Update: 2011-09-22 07:45 PM +0800


Sanskrit English Dictionary


from: Online Sanskrit Dictionary, February 12, 2003 . http://sanskritdocuments.org/dict/dictall.pdf  090907

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{wi.Sa.} विष

UKT notes
Vishnu विष्णु  Viṣṇu = व ि ष ् ण ु

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{wi.Sa.} विष

• विष (vishha)
Skt: विष (vishha) - poison - OnlineSktDict
Pal: visa - poison, venom - UPMT-PED201

• विषम (vishhama)
Skt: विषम (vishhama) - odd (as in odd or even) - OnlineSktDict

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• विषमिव (vishhamiva)
Skt: विषमिव (vishhamiva) - like poison - OnlineSktDict

• विषमे (vishhame)
Skt: विषमे (vishhame) - in this hour of crisis - OnlineSktDict

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• विषय (vishhaya)
Skt: विषय (vishhaya) - kingdom (here) - OnlineSktDict
Pal: visaya - m. region, realm, domain, sphere, object of sense - UPMT-PED201

• विषयाः (vishhayaaH)
Skt: विषयाः (vishhayaaH) - on the subject matter - OnlineSktDict

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• विषयान् (vishhayaan.h)
Skt: विषयान् (vishhayaan.h) - sense objects - OnlineSktDict

• विषये (vishhaye)
Skt: विषये (vishhaye) - in topics, in subjects - OnlineSktDict

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• विषाण (vishhaaNa)
Skt: विषाण (vishhaaNa) - horns - OnlineSktDict
Pal: visāṇa - n. a horn, tusk - UPMT-PED202

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• विषादं (vishhaadaM)
Skt: विषादं (vishhaadaM) - moroseness - OnlineSktDict
*Pal: visāda - m. dejection - UPMT-PED202

• विषादि (vishhaadi)
Skt: विषादि (vishhaadi) - morose - OnlineSktDict

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• विषीदन् (vishhiidan.h)
Skt: विषीदन् (vishhiidan.h) - while lamenting - OnlineSktDict

• विषीदन्तं (vishhiidantaM)
Skt: विषीदन्तं (vishhiidantaM) - lamenting - OnlineSktDict

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• विषुस्पृश (vishhuspRisha)
Skt: विषुस्पृश (vishhuspRisha) - touched, tinged with poison (poison-tipped arrow?) - OnlineSktDict

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• विषेशाधिकारः (vishheshaadhikaaraH)
Skt: विषेशाधिकारः (vishheshaadhikaaraH) - (m) privilege - OnlineSktDict

• विषेषता (vishheshhataa)
Skt: विषेषता (vishheshhataa) - difference - OnlineSktDict

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• विषोपमेयं (vishhopameyaM)
Skt: विषोपमेयं (vishhopameyaM) - poison-like - OnlineSktDict

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• विष्टभ्य (vishhTabhya)
Skt: विष्टभ्य (vishhTabhya) - pervading - OnlineSktDict

• विष्ठितं (vishhThitaM)
Skt: विष्ठितं (vishhThitaM) - situated - OnlineSktDict

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• विष्णु (vishhNu)
= व ि ष ् ण ु
Skt: विष्णु (vishhNu) - the preserver of the life - OnlineSktDict
Skt: विष्णु Viṣṇu - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vishnu 110414

See my note on Vishnu .

• विष्णुः (vishhNuH)
Skt: विष्णुः (vishhNuH) - the Lord MahaavishhNu - OnlineSktDict

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• विष्णुत्वं (vishhNutvaM)
Skt: विष्णुत्वं (vishhNutvaM) - the quality, state of Brahman, god-realisation - OnlineSktDict

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• विष्णे (vishhNo)
Skt: विष्णे (vishhNo) - O Lord Visnu - OnlineSktDict

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• विष्लेषण (vishhleshhaNa)
Skt: विष्लेषण (vishhleshhaNa) - analysis - OnlineSktDict

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UKT notes

Vishnu विष्णु Viṣṇu = व ि ष ् ण ु

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vishnu 110414

Vishnu (विष्णु Viṣṇu) is the Supreme God in the Vaishnavite tradition of Hinduism. Smarta followers of Adi Shankara, among others, venerate Vishnu as one of the five primary forms of God.[1]

The Vishnu Sahasranama[2] declares Vishnu as Paramatma (supreme soul) and Parameshwara (supreme God). [UKT ¶ ]

UKT: According to Bur-Myan tradition Parameshwara aka {pa.ra.mé-þwa} is Siva himself, and Peikthano {baiþ~þa.No:}/ {baiþ~þa.no:} (MED2010-316) is Vishnu. See Dr. (Maung) Htin Aung, The Five Great Gods, Folk Elements in Burmese Buddhism, Religious Affairs Dept. Press, Rangoon, 1981, approx. p012-013.

It describes Vishnu as the All-Pervading essence of all beings, the master of — and beyond — the past, present and future, one who supports, sustains and governs the Universe and originates and develops all elements within. Vishnu governs the aspect of preservation and sustenance of the universe, so he is called 'Preserver of the universe'.

In the Puranas, Vishnu is described as having the divine colour of water filled clouds, four-armed, holding a lotus, mace, conch (shankha) and chakra (wheel). Vishnu is also described in the Bhagavad Gita as having a 'Universal Form' (Vishvarupa) which is beyond the ordinary limits of human perception or imagination.[3]

The Puranabharti also describes each of thee Dasavatara of Vishnu. Among these ten principal Avatara described, nine have occurred in the past and one will take place in the future, at the end of Kali Yuga. In the commentary of creator Brahma in Vishnu Sahasranamam, he refers to Vishnu as "Sahasrakoti Yuga Dharine", which means that these incarnations take place in all Yugas in cosmic scales, the avatars and their stories show that god is indeed unimaginable, unthinkable and unbelievable. The Bhagavad Gita mentions their purpose as being to rejuvenate Dharma[4] and vanquish negative forces,the forces of evil that threaten Dharmma, as also to display His divine nature in front of the conditioned/fallen souls. In almost all Hindu denominations, Vishnu is either worshiped directly or in the form of his ten avatara, most famous of whom are Rama and Krishna.[5]

The Trimurti (English: ‘three forms’; Sanskrit: trimūrti) is a concept in Hinduism "in which the cosmic functions of creation, maintenance, and destruction are personified by the forms of Brahma the creator, Vishnu the maintainer or preserver, and Shiva the destroyer or transformer."[6][7] These three deities have been called "the Hindu triad"[8] or the "Great Trinity".[9] Of the three members of the Trimurti, the Bhagavata Purana, which espouses the Vaishnavite viewpoint, explains that the greatest benefit can be had from Vishnu.[10]

... ... ...

Relation with Shiva

During the Vedic period, both Vishnu and Shiva (as identified with Rudra) played relatively minor roles, but by the time of the Brahmanas (c. 1000-700 BCE), both were gaining ascendance.[46] By the Puranic period, both deities had major sects that competed with one another for devotees.[47] Many stories developed showing different types of relationships between these two important deities.

UKT: I have a feeling that Hinduism is a composite religion which tries to bring together the many beliefs of the Indian subcontinent. Thus, Shiva was the original god of the people of the south (the Dravidians), and Vishnu was the original god of the Brahmins who came into the region from the north-west (the Indo-Europeans). In India, they came face to face with the cult of the Mother Goddess of the north just south of the Himalayas (the Tibeto-Burmans). Even now, Hinduism is trying to bring Buddhism under its fold by ascribing Gautama Buddha as an incarnation of Vishnu much to the annoyance of the Buddhists (particularly the Theravada Buddhists in the country of Myanmar) because Buddhism has the Anatta-doctrine as its core whilst Hinduism holds exactly the opposite position - the belief in the Permanent Soul aka the Atta-doctrine. I am waiting for input from my peers. - UKT 110414.

Sectarian groups each presented their own preferred deity as supreme. Vishnu in his myths "becomes" Shiva.[48] The Vishnu Purana (4th c. CE) shows Vishnu awakening and becoming both Brahmā to create the world and Shiva to destroy it.[49] Shiva also is viewed as a manifestation of Vishnu in the Bhagavata Purana.[50] In Shaivite myths, on the other hand, Shiva comes to the fore and acts independently and alone to create, preserve, and destroy the world.[51] In one Shaivite myth of the origin of the lingam, both Vishnu and Brahmā are revealed as emanations from Shiva's manifestation as a towering pillar of flame.[52] The Śatarudrīya, a Shaivite hymn, says that Shiva is "of the form of Vishnu".[53] Differences in viewpoints between the two sects are apparent in the story of Śarabha (also spelled "Sharabha"), Skt-Dev: शरभ), the name of Shiva's incarnation in the composite form of man, bird, and beast. Shiva assumed that unusual form to chastise Vishnu in his hybrid form as Narasimha, the man-lion, who killed Hiranyakashipu, an ardent devotee of Shiva.[54][55] [UKT:¶]

However, Vaishnava followers including Dvaita scholars, such as Vijayindra Tirtha (1539–95) dispute this view of Narasimha based on their reading of Sattvika Puranas and Śruti texts.[56] On the other hand, the Vaishnava canon and texts also make a pointed reference not only to Lord Vishnu's entity as being separate from the other Vishnu namely the Sun God Suryanarayana, they also give pride of place among Gods or deities considered fit for worshipping, namely Brahma the creator and Shiva the destroyer. These canons specifically point out to Vishnu or Narayana's prominence by making him the only deity taking incarnations to come to earth and free or save his devotees and other good beings suffering at the hands of the asuras or evil-beings who have gotten ill-gotten strength, power and invincibility merely by worshipping Brahma or Shiva and getting boons from them in the process. As per the Vaishnava canons, while regarding both the creator Brahma and the destroyer Shiva as powerful, their granting boons to evil beings renders them powerless to punish because it is their boons or varams that made evil beings like Hiranyakashipu, Hiranyaksha, Ravana very powerful, enabling them to win wars against the Devas or celestial beings led by Indra and causing sufferings to good beings like the sages and other God-fearing humans on earth. So all beings whether the Devas or ordinary humans have no option but to pray and plead before Lord Vishnu or Sreeman Narayana to save them from the asuras. As per the Vaishnava canons, even Brahma the creator and Shiva the destroyer, join the devas in exhorting and persuading Sreeman Narayana or Lord Vishnu to take incarnations, go to earth for confronting and killing the very asuras or demons or evil-beings, to whom they themselves have granted boons. Not just this, but both the creator Brahma and Shiva the destroyer also play supportive roles by keeping company of Lord Vishnu in his incarnated forms. Hanuman half human and half-animal and completely dedicated to Ram, who gives him company and obeys his command while playing an important part in Ram's life is regarded in Vaishnava canon as being none other than Shiva the destroyer only, because it is through the blessings of Shiva that Hanuman is born to his mother Anjani for he also bears the name Anjaniputra. Thus, Hanuman the constant consort of Vishnu, with his idol being present in not just temples of Rama, but also in temples of Krishna, Narasimha i.e. all the avatarams of Vishnu is considered by Vaishnavas as being none other than Lord Shiva. [57]

Syncretic forces produced stories in which the two deities were shown in cooperative relationships and combined forms. Harihara is the name of a combined deity form of both Vishnu (Hari) and Shiva (Hara).[58] This dual form, which is also called Harirudra, is mentioned in the Mahabharata. [59]

The complimentary relationship between Shiva and Narayana or Vishnu is emphasized both in the Vaishnava canon as well as in Shaivite texts through the story behind the Lord Ranganatha temple in Srirangam. Vibhishana, the brother of Ravana is made the king of Lanka by Lord Ram after which Lord Ram goes to Ayodhya where he becomes King after a coronation ceremony. This ceremony is attended among others by Vibhishana, who is sad at having parted company with Lord Ram. Valuing Vibhishana's friendship, Lord Ram gives him the idol of his family deity of Lord Ranganatha for being taken to Lanka and being worshipped by Vibhishana in remembrance of Lord Ram. Lord Ram (in a manner reminiscent of the condition on Ravana for not putting on ground the Shiva Linga) puts a condition before Vibhishana that he must not put the idol of Lord Ranganatha on the ground more than thrice during his journey to Lanka. Vibhishana is very steadfast and reaches Srirangam and he has kept the idol of Lord Ranganatha thrice and is confident of reaching his kingdom Lanka without keeping the idol on the ground.[57]

Srirangam is in Tiruchirappalli, where the temple of Lord Ganesha or Vinayaka, son of Lord Shiva is located. Shiva is worried about Lord Ranganatha, who is none other than Sreeman Narayana or Vishnu, leaving the shores of Bharata or India. He asks his son Vinayaka or Lord Ganesha to do something that will prevent Lord Ranganatha from going to Lanka. Ganesha approaches Vibhishana who is on the banks of river Kaveri and wishes to bath and perform his worship. But he cannot do so with the idol of Lord Ranganatha being in his hands. Seeing Ganesha in the disguise of a small boy near him, Vibhishana asks the boy to hold the idol of Lord Ranganatha in his hands and also instructs him firmly not to keep the idol on the ground (which he cannot lift again in case it is kept on the ground). Ganesha is looking exactly for this opportunity and the moment Vibhishana steps into the river and starts his worship, Ganesha promptly keeps the idol of Lord Ranganatha on the ground which gets planted firmly (around which the temple of Lord Ranganatha got constructed).[57]

Vibhishana after finishing his bathing and worship comes out of the river to find the idol of Lord Ranganatha planted on the ground and is unable to lift it. He finds Ganesha in the guise of a small boy, still gleefully standing near the idol. Vibhishana is very upset and he chases Ganesha who runs to the top of a very old mountain and hides in a small cave. Vibhishana chases him, only to find and realize, that it is none other than Lord Vinayaka at Malaikottai or the Rockfort Ucchi Pillayar Temple in Tiruchirappalli, who took human form to prevent Vibhishana from carrying the idol of Lord Ranganatha with him to Lanka[57] This episode is prominently quoted in the Vaishnava canon to emphasize the non-adversarial relationship between Vishnu or Narayana and Shiva.[57]

An example of a collaboration story is one given to explain Shiva's epithet Mahābaleśvara, "lord of great strength" (Maha = "great", Bala = "strength", Īśvara = "lord"). This name refers to a story in which Rāvaṇa was given a linga as a boon by Shiva on the condition that he carry it always. During his travels, he stopped near the present Deoghar in Jharkhand to purify himself and asked Narada, a devotee of Vishnu in the guise of a Brahmin, to hold the linga for him, but after some time, Narada put it down on the ground and vanished. When Ravana returned, he could not move the linga, and it is said to remain there ever since.[60] The story of Gokarna in Karnataka is also similar in that Ravana, on the way to Lanka from Kailasa, gave the lingam to Ganesha to keep until he bathes, but Ganesha fits it in the earth, so the lingam is called Mahabaleshwara.

As one story goes, Shiva is enticed by the beauty and charm of Mohini [Vishnu's female avatar], and procreates with her. As a result of this union, Ayyappa or Shasta identified with Ayyanar is born.

Relation with other deities

Vishnu's consort is Lakshmi, the goddess of wealth. Maya is the samvit (the primary intelligence) of Vishnu, while the other five attributes emerge from this samvit and hence Maya is his ahamata, activity, or Vishnu's Power. This power of God, Maya or Shakti, is personified and is called Shree or Lakshmi, Maya, Vishnumaya, or Mahamaya, and She is said to manifest Herself in, 1) kriyāshakti, (Creative Activity) and 2) bhütishakti (Creation) of Universe. Hence this world cannot part with his creativity i.e., ahamta, which is a feminine form which in its feminine form is called Shree or Lakshmi or Maya. He therefore needs consort Goddess Lakshmi to be with Him always, untouched by any. Thus goddess Lakshmi has to accompany Vishnu in all His incarnations.

Vishnu is also associated with Bhudevi or Prithvi, the earth goddess; Tulsi; Ganga, goddess of river Ganges and also Saraswati, goddess of learning. In the Brahma Vaivarta Purana, verses 2.6.13-95 it is described that Vishnu has three wives, who constantly quarrel with each other, so that eventually, he keeps only Lakshmi, giving Ganga to Shiva and Saraswati to Brahma.

Vishnu's vehicle is Garuda, the eagle, and he is commonly depicted as riding on his shoulders. Another name of him is "Veda-Atma" or The Soul of the Vedas and Vedic truth.

As Guru Kshethram, the guru of the devas, he is the arch-enemy of Shukra, the guru of the Asuras. His children are: Brahma from a lotus, Maya from Lakshmi and Atul from the third eye of Saraswathi and Maya. All of Vishnu's sisters married Shiva while Shiva's sister, Lakshmi married Vishnu. Saraswati is his last daughter from Brahma's sixth head. Saraswathi is not to be confused with Lakshmi's twin Saraswathi

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

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