Update: 2011-09-22 07:53 PM +0800


Sanskrit English Dictionary


from: Online Sanskrit Dictionary, February 12, 2003 . http://sanskritdocuments.org/dict/dictall.pdf  090907

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{sha} / {þhya} शा


UKT notes
• sari • Vishuddha chakra

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{sha}/ {þhya} शा

• शांतमूर्तिम् (shaa.ntamuurtim.h)
Skt: शांतमूर्तिम् (shaa.ntamuurtim.h) - the personification of peace or unruffled benign-looking - OnlineSktDict

• शांतिः (shaa.ntiH)
Skt: शांतिः (shaa.ntiH) - peace - OnlineSktDict

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• शाकहार (shaakaahaara)
Skt: शाकहार (shaakaahaara) - macrobiotic, vegetarian - OnlineSktDict

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• शाकिणी (shaakiNii)
Skt: शाकिणी (shaakiNii) - the goddess in vishuddha chakra - OnlineSktDict

See my note on Viśuddha  विशुद्ध, = व ि श ु द ् ध


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• शाख (shaakha)
Skt: शाख (shaakha) - branch - OnlineSktDict

• शाखं (shaakhaM)
Skt: शाखं (shaakhaM) - branches - OnlineSktDict

• शाखा (shaakhaa)
Skt: शाखा (shaakhaa) - (fem) branch - OnlineSktDict

• शाखाः (shaakhaaH)
Skt: शाखाः (shaakhaaH) - branches - OnlineSktDict

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• शाटिका (shaaTikaa)
Skt: शाटिका (shaaTikaa) - (f) saree - OnlineSktDict
Skt: शाटी śāṭī - strip of cloth - Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sari 110422
Pal: sāṭa - m. a garment, cloth - UPMT-PED233

See my note on sari

• शाधि (shaadhi)
Skt: शाधि (shaadhi) - just instruct - OnlineSktDict

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• शान्त (shaanta)
Skt: शान्त (shaanta) - the sentiment of happiness, peace, pleasure - OnlineSktDict

• शान्तः (shaantaH)
Skt: शान्तः (shaantaH) - peaceful - OnlineSktDict

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• शान्तरजसं (shaantarajasaM)
Skt: शान्तरजसं (shaantarajasaM) - his passion pacified - OnlineSktDict

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• शान्ति (shaanti)
Skt: शान्ति (shaanti) - calmness - OnlineSktDict

• शान्तिं  (shaantiM)
Skt: शान्तिं  (shaantiM) - peace - OnlineSktDict

• शान्तिः (shaantiH)
Skt: शान्तिः (shaantiH) - peace - OnlineSktDict

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• शान्त्यरूपं (shaantyaruupaM)
Skt: शान्त्यरूपं (shaantyaruupaM) - the letter 'shA' + ANTYARUPAM, having this form in the end - OnlineSktDict

• शाम्भवी (shaambhavii)
Skt: शाम्भवी (shaambhavii) - related to Shiva who is known as shambhu - OnlineSktDict

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• शाम्भवीमुद्रा (shaambhaviimudraa)
Skt: शाम्भवीमुद्रा (shaambhaviimudraa) - gazing between ones eyes - OnlineSktDict

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• शाम्यति (shaamyati)
Skt: शाम्यति (shaamyati) - (4 pp) to stop - OnlineSktDict

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• शारदा (shaaradaa)
Skt: शारदा (shaaradaa) - Wife of Sri Ramakrishma (also Goddess Saravati) - OnlineSktDict

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• शारीरं (shaariiraM)
Skt: शारीरं (shaariiraM) - in keeping body and soul together - OnlineSktDict

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• शार्दुलः (shaardulaH)
Skt: शार्दुलः (shaardulaH) - tiger - OnlineSktDict

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• शाश्रतं (shaashvataM)
Skt: शाश्रतं (shaashvataM) - original - OnlineSktDict

• शाश्रतः (shaashvataH)
Skt: शाश्रतः (shaashvataH) - permanent - OnlineSktDict

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• शाश्रतधर्मगोप्ता (shaashvatadharmagoptaa)
Skt: शाश्रतधर्मगोप्ता (shaashvatadharmagoptaa) - maintainer of the eternal religion - OnlineSktDict

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• शाश्रतस्य (shaashvatasya)
Skt: शाश्रतस्य (shaashvatasya) - of the eternal - OnlineSktDict

• शाश्रताः (shaashvataaH)
Skt: शाश्रताः (shaashvataaH) - eternal - OnlineSktDict

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• शाश्रती (shaashvatiiH) = श ा श ् र त ी
Skt: शाश्रती (shaashvatiiH) - many - OnlineSktDict

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• शाश्रते (shaashvate)
Skt: शाश्रते (shaashvate) - of the Vedas - OnlineSktDict

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• शास्र (shaastra)
Skt: शास्र (shaastra) - science - OnlineSktDict

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• शास्रं (shaastraM)
Skt: शास्रं (shaastraM) - revealed scripture - OnlineSktDict

• शास्रविधिं (shaastravidhiM)
Skt: शास्रविधिं (shaastravidhiM) - regulations of the scriptures - OnlineSktDict

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• शास्राणि (shaastraaNi)
Skt: शास्राणि (shaastraaNi) - sciences (Scriptures) - OnlineSktDict

• शास्रे (shaastre)
Skt: शास्रे (shaastre) - (loc.S) in the scriptures - OnlineSktDict

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UKT notes


From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sari 110422

A sari or saree[1] is a strip of unstitched cloth, ranging from four to nine metres in length that is draped over the body in various styles.[2] It is popular in India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Bhutan, Burma, Mauritius, and Malaysia. The most common style is for the sari to be wrapped around the waist, with one end then draped over the shoulder baring the midriff.[2]

The sari is usually worn over a petticoat (लहंगा lahaṅgā or "lehenga" in the north, langa/pavada/pavadai in the south, chaniyo, parkar in the west, and shaya in eastern India), with a blouse known as a choli or ravika forming the upper garment. The choli has short sleeves and a low neck and is usually cropped, and as such is particularly well-suited for wear in the sultry South Asian summers. Cholis may be backless or of a halter neck style. These are usually more dressy with plenty of embellishments such as mirrors or embroidery, and may be worn on special occasions. Women in the armed forces, when wearing a sari uniform, don a short-sleeved shirt tucked in at the waist. The sari developed as a garment of its own in both South and North India at around the same time, and is in popular culture an epitome of Indian culture.[3]

Origins and history

The word sari is derived from Skt: शाटी śāṭī[4] which means 'strip of cloth'[5] and शाडी śāḍī or साडी sāḍī in Prakrit, and which was corrupted to sāṛī in Hindi.[6]

In the history of Indian clothing the sari is traced back to the Indus Valley Civilisation, which flourished during 2800-1800 BC around the western part of the Indian subcontinent.[2] The earliest known depiction of the sari in the Indian subcontinent is the statue of an Indus Valley priest wearing a drape.[2]

Ancient Tamil poetry, such as the Silappadhikaram and the Sanskrit work, Kadambari by Banabhatta, describes women in exquisite drapery or sari.[7] In ancient Indian tradition and the Natya Shastra (an ancient Indian treatise describing ancient dance and costumes), the navel of the Supreme Being is considered to be the source of life and creativity, hence the midriff is to be left bare by the sari.[8]

Sculptures from the Gandhara, Mathura and Gupta schools (1st-6th century AD) show goddesses and dancers wearing what appears to be a dhoti wrap, in the "fishtail" version which covers the legs loosely and then flows into a long, decorative drape in front of the legs. No bodices are shown.[9]

Other sources say that everyday costume consisted of a dhoti or lungi (sarong), combined with a breast band and a veil or wrap that could be used to cover the upper body or head. The two-piece Kerala mundum neryathum (mundu, a dhoti or sarong, neryath, a shawl, in Malayalam) is a survival of ancient Indian clothing styles. The one-piece sari is a modern innovation, created by combining the two pieces of the mundum neryathum.[10]

It is generally accepted that wrapped sari-like garments, shawls, and veils have been worn by Indian women for a long time, and that they have been worn in their current form for hundreds of years.

The tightly fitted, short blouse worn under a sari is a choli. Choli evolved as a form of clothing in 10th century AD and the first cholis were only front covering, the back was always bare but covered with end of saris pallu or veil. Bodics of this type are still common in state of Rajasthan.[11]

In Kerala and Tamil Nadu, it is indeed documented that women from many communities wore only the sari and exposed the upper part of the body till the 20th century.[12] Poetic references from works like Silappadikaram indicate that during the Sangam period in ancient Tamil Nadu, a single piece of clothing served as both lower garment and head covering, leaving the bosom and midriff completely uncovered.[7] In Kerala there are many references to women being bare-breasted,[12] including many paintings by Raja Ravi Varma.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

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Vishuddha chakra

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vishuddha 110420
UKT: Devanagari grapheme at the centre of the chakra: हँ = / {hän}/
Wikipedia links to the Tantric chakras : Sahasrara , Ajna , Vishuddha, Anahata , Manipura , Swadhisthana , Muladhara , Bindu - UKT 110420

Vishuddha (Skt: विशुद्ध, Viśuddha = व ि श ु द ् ध ) also known as Vishuddhi, is the fifth primary chakra according to Hindu tradition.


Location: Vishuddha is positioned at the neck region near the spine, with its ksehtram or superficial activation point in the pit of the throat.

Appearance: This chakra is white with 16 purple or smoke coloured petals, and within the pericarp is a sky-blue downward pointing triangle [UKT: probably representing the female vagina symbolizing the Mother Goddess? - 110420], within which is a circular region which is white like the full-moon, representing the element of akasha or ether. This region is represented by the deity Ambara, who is white in colour, with four arms, holding a noose and a goad, making the gestures of granting boons and dispelling fear, and seated upon a white elephant.

Seed Mantra: The bija mantra (seed sound) is the syllable हं haṃ, and is written in white upon the chakra. In the bindu or point above the mantra resides the deity Sadashiva, who has 5 faces and 10 arms. The right side of his body is a white Shiva, and the left half of the body is a golden Shakti. He is holding a trident, chisel, sword, vajra, fire, a great snake, a bell, a goad, and a noose, and is making the gesture of dispelling fear. He is clad in a tiger skin. His Shakti is Shakini, who is shining white, with five faces, three eyes each, and four armed, with a bow and arrow, noose, and goad, and seated on a red lotus.


Petals: Vishuddha has sixteen purple petals upon which are written the 16 Sanskrit vowels in golden;

a , ā , i , ī , u , ū
ṛ ,
ḷ ,
e , ai , o, au
अः ḥ , अं

UKT: The mantra accompanying the Chakra from http://www.aghon.it/ 110919 sounds like {hoam} instead of {hoän}. This to me is incorrect, because the vowel sound must not be checked with /m/ consonant. It should be a continuous sound fading slowly. Lips must therefore remain open. I am waiting for comments from my peers. - UKT110919

Wiki NB: Some vowels listed above do not strictly correspond to the grammatical definition of a Sanskrit vowel, specifically ॡ , अः , and अं . See Sanskrit Phonology for details.

The petals correspond to the vrittis of the mantra Ong [Aum], the Sama-mantras, the mantra Hung, the mantra Phat, the mantra Washat, the mantra Swadha, the mantra Swaha, the mantra Namak, the nectar Amrita, and then the seven musical tones.


Vishuddha chakra is known as the purification centre. Here the nectar amrit that drips down from the Bindu chakra, and is split into a pure form and a poison. In its more abstract form, it is associated with higher discrimination, and it is associated with creativity and self-expression. When Vishuddha is closed, we undergo decay and death. When it is open, negative experience is transformed into wisdom and learning. The success and failure in one's life depends upon the state of this chakra (polluted/clean). Guilty feeling is the most prominent reason for this chakra; to block the Kundalini Energy moving upwards. It is associated with the element Akasha, or ether, and the sense of hearing, as well as the action of speaking. Meditation upon this chakra is said to bring about the following siddhis or occult powers; vision of the three periods, past, present and future; freedom for disease and old age; destruction of dangers; and the ability to move the three worlds.

Lalana Chakra

Closely related to Vishuddha is a minor chakra, located in the roof of the mouth, called Lalana. It has 12 red or white petals, that correspond to the vritties of respect, contentment, offense, self-control, pride, affection, sorrow, depression, purity, dissatisfaction, honor and anxiety. Inside is a red circular moon region. This acts as a reservoir for the nectar amrit. When vishuddha is inactive, this nectar is allowed to run downwards into Manipura, where it is consumed, resulting in physical degeneration. Through practices such as khechari mudra, however, the nectar can be made to enter Vishuddha, where it is purified, and becomes a nectar of immortality.

Associations with the body

This chakra is located in the neck and throat. Due to its association with hearing, it is related to the ears, and due to its association with speaking, it is associated with the mouth. Vishuddha is often associated with the thyroid gland in the human endocrine system. This gland is in the neck, and produces hormones essential for growth and maturation.


In Kundalini yoga, Vishuddha can be opened and balanced through practices including asanas (such as shoulder-stand), pranayama, Jalandhara Bandha (throat lock), and Khecarī mudrā. This chakra can be cleaned/opened by meditation and also by practicing singing or playing instrumental music.

Comparison with other systems

The throat wheel is an important centre in the Highest Yoga traditions of Vajrayana. It is circular, red, with 16 upward pointing petals or channels. It is of particular importance for the practice of Dream Yoga. Correctly meditating upon it before going to sleep should produce lucid dreams, within which one can continue to practice yoga. [1]

Western occultists make various differing kabbalistic associations with Vishuddha. Some associate it with the hidden sephirah Da'at, where 'wisdom' and 'understanding' are balanced in the supernal realm by the aspect of 'knowledge', a tangible idea, which is then expressed, leading to the act of the creation , others associate it with the sephirah Chesed and Geburah, mercy and strength, which are sephirah intimately associated with morality, and the concept that both expansion, as expressed by Chesed, and limitation, as expressed by Geburah, are necessary for the creation of individual beings. In terms of ethics, this is expressed by the yamas and niyamas ( do's and do nots ) of yoga.

In the system of the Sufi Lataif-e-sitta there are no Lataif in the throat, but there are three in the region of the heart which are arranged horizontally and not vertically. They are the Qalb, or heart, which is the battleground between the lower forces of the Nafs and the higher forces of the Ruh, or spirit; the Ruh which is said by some to be situated on the right hand side of the chest; and Sirr, or secret, between them both in the middle of the chest.

In Taoism, the position of lalana chakra in the roof of the mouth corresponds with a point known as 'The Heavenly Pool'.

Alternative names

• Tantra: Akasha, Dwyashtapatrambuja, Kantha, Kanthadesha, Kanthambhoja, Kanthambuja, Kanthapadma, Kanthapankaja, Nirmala-Padma, Shodasha, Shodasha-Dala, Shodasha-Patra, Shodashara, Shodashollasa-Dala, Vishuddha, Vishuddhi

• Vedas (late Upanishads): Kantha Chakra, Vishuddha, Vishuddhi

• Puranic: Vishuddha, Vishuddhi

UKT: End of Wikipedia article

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