Observation: • Skt v व is treated as Bur {wa.}, a semivowel, by most authors. But, at times v is treated as plosive {ba.}. However, the v here is NOT labial-dental, but bilabial . I am waiting for comments from my peers. -- UKT 100201

Sanskrit-Devanagari has the pair: v व - b ब where members have the same shape with only a small difference, and the speakers (Hindi included) tend to pronounce व as /v/ - labial-dental. On the other hand, the Burmese speakers pronounce the same, or at least its equivalent, as {wa.} - {ba.} -- with a difference. The Burmese speakers pronounce  the equivalent of व as the English <w> /w/ - bilabial. This is due to the fact that the phoneme /v/ is not present in Burmese.

It is my observation that a native Burmese-speaker who hasn't been exposed to English tend to pronounce the English v /v/ as w /w/. They pronounce the English <Victoria> /vɪk'tɔː.ri.ə/ (US) /-tɔːr.i-/ (in Queen Victoria) as {wi.to-ri.ya.}. And so teaching a Burmese-Myanmar child to pronounce the IPA /v/ is quite a challenge unless the teacher shows that labial-dental is touching the lower lip with the upper teeth.

From: Online Phonetics Course, Dep. of Linguistics, Univ. of Lausanne (UNIL), Switzerland. http://www.unil.ch/ling/english/index.html
   Voiceless (vl.) labiodental fricative. /f/ . The lower lip is brought close to the upper teeth, occasionally even grazing the teeth with its outer surface, or with its inner surface, imparting in this case a slight hushing sound. Fig.3.16. Considering its place of articulation (POA), it is unimportant to class this sound as dorsal or lateral.
   Voiced (vd.) labiodental fricative. /v/ . Same as above, but with vibration of the vocal cords. Considering its POA , it is unimportant to class this sound as dorsal or lateral.

I was told by my Bengali friend, Mr. Malay Pundit of Deep River, On., Canada, that the Bengalis, unlike the Hindi speakers, do pronounce Devanagari व as <w> /w/: yet the Bengali script curiously does not have a grapheme corresponding to व but only b ব . Now, note the similarity in shape between Dev. v व and Bengali b ব . I will now quote William Dwight Whitney (1827–1894 - American linguist and lexicographer), Sanskrit Grammar ,1879, 2d edn. 1889 , sect. 50a: "From an early period in the history of the language, but increasingly later, b {ba.} and v {wa.} exchange with one another, or fail to be distinguished in the manuscripts. Thus, the double root-forms bṛh and vṛh, bādh and vadh, and so on. In the Bengal manuscripts, v is widely written instead of more original b." -- UKT 091202

Go back grapheme-shape-hypothesis-note-b 

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From: Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vyasa 100202
http://www.orientalthane.com/archaeology/news_2004_05_31_1.htm 100202

Vyasa (व्यास, vyāsa) is a central and revered figure in the majority of Hindu traditions. He is also known as Badarayana. He is also sometimes called Veda Vyasa (वेद व्यास, veda vyāsa), (the one who split the Vedas) or Krishna Dvaipayana (referring to his complexion and birthplace). He is accredited as the scribe of both the Vedas, and the supplementary texts such as the Puranas. A number of Vaishnava traditions regard him as an avatar of Vishnu.[1] Vyasa is also considered to be one of the seven Chiranjivins (long lived, or immortals) (Skt-Dev: nominative sing. ciranjīvī, चिरंजीवी ) , who are still in existence according to general Hindu belief.

UKT: Buddhism does not accept a permanent soul, and therefore the idea of an immortal is anathema to the Theravada Buddhist faith. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chiranjivi 110415
   Whether Vyasa was a historical or not, he is represented as one of the greatest legendary teachers who taught both gods and men. Since one of my own motto, being a life-long teacher is : "The greatest joy a teacher has is to teach - to pass on the human knowledge to another". Click here to see Vyasa teaching.

In the Mahabharata

Vyasa appears for the first time as the author of, and an important character in the Mahābhārata. He was the son of Satyavati (also known as Matsyagandha), daughter of a ferryman or fisherman (a dasyu aboriginal princess)[2], and the wandering sage Parashara. He was born on an island in the river Yamuna. This is said to be near Kalpi in Jalaun district in Uttar Pradesh. Many also point out that the sage was born on the confluence of the rivers Koel, Sankha and Brahmani at the present steel city of Rourkela in Northern Orissa. The place is named after him as Vedvyas. He was dark-complexioned and hence may be called by the name Krishna (black), and also the name Dwaipayana, meaning 'island-born'.

UKT: From: Excerpt from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dasa 110416

"A Dasyu is a member of an aboriginal people in India encountered and embattled by the invading Aryans (c. 1500 BC). They were described by the Aryans as a dark-skinned, harsh-spoken people who worshiped the phallus. This allusion has persuaded many scholars that worship of the linga, the Hindu religious symbol, originated with them; it may, however, have referred to their sexual practices. They lived in fortified places from which they sent out armies. They may be considered the original Sudras, or labourers, who served the three higher classes of Brahman, Kshatriya (warrior), and Vaishya (mercantile), from whose ritual communion they were excluded.[14]

"The main difference between the Aryas and the Dasas in the Rig Veda is a difference of religion.[15] Already A. A. Macdonell and A. B. Keith (1912) remarked that: "The great difference between the Dasyus and the Aryans was their religion... It is significant that constant reference is made to difference in religion between Aryans and Dasa and Dasyu." The Dasas and Dasyus are also described as brahma-dvisah in the Rig Veda,[16] which Ralph T.H. Griffith translates as "those who hate devotion" or "prayer haters". Thus Dasa has also been interpreted as meaning the people that don't follow the same religion as the Aryans. Rig Veda 10.22.8 describes the Dasa-Dasyus as a-karman (non-performers of Aryan sacrifices), anya-vrata (observers of other rites) and in Rig Veda 10.105.8 they are described as anrc (non-singer of laudatory hymns). In RV 8.70.11 they are described as a-deva-yu (not regarding Deva ) [17]  ".

Vyasa was [UKT: genetic] grandfather to the Kauravas and Pandavas. Both Dhritarashtra and Pandu, adopted as the sons of Vichitravirya by the royal family, were fathered by him. He had a third son, Vidura, by a serving maid.

Veda Vyasa

Hindus traditionally hold that Vyasa categorised the primordial single Veda into four. Hence he was called Veda Vyasa, or "Splitter of the Vedas," the splitting being a feat that allowed people to understand the divine knowledge of the Veda. The word vyasa means split, differentiate, or describe.

It has been debated whether Vyasa was a single person or a class of scholars who did the splitting. The Vishnu Purana has an interesting theory about Vyasa. The Hindu view of the universe is that of a cyclic phenomenon that comes into existence and dissolves repeatedly. Each cycle is presided over by a number of Manus, one for each Manvantara, that has four ages, Yugas of declining virtues. The Dvapara Yuga is the third Yuga. The Vishnu Purana (Book 3, Ch 3) says:

In every third world age (Dvapara), Vishnu, in the person of Vyasa, in order to promote the good of mankind, divides the Veda, which is properly but one, into many portions. Observing the limited perseverance, energy, and application of mortals, he makes the Veda fourfold, to adapt it to their capacities; and the bodily form which he assumes, in order to effect that classification, is known by the name of Veda-vyasa. Of the different Vyasas in the present Manvantara and the branches which they have taught, you shall have an account. Twenty-eight times have the Vedas been arranged by the great Rishis in the Vaivasvata Manvantara... and consequently eight and twenty Vyasas have passed away; by whom, in the respective periods, the Veda has been divided into four. The first... distribution was made by Svayambhu (Brahma) himself; in the second, the arranger of the Veda (Vyasa) was Prajapati... (and so on up to twenty-eight).

Author of the Mahābhārata

Vyasa is traditionally known as author of [Mahābhārata] epic. [UKT ¶]

UKT: The line drawing on the right can be further enlarged by clicking here. Pix downloaded on 110415

But he also features as an important character in it. His mother later married the king of Hastinapura, and had two sons. Both sons died without an issue and taking recourse to an ancient practice called Niyoga where a chosen man can father sons with the widow of a person who dies issueless, she requests Vyasa to produce sons on behalf of her dead son Vichitravirya.

Vyasa fathers the princes Dhritarashtra and Pandu by Ambika and Ambalika, the wives of the dead king Vichitravirya). Vyasa told them that they should come alone near him. First did Ambika, but because of shyness and fear she closed her eyes. Vyasa told Satyavati that her child would be blind. Later this child was named Dhritarāshtra. Thus Satyavati sent Ambālika and warned her that she should remain calm. But Ambālika's face became pale because of fear. Vyasa told her that child would suffer from anaemia, and he would not be fit enough to rule the kingdom. Later this child was known as Pāndu. Then Vyasa told Satyavati to send one of them again so that a healthy child can be born. This time Ambika and Ambālika sent a maid in the place of themselves. The maid was quite calm and composed, and she got a healthy child later named as Vidura. While these are 'legally' not his sons, another son Śuka, born of his wife, sage Jābāli's daughter Pinjalā (Vatikā),[3] is considered his true spiritual heir.[UKT ¶]

He [Vyasa] was thus the grandfather of both the warring parties of the Mahābhārata, the Kauravas and the Pāndavas. He makes occasional appearances in the story as a spiritual guide to the young princes.

In the first book of the Mahābhārata, it is described that Vyasa asked Ganesha to aid him in writing the text, however Ganesha imposed a condition that he would do so only if Vyasa narrated the story without pause. To which Vyasa then made a counter-condition that Ganesha must understand the verse before he transcribed it. This is supposed to explain the complicated Sanskrit used in some sections of the Mahābhārata, recited by Vyasa when he wanted a break.

Thus Lord VedVyas narrated the whole Mahābhārata and all the Upanishads and the 18 Puranas, while Lord Ganesha wrote.

Vyasa is supposed to have meditated and authored the epic by the foothills of the river Beas (Vipasa) in the Punjab region.

Vyasa's Jaya

Vyasa's Jaya, the core of Mahābhārata is structured in the form of a dialogue between [the blind] Dhritarashtra (the Kuru king and the father of the Kauravas, who opposed the Pāndavas in the Kurukshetra War) and Sanjaya, his advisor and chariot driver. Sanjaya narrates each incident of the Kurukshetra War, fought in 18 days, as and when it happened. Dhritarāshtra sometimes asks questions and doubts and sometimes laments, knowing about the destruction caused by the war, to his sons, friends and kinsmen. He also feels guilty, due to his own role, that led to this war, destructive to the entire Indian subcontinent.

In the beginning Sanjaya gives a description of the various continents of the Earth, the other planets, and focuses on the Indian Subcontinent and gives an elaborate list of hundreds of kingdoms, tribes, provinces, cities, towns, villages, rivers, mountains, forests etc of the (ancient) Indian Subcontinent (Bhārata Varsha). He also explains about the 'military formations adopted by each side on each day, the death of each hero and the details of each war-racings. Some 18 chapters of Vyasa's Jaya constitutes the Bhagavad Gita, the sacred text of the Hindus. Thus, this work of Vyasa, called Jaya deals with diverse subjects like geography, history, warfare, religion and morality.

Ugrasrava Sauti's Mahābhārata

The final phase of Vyasa's work culminated as Mahābhārata, structured as a narration by Ugrasrava Sauti (Sutji) who was a professional story teller, to an assembly of sages (rishis) like Saunaka. Bharata is embedded inside it, and within it Jaya.

Reference to writing

Within the Mahābhārata, there is a tradition in which Vyasa wishes to write down or inscribe his work:

The Grandsire Brahma (creator of the universe) comes and tells Vyasa to get the help of Ganapati for his task. Ganapati writes down the stanzas recited by Vyasa from memory and thus the Mahābhārata is inscribed or written. Ganapati could not cope up with Vyasa's speed and he misses many words or even stanzas.

The latest portions of the Mahābhārata are estimated to date from roughly the 4th century BC, the time of the introduction of writing to India.

There is some evidence however that writing may have been known earlier based on archeological findings of styli in the Painted Grey Ware culture, dated between 1100 BC and 700 BC. (Vyasa-Wiki-fn04) .[4][5][6] and archeological evidence of the Brahmi script being used from at least 500 BC. (Vyasa-Wiki-fn07) [7]  .

UKT: See also S. U. Deraniyagala , Director-General of Archaeology, Sri Lanka, Early Man and the Rise of Civilization in Sri Lanka: the Archeological Evidence , HTML@ WWW Virtual Library - Sri Lanka 110415. The article is reproduced with my additions in my CD package - Myanmar - the land, the akshara and its people - A Linguistic and Cultural study with emphasis on the Myanmar Akshara : ancien-neigh-indx.htm (this linkage would not work unless the CD package is on your computer) . A passage in the article reads:
   "At ca. 600-500 BC, the first appearance of writing (in Brahmi almost identical to the Asokan script some 200 years later) heralds the commencement of the Early Historic period (Deraniyagala 1992:739-5; Coningham 1999; Deraniyagala and Abeyratne ip). This writing, radiocarbon dated on charcoal from three locations in the Citadel of Anuradhapura and checked by thermoluminescence dating, is inscribed on potsherds signifying ownership."

The difficulty faced by Ganapati (Ganesha) in writing down Mahābhārata as described in the tradition, could be real, and was most probably faced by those people who first attempted to write it down as some reciter recited it continuously. This is because, the reciter will not be able to stop in the middle of recitation and then resume it, as the lines are committed to his memory as a continuous recording.

(The name Ganapati, was used in ancient days, to denote the head of a republic. In ancient India, there were kingdoms ruled by kings or Rajas as well as republics ruled by elected heads or Ganapatis. Kambojas were a republic. To some extent Dvārakā had republican style of rule. Ganapati, who wrote down Mahābhārata, probably was one of these republic chiefs, well educated in the art of writing or inscription.)

In the Puranas

Within Buddhism Vyasa appears as Kanha-dipayana (the Pali version of his name) in two Jataka tales: the Kanha-dipayana Jataka and Ghata Jataka. Whilst the former in which he appears as the Bodhisattva has no relation to his tales from the Hindu works, his role in the latter one has parallels in an important event in the Mahabhrata.

In the 16th book of the epic, Mausala Parva, the end of the Vrishnis, clansmen of Vyasa's namesake and Vishnu incarnate Krishna is narrated. The epic says:

One day, the Vrishni heroes .. saw Vishvamitra, Kanwa and Narada arrived at Dwaraka. Afflicted by the rod of chastisement wielded by the deities, those heroes, causing Samba to be disguised like a woman, approached those ascetics and said, ‘This one is the wife of Vabhru of immeasurable energy who is desirous of having a son. Ye Rishis, do you know for certain what this one will bring forth? Those ascetics, attempted to be thus deceived, said: ‘This heir of Vasudeva, by name Samba, will bring forth a fierce iron bolt for the destruction of the Vrishnis and the Andhakas.

The important Bhagavata Purana (book 11) too narrates the incident in a similar manner and names the sages as Visvāmitra, Asita, Kanva, Durvāsa, Bhrigu, Angirâ, Kashyapa, Vâmadeva, Atri, Vasishthha, along with Nârada and others - it does not explicitly include Vyasa in the list.

The Ghata Jataka has a different spin on it:

The Vrishnis, wishing to test Kanha-dipayana's powers of clairvoyance, played a practical joke on him. They tied a pillow to the belly of a young lad, and dressing him up as a woman, took him to the ascetic and asked when the baby would be born. The ascetic replied that on the seventh day the person before him would give birth to a knot of acacia wood which would destroy the race of Vásudeva. The youths thereupon fell on him and killed him, but his prophecy came true .

Notably, he is not the Bodhisattva in the Ghata Jataka.

In the Arthashastra

The only non-religious book in which Vyasa has an interesting entry is the Arthashastra of Chanakya. In chapter 6, it says:

'Whosoever is of reverse character, whoever has not his organs of sense under his control, will soon perish, though possessed of the whole earth bounded by the four quarters. For example: Bhoja, known also by the name, Dándakya, making a lascivious attempt on a Bráhman maiden, perished along with his kingdom and relations; so also Karála, the Vaideha... Vátápi in his attempt under the influence of overjoy to attack Agastya, as well as the corporation of the Vrishnis in their attempt against Dwaipáyan.

This reference matches the Jataka version in including Vyasa as the sage attacked by the Vrishnis, though Vyasa does not die here.

Author of Brahma Sutra

The Brahma Sutra is attributed to Badarayana — which makes him the proponent of the crest-jewel school of Hindu philosophy, i.e., Vedanta. As the island on which Vyasa was born is said to have been covered by Badara (Indian jujube/Ber/Ziziphus mauritiana) trees, he is known as Badarayana. Though traditionally, Vyasa is considered the Badarayana who wrote the Sutras, many historians think these were two different personalities.

Author of Yoga Bhashya

This text is a commentary on the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. Vyasa is credited with this work also, though this is impossible, if Vyasa's immortality is not considered, as it is a later text.

Wikipedia refereces

Vyasa-Wiki-fn04 S. U. Deraniyagala. Early Man and the Rise of Civilisation in Sri Lanka: the Archaeological Evidence. Vyasa-Wiki-fn04b
  This reference is the BEPS library of this CD.

Vyasa-Wiki-fn07 T. S. Subramanian. Skeletons, script found at ancient burial site in Tamil Nadu. Institute for Oriental Study, Thane. Vyasa-Wiki-fn07b

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