Update: 2011-09-22 08:27 PM +0800


Sanskrit English Dictionary


from: Online Sanskrit Dictionary, February 12, 2003 . http://sanskritdocuments.org/dict/dictall.pdf  090907

Downloaded, set in HTML, and edited by U Kyaw Tun, M.S. (I.P.S.T., U.S.A.), and staff of TIL Computing and Language Centre, Yangon, Myanmar. Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone.

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{a.ra.} सर


UKT notes


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{a.ra.} सर

सरः (saraH)
Skt: सरः (saraH) - (neut) lake - OnlineSktDict

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सरति (sarati)
Skt: सरति (sarati) - (1 pp) to go - OnlineSktDict

सरल (sarala)
Skt: सरल (sarala) - straight, candid - OnlineSktDict

सरस् (saras.h)
Skt: सरस् (saras.h) - lake - OnlineSktDict

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सरस (sarasa)
Skt: सरस (sarasa) - Excellent - OnlineSktDict

सरसां (sarasaaM)
Skt: सरसां (sarasaaM) - of all reservoirs of water- OnlineSktDict

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सरसान्गयष्थी (sarasaangayashhthii)
Skt: सरसान्गयष्थी (sarasaangayashhthii) - she whose body is like a (lean) stick - OnlineSktDict

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सरस्वति (sarasvati)
Skt: सरस्वति (sarasvati) - goddess of speech and learning - OnlineSktDict

See my note on Thuyathadi {u-ra.a.ti} - commonly known as
the "Upholder of Tipitaka": the most beloved Devi of Burmese-Buddhists.

सरिता (saritaa)
Skt: सरिता (saritaa) - (f) river - OnlineSktDict

सरोज (saroja)
Skt: सरोज (saroja) - lotus (one that is born in a lake)- OnlineSktDict

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सरोवरम् (sarovaram.h)
Skt: सरोवरम् (sarovaram.h) - (n) lake - OnlineSktDict

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सर्गः (sargaH)
Skt: सर्गः (sargaH) - birth and death - OnlineSktDict

सर्गणां (sargaaNaaM)
Skt: सर्गणां (sargaaNaaM) - of all creations - OnlineSktDict

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सर्गे (sarge)
Skt: सर्गे (sarge) - while taking birth - OnlineSktDict

सर्गेऽपि (sarge.api)
Skt: सर्गेऽपि (sarge.api) - even in the creation - OnlineSktDict

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सर्प (sarpa)
Skt: सर्प (sarpa) - snake - OnlineSktDict

सर्पाणां (sarpaaNaaM)
Skt: सर्पाणां (sarpaaNaaM) - of serpents - OnlineSktDict

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सर्व (sarva)
Skt: सर्व (sarva) - all - OnlineSktDict

सर्वं (sarvaM)
Skt: सर्वं (sarvaM) all - OnlineSktDict

सर्वः (sarvaH)
Skt: सर्वः (sarvaH) - all - OnlineSktDict

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सर्वकर्म (sarvakarma)
Skt: सर्वकर्म (sarvakarma) - of all activities - OnlineSktDict

सर्वकर्माणि (sarvakarmaaNi)
Skt: सर्वकर्माणि (sarvakarmaaNi) - all reactions to material activities - OnlineSktDict

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सर्वकारः (sarvakaaraH)
Skt: सर्वकारः (sarvakaaraH)- (m) coalition - OnlineSktDict

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सर्वगतं (sarvagataM)
Skt: सर्वगतं (sarvagataM) - all-pervading - OnlineSktDict

सर्वगतः (sarvagataH)
Skt: सर्वगतः (sarvagataH) - all-pervading - OnlineSktDict

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सर्वगुह्यतमं (sarvaguhyatamaM)
Skt: सर्वगुह्यतमं (sarvaguhyatamaM) - the most confidential of all - OnlineSktDict

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सर्वजगत् (sarvajagat.h)
Skt: सर्वजगत् (sarvajagat.h) - the entire world  - OnlineSktDict

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सर्वतः (sarvataH)
Skt: सर्वतः (sarvataH) - on/ from all sides (indecl) - OnlineSktDict

सर्वतो (sarvato)
Skt: सर्वतो (sarvato) - from all (sides) - OnlineSktDict

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सर्वत्र (sarvatra)
Skt: सर्वत्र (sarvatra) - everywhere - OnlineSktDict

सर्वत्रगं (sarvatragaM)
Skt: सर्वत्रगं (sarvatragaM) - all-pervading - OnlineSktDict

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सर्वत्रगः (sarvatragaH)
Skt: सर्वत्रगः (sarvatragaH) - blowing everywhere - OnlineSktDict

सर्वथा (sarvathaa)
Skt: सर्वथा (sarvathaa) - in all respects - OnlineSktDict

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सर्वदा (sarvadaa)
Skt: सर्वदा (sarvadaa) - always - OnlineSktDict

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सर्वदेहिनां (sarvadehinaaM)
Skt: सर्वदेहिनां (sarvadehinaaM) - of all embodied beings - OnlineSktDict

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सर्वद्वाराणि (sarvadvaaraaNi)
Skt: सर्वद्वाराणि (sarvadvaaraaNi) - all the doors of the body - OnlineSktDict

सर्वद्वारेषु (sarvadvaareshhu)
Skt: सर्वद्वारेषु (sarvadvaareshhu) - in all the gates - OnlineSktDict

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सर्वधनुष्मताम् (sarvadhanushhmataam.h)
Skt: सर्वधनुष्मताम् (sarvadhanushhmataam.h) - of all shooters (bow, arrow carriers) - OnlineSktDict

सर्वधर्मान् (sarvadharmaan.h)
Skt: सर्वधर्मान् (sarvadharmaan.h) - all varieties of religion - OnlineSktDict

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सर्वपापैः (sarvapaapaiH)
Skt: सर्वपापैः (sarvapaapaiH) - from all sinful reactions - OnlineSktDict

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सर्वभावेन (sarvabhaavena)
Skt: सर्वभावेन (sarvabhaavena) - in all respects - OnlineSktDict

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सर्वभूत (sarvabhuuta)
Skt: सर्वभूत (sarvabhuuta) - to all living entities - OnlineSktDict

सर्वभूतस्थं (sarvabhuutasthaM)
Skt: सर्वभूतस्थं (sarvabhuutasthaM) - situated in all beings - OnlineSktDict

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सर्वभूतस्थितं (sarvabhuutasthitaM)
Skt: सर्वभूतस्थितं (sarvabhuutasthitaM) - situated in everyone's heart - OnlineSktDict

सर्वभूतहिते (sarvabhuutahite)
Skt: सर्वभूतहिते (sarvabhuutahite) - for the welfare of all living entities - OnlineSktDict

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सर्वभूतानां (sarvabhuutaanaaM)
Skt: सर्वभूतानां (sarvabhuutaanaaM) - of all living entities - OnlineSktDict

सर्वभूतानि (sarvabhuutaani)
Skt: सर्वभूतानि (sarvabhuutaani) - all created entities - OnlineSktDict

सर्वभूतानी (sarvabhuutaanii)
Skt: सर्वभूतानी (sarvabhuutaanii) - all living entities - OnlineSktDict

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सर्वभूतेषु (sarvabhuuteshhu)
Skt: सर्वभूतेषु (sarvabhuuteshhu) - among all living beings - OnlineSktDict

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सर्वभृत् (sarvabhRit.h)
Skt: सर्वभृत् (sarvabhRit.h) - the maintainer of everyone - OnlineSktDict

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सर्वमतेन (sarbamatena)
Skt: सर्वमतेन (sarbamatena) - according to all schools of thought/ unanimously - OnlineSktDict

सर्वयोनिषु (sarvayonishhu)
Skt: सर्वयोनिषु (sarvayonishhu) - in all species of life - OnlineSktDict

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सर्वलोक (sarvaloka)
Skt: सर्वलोक (sarvaloka) - of all plants and the demigods thereof - OnlineSktDict

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सर्ववित् (sarvavit.h)
Skt: सर्ववित् (sarvavit.h) - the knower of everything - OnlineSktDict

सर्वविद् (sarvavid.h)
Skt: सर्वविद् (sarvavid.h) - one who knows everything - OnlineSktDict

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सर्ववृक्षाणां (sarvavRikShaaNaaM)
Skt: सर्ववृक्षाणां (sarvavRikShaaNaaM) - of all trees - OnlineSktDict

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सर्वशः (sarvashaH)
Skt: सर्वशः (sarvashaH) - all - OnlineSktDict

सर्वसंपदाम् (sarvasaMpadaam.h)
Skt: सर्वसंपदाम् (sarvasaMpadaam.h) - all wealth - OnlineSktDict

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सर्वसङ्कल्प (sarvasa.nkalpa)
Skt: सर्वसङ्कल्प (sarvasa.nkalpa) - of all material desires - OnlineSktDict

सर्वसम्मतिः (sarvasammatiH)
Skt: सर्वसम्मतिः (sarvasammatiH) - unanimity - OnlineSktDict

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सर्वस्मिन्नपि (sarvasminnapi)
Skt: सर्वस्मिन्नपि (sarvasminnapi) - in all beings - OnlineSktDict

सर्वस्य (sarvasya)
Skt: सर्वस्य (sarvasya) - of everyone - OnlineSktDict

सर्वस्वं (sarvasvaM)
Skt: सर्वस्वं (sarvasvaM) - all of one's belongings, holding - OnlineSktDict

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सर्वहरः (sarvaharaH)
Skt: सर्वहरः (sarvaharaH) - all-devouring - OnlineSktDict

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सर्वज्ञान (sarvaGYaana)
Skt: सर्वज्ञान (sarvaGYaana) - in all sorts of knowledge - OnlineSktDict

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सर्वाः (sarvaaH)
Skt: सर्वाः (sarvaaH) - all - OnlineSktDict

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सर्वाङ्ग (sarvaa.nga)
Skt: सर्वाङ्ग (sarvaa.nga) - the whole body - OnlineSktDict

सर्वाङ्गासन (sarvaa.ngaasana)
Skt: सर्वाङ्गासन (sarvaa.ngaasana) - the shoulder stand posture - OnlineSktDict

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सर्वाणि (sarvaaNi)
Skt: सर्वाणि (sarvaaNi) - all - OnlineSktDict

सर्वान् (sarvaan.h)
Skt: सर्वान् (sarvaan.h) - all kinds of - OnlineSktDict

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सर्वारम्भ (sarvaarambha)
Skt: सर्वारम्भ (sarvaarambha) - of all endeavours - OnlineSktDict

सर्वारम्भः (sarvaarambhaH)
Skt: सर्वारम्भः (sarvaarambhaH) - all ventures - OnlineSktDict

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सर्वार्थ (sarvaartha)
Skt: सर्वार्थ (sarvaartha) - for all worthy or meaningful or riches - OnlineSktDict

सर्वार्थान् (sarvaarthaan.h)
Skt: सर्वार्थान् (sarvaarthaan.h) - all things - OnlineSktDict

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सर्वे (sarve)
Skt: सर्वे (sarve) - all - OnlineSktDict

सर्वेभ्यः (sarvebhyaH)
Skt: सर्वेभ्यः (sarvebhyaH) - of all - OnlineSktDict

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सर्वेषां (sarveshhaaM)
Skt: सर्वेषां (sarveshhaaM) - all - OnlineSktDict

सर्वेषु (sarveshhu)
Skt: सर्वेषु (sarveshhu) - in all the - OnlineSktDict

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सर्वेक्षणम् (sarvekShaNam.h)
Skt: सर्वेक्षणम् (sarvekShaNam.h) - (n) survey, poll - OnlineSktDict

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सर्वैः (sarvai(H))
Skt: सर्वैः (sarvai(H)) - (Masc.instr.pl.) by all - OnlineSktDict

सर्वैः (sarvaiH)
Skt: सर्वैः (sarvaiH) - all - OnlineSktDict

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UKT notes

Thuyathadi {u-ra.a.ti}
Saraswati - Goddess of Learning and Wisdom

From India Profile: http://www.indiaprofile.com/religion-culture/saraswati.htm 110501

The original concept of Saraswati was that of a feminine water deity. Over a period of time, this riverine goddess came to be associated with all coursing and flowing energies and forces. Today, Saraswati is hailed as the patron goddess for the thought process and all creative arts.

The Hindu religion or Sanatana Dharama, as it is called, recognizes a Supreme Godhead (Paramatma) who is omniscient, omnipresent and omnipotent. This supreme being performs three essential functions of creation (shrishti), sustenance (samrakshana) and annihilation (samhara) in relation to this universe and beyond. In his personalized manifestation, this Godhead assumes the triple forms of Brahma, the Lord of Creation, Vishnu or Narayana, the Lord of sustenance and Rudra or Shiva, the Lord of Annihilation. These three entities comprise the Trimurtis or the Holy Hindu Trinity. Each of these three gods has been associated with a consort or female aspect who provides the requisite support and energy to the respective Godhead in the discharge of his ordained functions. The Vedas which are the most ancient of the Hindu religious scriptures, postulate that Goddess Saraswati is the consort of Creator God Brahma.

The word Saraswati is of Sanskritic origin and etymologically, it denotes a person or being of the feminine gender. This name has different connotations which, in the final analysis, are all related with water bodies such as stream and river (sarit) and lake and pool (saras). In a figurative manner, all things that are fluid or free-flowing in nature have had their associations with Saraswati.

References to a river bearing the name Saraswati could be found in the Vedas and other Hindu scriptures of yore. The Rig Veda says that the River Saraswati originated in the Himalayas, flowed westwards and joined the Arabian Sea. At Prayag modern day Allahabad in Uttar Pradesh, the rivers Ganga and Yamuna are believed to be joined by a third river called Saraswati, which is invisible. Hindu faithfuls take the name of Saraswati, in addition to the Ganga and Yamuna, while they take a dip in any river held sacred by them. Thus, it can be inferred that the name Saraswati in itself has a purificatory significance.

As per Vedic lore, Goddess Saraswati manifested herself from the mouth-or tongue to be preciseof Lord Brahma. Having been bewitched by her beauty and grace, and impressed by her divine attributes, the Creator God decreed that Saraswati should become his consort and provide him assistance in his task of creation. Since Brahma was responsible for the creation of Saraswati, he was by logic her father. His act of marrying Goddess Saraswati was, therefore, regarded as a transgression of accepted norms of behavior and so Vishnu and Shiva uttered a curse that henceforth Brahma would cease to be worshipped as a God by faithfuls. Even to this day, this curse seems to be holding true since there are only a few temples dedicated exclusively to Brahma, whereas there are hundreds of thousands of temples and shrines dedicated to Vishnu and Shiva. In this background, Goddess Saraswati traditionally has come to be worshipped in her individual capacity as the patron goddess for all knowledge and wisdom without her being associated with Brahma. Idols of Goddess Saraswati are installed in temples and shrines dedicated to her exclusively or sometimes find a place with other gods and goddesses of the Hindu pantheon in Vishnu, Devi and Shiva temples. Such temples are more in number in the southern and eastern parts of the country.

In the states of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Rajasthan, West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and the union territory of Pondicherry skilled craftsmen have been making beautiful icons of Saraswati since generations. Around the festival of Durga Puja in October, innumerable craftsmen move out from West Bengal to different parts of the country and display their artistry in making clay images of Saraswati and other deities that are ceremonially installed in the pavilions erected for the celebrations.

Saraswati worship spread during the medieval period from the Indian sub-continent to many south and east Asian countries. Several references to the Goddess can be evidenced in the local traditions and literature of those countries. Even sculptures and graphic representations of Saraswati have been identified in some of those countries, notably in Sri Lanka, Thailand, Cambodia and Indonesia. Hinduism apart, Buddhism and Jainism have also accorded an honoured place to Saraswati. In modern times, wherever Indians have gone, they have carried the Saraswati lore and erected shrines for her worship.

The term Saraswati, besides referring to the goddess also stands as an appellation to the names of sanyasis (religious pontiffs or recluses) of the Advaitic (non-dual) religio-philosophic order. A sect of Hindu Brahmans in the western and northern parts of India go by the name of Saraswat Brahmans. Eminent poets and litterateurs are addressed as Bharatis by virtue of their scholarship, literary accomplishments or poetical ability which are all deemed to be the gifts of the goddess. A state level award instituted for the recognition of excellence in literature, fine arts and writing goes by the name Saraswati Samman. Trophies given to scholars, eminent artistes and craftsmen sometimes have the Saraswati motif or connotation. All in all, Saraswati dominates the entire scholastic, literary, cultural and aesthetic domains.

In the field of Indian classical music, the Carnatic system has accorded due importance to Goddess Saraswati who is the patron deity for music and dance. Innumerable musical compositions dedicated to the goddess can be identified in both Hindustani and Carnatic systems of music. Saraswati Vandana or invocation of the goddess forms an essential part of dance recitals.

Saraswati is generally depicted in sculptures, icons and graphic representations either as seated on an ornate pedestal or standing on a fully blossomed white lotus. She is shown wearing a jeweled crown over her head and bedecked with resplendent pearl ornaments. Her face is said to resemble the full moon with a smile on it. She is fair complexioned and possesses four arms signifying her divine attributes. Her raiment is of white silk. She holds a stringed instrument, the veena, diagonally across her chest. In another arm she holds a palm leaf manuscript the book of knowledge. Her fourth arm displays a rosary. The goddess radiates feminine beauty, grace and beatitude. Seen near her feet it the white swan which is her mount. In some depictions, instead of the swan, the colourful Indian peacock is shown standing at her feet. Likewise, in some pictorial representations, Saraswati is shown holding a pitcher containing holy water instead of a rosary. These symbols have been explained in esoteric texts as possessing philosophical connotations. The lotus, white swan, pearls and pitcher symbolize association of Saraswati with water. The colour white which predominates her personage alludes to purity, tranquility and equanimity. The manuscript held in her arm is symbolic of knowledge and intellectual excellence.

For the traditional worship of Saraswati elaborate rituals, supported by Vedic incantations, have been prescribed. While these are observed even today, the average householder installs an image, icon or pictorial reproduction of the goddess in a corner of his home and performs the rituals. Generally he recites verses in Sanskrit or in his own mother tongue, makes votive offerings and circumambulating it before the icon. He prays for the atonement of sins and then shares the votive offerings with members of his family. On festive occasions more elaborate worship is done and numerous delicacies are prepared by the housewife. The fare offered and blessed by the deity is partaken of as prasadam (benedictory meal).

Saraswati worship is done round the year. But certain specified periods of the Hindu calendar are regarded as especially propitious for her worship. Basant Panchami which is the fifth day of the fortnight following the new moon occurring during spring (basant), generally in the month of March or late February, is observed as the day dedicated to the goddess. On this day young men and women dressed in yellow attire and adorned with flower garlands congregate and sing verses in praise of the goddess consecrated idol. The best part of the day is spent in music and dance and exchange of greetings. In West Bengal, the Nobel laureate, Rabindranath Tagore had organized such celebrations at Shantiniketan near Calcutta. The tradition started by him continues to this day. Wherever there are large concentrations of people of Bengali origin, there is bound to be a Basant Panchami celebration. Various cultural and entertainment programmes and competitions of skill are organized on this occasion, which sustain the interest of the young and old alike.

The other occasion on which ritualistic worship of Goddess Saraswati is done is during October every year coinciding with the first 10 days of the fortnight following the new moon (Sharad Ritu) in the autumnal month of Aswina of the Hindu lunar calendar. These 10 days are called Dussehra. In the southern part of India this period is denoted by term Navratri (nine nights) and the tenth day is called Vijaya Dashami (victorious tenth day). From the sixth day (Shashti) to the ninth day (Maha Navami) Saraswati is worshipped. In fact, the ninth day is termed as Saraswati Puja day in south India. On this day students are enjoined to worship the Goddess of Learning and seek her blessings for success in their educational pursuits. Factories and workshops are spruced up and the tools of production are worshipped since Saraswati Puja day is also the ayudha (implements) puja day. Prasadam made to the deity and tools are partaken by the management and staff.

In West Bengal, Saraswati Puja forms part of the Durga Puja celebration. Saraswati in the Bengali tradition is regarded as the daughter of the Mother Goddess Durga or Parvati, the consort of Lord Shiva. In Durga Puja, images of Durga and her children Lakshmi, Saraswati, Ganesha and Kartik are installed in the specially built pavilions and celebrations go on for four days, ending with the immersion of the images in the sea of river. Durga Puja is the most important festival for the Bengalis world over and it is not only a religious festival but also an occasion for promotion of fine arts, culture and universal brotherhood.

UKT: End of India Profile article.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saraswati - 110501

In Hinduism Saraswati (Skt: सरस्वती sarasvatī) is the goddess of knowledge, music and the arts. She is the consort of Brahma.[1] Saraswati is considered to be the "mother of the Vedas".[2]

The name Saraswati came from "saras" (meaning "flow") and "wati" (meaning "a woman"). So, Saraswati is symbol of knowledge; its flow (or growth) is like a river and knowledge is supremely alluring, like a beautiful woman.

Saraswati is known as a guardian deity in Buddhism who upholds the teachings of Gautama Buddha by offering protection and assistance to practitioners. She is known in Burmese as Thurathadi or Tipitaka Medaw [see below], Chinese as Bincitiān (辯才天), in Thai as Surasawadee (สุรัสวดี) and in Japanese as Benzaiten (弁才天/弁財天).

UKT: The Bur-Myan spellings given by Wikipedia are usually wrong primarily due to the Windows not representing the font used by Wikipedia faithfully. The IPA transcriptions are usually incorrect. For this reason I have removed what Wikipedia has given.
  Thuyathati - {u-r~a.ti} - MED209
  Tipitaka Mdaw - {ti.pi.Ta.ka. m-tau} - MED167/359
Since the Bur-Myan word {m-tau} in some context can mean 'motherhood' implying {u-r~a.ti} as the source of {ti.pi.Ta.ka.}, some Burmese-Buddhist monks objected to it. To avoid this, the word {d-wi} 'principal goddess' may be used. She is one of the five 'Great Gods' (which include both males and females) worshipped by Burmese-Buddhists in the {Bu.ra:ko:hsu pu-zau-pw:} Worship of the Nine Gods. See  Folk Elements in Burmese Buddhism by Maung (Dr.) Htin Aung, Religious Affairs Dept. Press, Rangoon, 1981, p007. -- UKT110501

In the East Indian states of Bihar, West Bengal, Orissa Saraswati is considered to be a daughter of Durga along with her sister Lakshmi and her brothers Ganesha and Karthikeya.[3]

UKT: More in the Wikipedia (Goddess) article.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sarasvati_River - 110501

The Sarasvati River (Skt: सरस्वती नदी srasvatī nadī) is one of the chief Rigvedic rivers mentioned in ancient Hindu texts. The Nadistuti hymn in the Rigveda (10.75) mentions the Sarasvati between the Yamuna in the east and the Sutlej in the west, and later Vedic texts like Tandya and Jaiminiya Brahmanas as well as the Mahabharata mention that the Sarasvati dried up in a desert. The goddess Sarasvati was originally a personification of this river, but later developed an independent identity and meaning.

The identification of the Vedic Sarasvati River with the Ghaggar-Hakra River was accepted by Christian Lassen,[1] Max Mller,[2] Marc Aurel Stein, C.F. Oldham[3] and Jane Macintosh.[4]

... ... ...

Sarasvatī is the Devi feminine of an adjective sarasvant - (which occurs in the Rigveda[5] as the name of the keeper of the celestial waters), derived from Proto-Indo-Iranian sras-wn̥t-iH (and earlier, PIE *sles-wn̥t-ih2), meaning "with (many) pools".

Sanskrit saras- means "pool, pond"; the feminine sarasī́ means "stagnant pool, swamp".[6] Cognate to Greek ἕλος "swamp", the Rigvedic term refers mostly to stagnant waters, and Mayrhofer considers unlikely a connection with the root sar- "run, flow".[7]

Sarasvatī is cognate to Avestan *Haraxwaitī, which has been speculated[8] to refer to Arədvī Sūrā Anāhitā, the Avestan mythological world river, which would point to an already Proto-Indo-Iranian myth of a cosmic or mystical *Sras-vn̥t-iH River. In the younger Avesta, Haraxvaitī is identified with a region described to be rich in rivers, and the Old Persian cognate Hara[h]uvati was the name of area of the Afghani Helmand (*Setumant) river, the origin of the Greek name Arachosia.

The Sarasvati River is mentioned in all books of the Rigveda except the fourth. It is the only river with hymns entirely dedicated to it: RV 6.61, RV 7.95 and RV 7.96.

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According to the Mahabharata, [the post-Vedic epic], the Sarasvati dried up in a desert (at a place named Vinasana or Adarsana);[17] after having disappeared in the desert, reappears in some places;[18] and joins the sea "impetuously".[19] MB.3.81.115 locates Kurukshetra to the south of the Sarasvati and north of the Drishadvati. Dried up seasonal Ghaggar River in Rajasthan and haryana reflects the same geographical view as described in Mahabharata.

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The Sarasvati River of late Vedic and post-Vedic times is generally identified with the Ghaggar River. But the implication of a river of substantially greater volume makes the same identification of the early Vedic references problematic: either the Ghaggar was a more powerful river in earlier times, or the early Vedic Sarasvati was located elsewhere. [citation needed].

Evidence from survey fieldwork and recent satellite imagery have been adduced to suggest that the Ghaggar-Hakra system in the undetermined past had the Sutlej and the Yamuna as tributaries, with the Rann of Kutch as the likely remains of its delta. In this scenario, geological changes diverted the Sutlej towards the Indus and the Yamuna towards the Ganges, following which the river did not have enough water to reach the sea any more and dried up in the Thar desert. It has been proposed that the Sarasvati of the early Rigveda corresponds to the Ghaggar-Hakra before these changes took place (the "Old Ghaggar"), and the late Vedic end Epic Sarasvati disappearing in the desert to the Ghaggar-Hakra following the diversion of Sutlej and Yamuna.

The wide river bed (paleo-channel) of the Ghaggar river suggest that the river once flowed full of water during the great meltdown of the Himalayan Ice Age glaciers, some 10,000 years ago, and that it then continued through the entire region, in the presently dry channel of the Hakra River, possibly emptying into the Rann of Kutch. It supposedly dried up due to the capture of its tributaries by the Indus system and the Yamuna river, and later on, additionally, the loss of water in much of its catchment area due to deforestation and overgrazing.[23] This is supposed by some to have happened at the latest in 1900 BCE [24][25]

Painted Grey Ware sites (ca. 1000 BCE) have been found in the bed and not on the banks of the Ghaggar-Hakra river, suggesting that the river had dried up before this period.[26]

UKT: Much more in Wikipedia article.

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