Update: 2011-09-22 07:49 PM +0800


Sanskrit English Dictionary


from: Online Sanskrit Dictionary , February 12, 2003 . http://sanskritdocuments.org/dict/dictall.pdf  090907

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UKT note: Romabama has adopted {sha.} /ʃ/ derived from {s~ha.} ' {sa.ha.hto:}' as a basic akshara of the fricative series:
   {a.} /θ/ स : {} स्
   {Sa.} /s/ ष : {ss} ष्
   {sha.} /ʃ/ श : {sh} श् 
Effective 2011-Apr-17 the Bur-Myan New Year day to meet the requirements of BEPS.

{sha.}/ {hya.}/ {rha.}  श - sha1-182top.htm
  {sha.pa.} शप - sha1pa1-183b1-5.htm 
  {sha.ya.} शय - sha1ya1-183b3-5.htm : this file is necessary to study {ya.} and {ra.} as medial formers.
{sha} शा - sha2-185top-2.htm
{shi.}/ {hyi.}/ {rhi.}  शि - shi1-185b3-2.htm
{shu.}/ {hyu.}/ {rhu.} शु - shu1-186b3-5.htm
{sh}/ {hy}/ {rh} शे - she2-188top-5.htm
  sh-medials - sh-med-188b3-3.htm [ {sh~ma.} श्म  = श ् म ]

{Sa.} (fricative) ष - ssa1-190b2-6.htm :
    Do not get confused with {sa.} (palatal) च ca - sa1-064b1-2.htm

UKT: See my note on the {a.wag}-consonants aka unclassifiable fricative-sibilants and fricative-thibilants as onsets and codas.

{n}/{thn} सं  - than02-190b4-2.htm
  {n-ya.} संय - than02ya1-192b1-6.htm
  {n-ka.} संस्क =  स ं स ् क = संस् क  - than02ka1-193b1-5.htm :
  - though comparable to English s-clusters or sibilant-medials, /sp/ /st/ and /sk/,
    it is noteworthy that the consonant used is /θ/ and not /s/
{a.}/{tha.} स - tha1-194top.htm
  {a.nga.} - tha1gna1-194b2.htm : {kn~si:}
  {a.sa.} सच - tha1sa1-195top-7.htm : {sa.} here is palatal-plosive-stop.
  {a.ta.} सत - tha1ta1-195b2-7.htm
  {a.pa.} सप - tha1pa1-197b1-8.htm
  {a.ma} समा - tha1ma2-198b3-5.htm :
    {a.ma.}, {a.ma}, {a.ma:} form a series in Bur-Myan
  {m~} सम् - thum-200b2-2.htm : {m~}-vertical conjunct used as prefix
  {a.ra.} सर - tha1ra1-201b2.htm
  {a.la.} सल - tha1la1-203b1-4.htm
{a}/{tha} सा - tha2-204b1-2.htm
{i.}/{thi.} सि - thi1-206top-2.htm
{u.}/{thu.} सु - thu1-207top-2.htm
{}/{th} से - the2-210top-4.htm

Note: The following has been placed under a separate indx file.
s-conjuncts : though spelled with a thibilant {a.} /θ/, the pronunciation can only be sibilant {sa.} /s/ to be in sync with English and other IE languages
    {~ka.} & {~ta.}-conjuncts pronounced as /ska/ & /sta/ - th-st-conj-211top-4.htm
    {~pa.}-conjunct स्प pronounced as /spa/ - th-sp-conj-213b1-2.htm 
s-medials स्य - th-med-213b4-2.htm


UKT notes :
{a.wag}-consonants - the unclassifiable fricative-sibilants and fricative-thibilants as onsets and codas.

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UKT notes

{a.wag}-consonants :
fricative-sibilants and fricative-thibilants as onsets and codas

- UKT 110922 [unfinished note]

the unclassifiable dental-fricative sibilants 

See inset pix for enlarged (as a medial) > {sha.} (as a basic akshara)

{sha.}/ {hya.}/ {rha.}  श

The IPA phoneme /ʃ/ seems to present difficulties to Bur-Myan speakers who have not been exposed to IE (such as English). It is reflected in the difficulty of choosing a grapheme to represent it. There were three candidates: {yha.}, {rha.} and {hya.}. MLC on 1986-Oct-01 [according to U Tun Tint, MLC editor, {mran-ma sa-lon:paung: t-pon-kym:}] finally chose {rha.} to represent this sound in most Bur-Myan words while retaining {hya.} for just a few.

I feel that the debate should be reopened and add another candidate {sha.} noting that the {sa.} here is dental-fricative and not palatal-plosive-stop. However, since {sha.} is going to be used as a base akshara - not as a medial, perhaps we should extend our innovation further following the derivation of conjuncts in Devanagari, and draw --> {sha.}, --> {shi.}, etc. I have been reluctant to suggest until I have to deal with the sh-medials where medial-formers had to be added. [A basic rule of akshara-medial formation requires that the inherent vowel of the base be killed before a medial-former can be added. To meet this requirement it is absolutely necessary to kill the inherent vowel of , which is not allowed unless is a base akshara and not a medial, e.g.  {sh~ma.} श्म  = श ् म ; {shya.} श्य = श ् य .


the unclassifiable dental-fricative thibilants

The following are thibilants for Burmese speakers, sibilants for Hindi speakers: {a.} {wa.}.

There are no sibilant-fricatives in Bur-Myan. There is only a palatal-plosive-stop {sa.} [= च ]. To incorporate Eng-Lat and Skt-Dev into Romabama, I need to invent one which will be designated {Sa.} [= ष ]. However, I am reluctant to invent a grapheme for a basic akshara unless absolutely necessary and I have decided to use the same grapheme for both as onset-consonants: {sa.} (palatal-stop) [= च ], and {Sa.} (sibilant-fricative) [= ष ]. Please note that I have not used {ca.} [= च ] for palatal-stop.

Since, it is absolutely necessary to have different graphemes for coda-consonants, I have used: {c} and {S}. Please note again that I have used the killed {ca.} aka {c} [= च् ] for the palatal-stop. -- UKT110321

It has been noted that modern Hindi speakers tend to use all Skt-Dev sibilant-fricatives श = {sha.},  ष = {Sa.}, स = {sa.} as स = {sa.}. Since what they are pronouncing as /{sa.}/ = /s/ is Pal-Myan {a.} /θ/, it has been proposed that I should come up with another version of Sanskrit to English dictionary where all the Sanskrit sibilants are lumped to be comparable to Pal-Myan. -- UKT110327


the unclassifiable innermost akshara  {ha.} ह


Go back awag-con-note-b

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