Update: 2011-09-22 07:30 PM +0800


Sanskrit English Dictionary


from: Online Sanskrit Dictionary, February 12, 2003 . http://sanskritdocuments.org/dict/dictall.pdf  090907

Downloaded, set in HTML, and edited by U Kyaw Tun, M.S. (I.P.S.T., U.S.A.), and staff of TIL Computing and Language Centre, Yangon, Myanmar. Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone.

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{ra.} र
  {rak~} रक् - conjunct included
  {ric~} रच्
  {riρ~} रञ् = र ञ ्
{ra.ta.} रत
  {rϋt~} रत्
{ra.ώa.} रस
  {rϋώ~} रस् : when this is spelled with English digraph <th>, it would appear as {rϋth~} which could be confused with <Ruth>.
{ra.ha.} रह
{rak~Sa}  र क ् ष ा --> {rak~hka} ?


UKT notes
• Bilu • Ragu • rangoli - Indian decorative folk art

€ रोमाञ्च 
= र ो म ा ञ ् च  
Skt: रोमाञ्च  = र ो म ा ञ ् च   romaaJca - m. goose bumps - SpkSkt

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{ra.} र

• रंगावलू (ra.ngaavalii)
Skt:  रंगावलू (ra.ngaavalii) - (f) spectrum, colored design - OnlineSktDict

• रंज् (ra.nj..hh)
Skt: रंज् (ra.nj..hh) - to entertain - OnlineSktDict

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{rak~} रक्

UKT: I am looking at the problem of "killed k" followed by the sibilant {Sa.} which would generate {kSa.} .



• रक्त (rakta) = रक् त
Skt:  रक्त (rakta) - red - OnlineSktDict

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• रक्तं (raktaM)
Skt:  रक्तं (raktaM) - the red one (raktaM may mean blood also)  - OnlineSktDict

• रक्तः (raktaH)
Skt:  रक्तः (raktaH) - attached - OnlineSktDict

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• रक्तगंध (raktaga.ndha)
Skt: रक्तगंध (raktaga.ndha) - red scent - OnlineSktDict

• रक्तपुस्ष्पैः (raktapusshhpaiH)
Skt: रक्तपुस्ष्पैः (raktapusshhpaiH) - with red flowers - OnlineSktDict

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• रक्तरज्न्जित (raktara.JNjita)
Skt: रक्तरज्न्जित (raktara.JNjita) - bloody - OnlineSktDict

• रक्तवाससम् (raktavaasasam.h)
Skt: रक्तवाससम् (raktavaasasam.h) - having red dress - OnlineSktDict

• रक्तहीन (raktahiina)
Skt: रक्तहीन (raktahiina) - bloodless - OnlineSktDict

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• रघुकुलतिलकं (raghukulatilakaM).
Skt:  रघुकुलतिलकं (raghukulatilakaM) - the mark (e.g one on the forehead) of the Raghu family - OnlineSktDict

See my notes on Raghu .

• रघुत्तमः (raghuttamaH)
Skt: रघुत्तमः (raghuttamaH) - best of the Raghu race - OnlineSktDict

• रघुनंदन (raghuna.ndana)
Skt:  रघुनंदन (raghuna.ndana) - the delighter of the Raghus - OnlineSktDict

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• रघुनन्दन (raghunandana)
Skt:  रघुनन्दन (raghunandana) - Rama - OnlineSktDict

• रघुनाथस्य (raghunaathasya)
Skt: रघुनाथस्य (raghunaathasya) - lord of the Raghu's (rAma descended from the famous - OnlineSktDict

• रघुनाथाय (raghunaathaaya)
Skt:  रघुनाथाय (raghunaathaaya) - to the lord of Raghus - OnlineSktDict

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• रघुवंशनाथम् (raghuva.nshanaatham.h)
Skt: रघुवंशनाथम् (raghuva.nshanaatham.h) - the lord of the Raghu family - OnlineSktDict

• रघुवरं (raghuvaraM)
Skt:  रघुवरं (raghuvaraM) - the chosen Raghu - OnlineSktDict

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• रघूत्तमः (raghuuttamaH)
Skt:  रघूत्तमः (raghuuttamaH) - the best of the ragus (raghu-desendants) - OnlineSktDict

• रघूत्तमौ (raghuuttamau)
Skt:  रघूत्तमौ (raghuuttamau) - the best two of the Raghu race - OnlineSktDict

• रङ्गवल्लि (ra.ngavalli)
Skt: रङ्गवल्लि (ra.ngavalli) - (f) rangoli - OnlineSktDict

See my note on rangoli - Indian decorative folk art


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{ric~} रच्

• रच् (rach.h)
Skt: रच् (rach.h) -  to form - OnlineSktDict

• रचना (rachanaa)
Skt: रचना (rachanaa) - structure, construction - OnlineSktDict

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• रचना (rachanaa)
Skt: रचना (rachanaa) - construction, arrangement - OnlineSktDict

• रचना (rachanaa)
Skt: रचना (rachanaa) - construction, arrangement - OnlineSktDict

• रचनात्मक (rachanaatmaka)
Skt: रचनात्मक (rachanaatmaka) - constructional, polyschematic - OnlineSktDict

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• रचयति (rachayati)
Skt:  रचयति (rachayati) - (10 up ) to arrange - OnlineSktDict

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{ra.za.} or {ra.gya.}?

• रजः (rajaH)
Skt:  रजः (rajaH) - the mode of passion - OnlineSktDict

• रजकः (rajakaH)
Skt:  रजकः (rajakaH) - (m) washerman, dhobi - OnlineSktDict

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• रजनि (rajani)
Skt: रजनि (rajani) - night - OnlineSktDict

• रजनी (rajanii)
Skt:  रजनी (rajanii) - night - OnlineSktDict

• रजनीचर (rajaniichara)
Skt: रजनीचर (rajaniichara) - moon, demon - OnlineSktDict

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• रजस (rajasa)
Skt: रजस (rajasa) - mobility - OnlineSktDict

• रजसः (rajasaH)
Skt:  रजसः (rajasaH) - from the mode of passion - OnlineSktDict

• रजसि (rajasi)
Skt:  रजसि (rajasi) - of the mode of passion - OnlineSktDict

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• रजोगुण (rajoguNa)
Skt: रजोगुण (rajoguNa) - the mode of passion - OnlineSktDict

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• रज्जु (rajju)
Skt: रज्जु (rajju) - f. rope, straight line - OnlineSktDict

• रज्जुः (rajjuH)
Skt: रज्जुः (rajjuH) - m. rope - OnlineSktDict

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{riρ~} रञ् = र ञ ्

• रञ्जन (raJNjana)
रञ्जन = र ञ ् ज न
Skt: रज्न्जन (raJNjana) - entertainment, delight - OnlineSktDict

• रञ्जना (raJNjanaa) रञ्जना = र ञ ् ज न ा
Skt: रज्न्जना (raJNjanaa) - (f) a giver of delight - OnlineSktDict

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• रण (raNa)
Skt:  रण (raNa) - battle - OnlineSktDict

• रणकर्कश (raNakarkasha)
Skt: रणकर्कश (raNakarkasha) - the vanquishing one in the war - OnlineSktDict

• रणरंगधीरम् (raNara.ngadhiiram.h)
Skt:  रणरंगधीरम् (raNara.ngadhiiram.h) - the brave in the stage of war - OnlineSktDict

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• रणात् (raNaat.h)
Skt:  रणात् (raNaat.h) - from the battlefield - OnlineSktDict

• रणे (raNe)
Skt: रणे (raNe) - on the battlefield - OnlineSktDict

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{ra.ta.} रत

• रत (rata)
Skt:  रत (rata) - engaged in - OnlineSktDict

• रताः (rataaH)
Skt:  रताः (rataaH) - engaged - OnlineSktDict

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• रतिओ (ratio) : Note: Do not pronounce as <ratio>
= र त ि ओ . It is <ra'ti'o>
Skt:  रतिओ (ratio) - guNottara - OnlineSktDict

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{rϋt~} रत्

• रत्न (ratna)
= र त ् न
Skt:  रत्न (ratna) - precious stones - OnlineSktDict

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• रथ (ratha) = र थ
Skt:  रथ (ratha) - chariot - OnlineSktDict
Pal: ratha - m. a car, carriage, chariot - UPMT-PED179

• रथं (rathaM)
Skt: रथं (rathaM) - the chariot - OnlineSktDict

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• रथोत्तमं (rathottamaM)
Skt: रथोत्तमं (rathottamaM) - the finest chariot - OnlineSktDict

• रथ्या (rathyaa)
Skt:  रथ्या (rathyaa) - ? - OnlineSktDict

• रदं (radaM)
Skt: रदं (radaM) - ? - OnlineSktDict

• रन्ध्रिका (randhrikaa)
Skt:  रन्ध्रिका (randhrikaa) - (f) punching machine - OnlineSktDict

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• रभते (rabhate)
Skt: रभते (rabhate) - ( 1 ap ) to begin, start - OnlineSktDict

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• रमंते (rama.nte)
Skt: रमंते (rama.nte) - revel; enjoy (Vr. Pr. III P PI.AP) - OnlineSktDict

• रमते (ramate)
Skt: रमते (ramate) - delights - OnlineSktDict

• रमन्ति (ramanti)
Skt:  रमन्ति (ramanti) - enjoy transcendental bliss - OnlineSktDict

• रमावास (ramaavaasa)
Skt: रमावास (ramaavaasa) - the abode of rama (lakshmi) - OnlineSktDict

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• रमे (rame)
Skt:  रमे (rame) - Oh! ramA (Shiva tells this shloka to his consort PArvati - OnlineSktDict

• रमेशं (rameshaM)
Skt:  रमेशं (rameshaM) - the lord of ramA (sItA) - OnlineSktDict

• रम्भाफल (rambhaaphala)
Skt: रम्भाफल (rambhaaphala) - plantain - OnlineSktDict

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• ररिजन (rarijana)
Skt:  ररिजन (rarijana) - Entourage - OnlineSktDict

• रवि (ravi)
Skt:  रवि (ravi) - a name of Sun  - OnlineSktDict

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• रविः (raviH)
Skt:  रविः (raviH) - the sun - OnlineSktDict

• रविवार (ravivaara)
Skt:  रविवार (ravivaara) - Sunday - OnlineSktDict

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{ra.ώa.} रस

• रस (rasa)
Skt:  रस (rasa) - enjoyment, interest - OnlineSktDict
Pal: rasa - m. sap, juice, essence, taste - UPMT-PED179

• रसः (rasaH)
Skt: रसः (rasaH) - sense of enjoyment - OnlineSktDict

• रसनं (rasanaM)
Skt:  रसनं (rasanaM) - tongue - OnlineSktDict

• रसवर्जं (rasavarjaM)
Skt: रसवर्जं (rasavarjaM) - giving up the taste - OnlineSktDict

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• रसात्मकः (rasaatmakaH)
Skt: रसात्मकः (rasaatmakaH) - supplying the juice - OnlineSktDict

• रसायनं (rasaayanaM)
Skt: रसायनं (rasaayanaM) - (n) chemical - OnlineSktDict

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• रसायनशास्त्र (rasaayanashaastra)
Skt: रसायनशास्त्र (rasaayanashaastra) - chemistry - OnlineSktDict

• रसायनशास्त्रम् (rasaayanashaastram.h)
Skt: रसायनशास्त्रम् (rasaayanashaastram.h) - chemistry - OnlineSktDict

€ रसायनिक शामयिता   rasāyanika śāmayitā 
Skt: रसायनिक शामयिता   rasāyanika śāmayitā   m.   fire extinguisher - SpkSkt

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• रसाल (rasaala)
Skt: रसाल (rasaala) - mango - OnlineSktDict
*Pal: rasāla - m. sugar-cane - UPMT-PED179

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{rϋώ~} र स ्

• रस्याः (rasyaaH)
= र स ् य ा ः
Skt: रस्याः (rasyaaH) - juicy - OnlineSktDict

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{ra.ha.} रह

• रहसि (rahasi)
Skt:  रहसि (rahasi) - in a secluded place - OnlineSktDict

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• रहस्यं (rahasyaM)
Skt: रहस्यं (rahasyaM) - mystery - OnlineSktDict

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• रक्ष् (rakSh.h)
= र क ् ष ्
Skt:  रक्ष् (rakSh.h) - to protect - OnlineSktDict

• रक्षः (rakShaH)
Skt: रक्षः (rakShaH) - the rAkshasaas - OnlineSktDict

€ रक्षस्  rakṣas
= र क ् ष स ्  
Skt: रक्षस्  rakṣas - n. harm, evil being - SpkSkt

€ राक्षस rākṣasa
= र ा क ् ष स
Skt: राक्षस rākṣasa - adj. demonical. m. demon - SpkSkt

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• रक्षकः (rakShakaH)
Skt: रक्षकः (rakShakaH) - (m) guard, protector - OnlineSktDict

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• रक्षण (rakShaNa)
Skt:  रक्षण (rakShaNa) - protection - OnlineSktDict

• रक्षणाय (rakShaNaaya)
Skt: रक्षणाय (rakShaNaaya) - for protection - OnlineSktDict

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• रक्षति (rakShati)
Skt:  रक्षति (rakShati) - (1 pp) to protect - OnlineSktDict
Pal: rakkhati - v. to protect, ward off, guard - UPMT-PED177

• रक्षस (rakShasa)
Skt: रक्षस (rakShasa) - adj. devil - OnlineSktDict

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 र क ् ष ा {rak~Sa} --> {rak~hka}


• रक्षा (rakShaa)
= र क ् ष ा
Skt:  रक्षा (rakShaa) protection - OnlineSktDict
*Pal: rakkhati - v. to protect, ward off, guard - UPMT-PED177
Pal: {rak~hka} - - UHS-PMD0804

• रक्षां (rakShaaM)
Skt: रक्षां (rakShaaM) - protecting armour - OnlineSktDict

UKT: In the example below, notice the रा = र ा .
So the analysis could be राक्ष rākṣa  = र ा क ् ष  :

• No splitting of क्ष :  राक्ष --> र ा क ् ष --> रा  क्ष
     (giving rise to Romabama {raa-kSa.} with a {sa.hswθ:}).
• Splitting of क्ष : राक्ष --> र ा क ् ष --> राक्  ष
     (giving rise to Romabama {raak-Sa.}

€ राक्ष rākṣa 
= र ा क ् ष
Skt: राक्ष rākṣa  m. demon - SpkSkt
Pal: rakkhasa - m. a demon, ogre - UPMT-PED177
Pal: {rak~hka.ώa.} - - UHS-PMD0804

See my note on Bilu

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• रक्षांसि (rakShaa.nsi)
Skt: रक्षांसि (rakShaa.nsi) - the demons - OnlineSktDict

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• रक्षितं (rakShitaM)
Skt: रक्षितं (rakShitaM) - the person who has been protected (by)  - OnlineSktDict

• रक्षितः (rakShitaH)
Skt:  रक्षितः (rakShitaH) - (past part.masc.nom.S) the protected one - OnlineSktDict

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• रक्ष्य (rakShya)
Skt: रक्ष्य (rakShya) - protection - OnlineSktDict

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UKT notes


UKT- 110916 

Since, it is human to demonize their enemies, I am re-interpreting the word <demon> as nothing but a derogatory term by the 'victors' to describe their enemies. In Bur-Myan iconography there are two types of {Bi-lu:} :

{nϋt-Bi-lu} 'deva-demon' whose weapon is the double-edged sword. They wear a pointed helmet-crown similar to those worn by Deva {dι-wa.} ' {nϋt}'. They do not eat human flesh, and some are very advanced spiritually. It is quite common for an adapt of the Right-Hand-school aka {a.htak-lϋm:} to control a {nϋt-Bi-lu} through the agency of a {Bo:tau} 'grand-sire', to counter the influence of the other type of {Bi-lu:} described below.

{ka.toδn: Bi-lu:} 'bald-head ogre' whose main weapon is the cudgel and who are flesh-eaters. They eat humans. They can be made to work for the human adapt (man or woman) of the Left-Hand-school aka {auk-lϋm:}. It is very simple to 'rear' them: by planting a suitable ground orchid or common lemon grass over an {ing:} representing the {Bi-lu:}. The human-adapt has to 'feed' them by pouring fresh blood on the plant every appointed day. However, if the human-adapt were to forget to supply his servant with blood, he or she would be 'eaten' (killed) by the servant. The disadvantage to own a {ka.toδn: Bi-lu:} is unless the master is well protected, the servant would come and get you to join their ranks the moment you die. I have the chance to witness such a practice the first hand when I was young.

It was rather common for farmers to keep a Bilu guarding their fields. Even shop owners can keep Bilus to bring in customers. The {auk-lϋm: hsa.ra} who I came to know died a long time ago, and my search for another to observe him/her first hand is still without success, simply because such a person would never admit that he is a {auk-lϋm: hsa.ra}. He would always claim that he is an astrologer of the {a.htak-lϋm:}. You have to watch him closely to follow his steps. But once he detects that you are watching his steps and not afraid of {auk-lϋm:} he would find a polite way to show you the door. I must warn the adventurous not to get involved with such persons - not because they are cheats (they are genuine adapts), but you can easily become controlled by them and if you were to rebel you could not be saved by modern western medicine. If you would like to pursue more, please read Maurice Collis Trials in Burma, or, Dr. Htin Aung (former rector of Rangoon University) Folk Elements in Burmese Buddhism . No wonder the ancients Indians (of Mahabharata) or the ancient Chinese (including those of Kublai Khan) were afraid to stay in Burma for long particularly in the Yaw area or Shan plateau if you had evil intentions towards the locals.

Go back Bilu-note-b

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From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raghu 100127

Emperor Raghu was a valorous king of the Ikshvaku dynasty. The name in Sanskrit translates to the fast one, deriving from Raghu's chariot driving abilities. So celebrated were the exploits of Raghu, that his dynasty itself came to be known as the Raghuvamsha or the Raghukula after him. The history of his dynasty is elaborated upon by Kalidasa in his Raghuvamsha. The lineage described in the Raghuvamsha goes thus Dilipa was the father of Raghu, who was the father of Aja, who was the father of Dasaratha, who was the father of Rama.

The warrior Raghu leads a military expedition to Transoxiana. He defeats and subjugates local peoples along the way (presumably on his march through Central Asia) until he reaches the Vankshu or Caksu, the Vedic/Puranic names of the Oxus River. There, Raghu's army battles the Hepthalites, or White Huns, whom the Indians called Hunas and Mlecchas (barbarians). The Hepthalites are defeated, and the Raghuvamsha boasts of "The exploits of Raghu, whose valor expressed itself amongst the husbands of the Huna women, became manifest in the scarlet color of their cheeks."

Raghu was a great donor. It is said that no one returns from his palace empty-handed.

After crossing the Oxus, Raghu and his army encountered the Kambojas, an ancient Iranian people often mentioned in Indian texts. The Kambojas submitted to Raghu and offered him gifts and treasures. Evidently, the Kambojas dwelt in the vicinity of the Pamirs. Kalidasa describes the preponderance of walnut trees in the Oxus country and indeed, this particular region is still known for the cultivation of walnuts.

Raghu's father Dilip was a very pious king, and performed as many as 100 yagnas or sacrificial rituals. Until he did so, only Indra, king of the Gods, had earned that distinction. In a bid to prevent Dileepa from equaling his record, Indra placed many hurdles in the path of the successful completion of the 100th sacrifice, but Raghu was able to prevail over the forces of Indra himself, and the sacrifice was completed successfully.

Raghu is best known today as the great-grandfather of Rama. There are indications that in the classical period, Raghu was a heroic personality of far greater importance that what one would imagine today. The epic composed by the classical poet Kalidasa on the lives of the ancestors of Rama is entitled Raghuvamsha or the "Dynasty of Raghu". Indeed, Rama himself is known by many appellations (such as Raghava, Raghunandan and Raghukula Nayaka), indicative of his belonging to the family of Raghu, which again serves to underscore the great prestige enjoyed by Raghu in the puranic era.

Go back Raghu-note-b

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rangoli - Indian decorative folk art

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rangoli 110324

Rangoli is a traditional decorative folk art of India. They are decorative designs on floors of living rooms and courtyards during Hindu festivals and are meant as sacred welcoming area for the deities.[1] The ancient symbols have been passed on through the ages, from each generation to the one that followed, thus keeping both the art form and the tradition alive. Rangoli and similar practices are followed in different Indian states; in Tamil Nadu, one has Kolam [2], Madanae in Rajasthan, Chowkpurna in Northern India, Alpana in Bengal, in Bihar it is called Aripana, and so on. The purpose of Rangoli is decoration and it is thought to bring good luck. Design-depictions may also vary as they reflect traditions, folklore and practices that are unique to each area. It is traditionally done by women. Over the years, tradition has even made room for modern additions, that add some flair to this beautiful art. Generally, this practice is showcased during occasions such as festivals, auspicious observances, celebrations of marriages and other similar milestones and gatherings. Rangoli designs can be as simple as geometric shapes, deity impressions, flower and petal shapes that are appropriate to the given celebrations, but can become very elaborate with many people coming together to work on the designs. The base material is usually dry or wet granulated rice or dry flour, to which Sindoor (vermillion), Haldi (tumeric) and other natural colours can be added. Chemical colours are a modern variation. Other materials that are now used are coloured sand and even flowers and petals as in the case of Flower Rangolis.

UKT: Were the Buddha footprints a form of rangoli to mark the place where the Gautama Buddha had visited? - UKT110324


Alpana is one name of rangoli. Mohen-jo-daro and Harappa also had Alpana. Vatsyayan Alpana's work - the formula is described in Chausst arts (The most ancient folk art). The word 'Alpana' is derived from the Sanskrit 'Oalanpeen' ; Oalanpeen means to plaster. In ancient times people believed that these funds artistic painting the town and villages - are able to contain cereal is full of magical effects and reserve assets. This approach was Alpana art practiced on religious and social occasions. Many fast or worship, which is given the Alpana, Aryan is the era before. Swami Anand Kumar, who are called scholars of Indian art, modern folk art of Bengal's view that the direct link is from 5000 years ago the art of Mohen-jo-daro. Waratchari movement and Bangla folk art and culture scholar Gurushay generator according to Dutt, the lotus flower Bengali women make between their Alpanooan, at Mohenjo-daro of the lotus flower is a replica. Some other scholars are of the opinion that Alpana Astrik people in our culture, such as shaved species come from, which in this country many years before the arrival of Aryans were living. According to the ancient and traditional folk arts of Bangladesh's agricultural era standing. At that time some people believe that gods and had some magical effects, which in practice would have been a good harvest and Priatatmaaey had run away.[2] of Alpana Inspired by these traditional Aleknoan Acharya Awneendranath Tagore Santiniketan art building with other subjects of painting - this art also made a compulsory subject. Today this art are known as Alpana of Santiniketan. The blonde goddess in art will enjoy the memorable name of the mother are considered Alpana Santiniketan

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