Update: 2011-09-22 06:10 PM +0800


Sanskrit English Dictionary


from: Online Sanskrit Dictionary, February 12, 2003 . http://sanskritdocuments.org/dict/dictall.pdf  090907

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{pa.ya.} पय
{pa.yau:} पयो


UKT notes
Tagaung - Mandalay Division

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{pa.ya.} पय


पयस् (payas.h)
Skt: पयस् (payas.h) - water - OnlineSktDict
Pal: paya  mn. water, milk - UPMT-PED139
Pal: {pa.ya.} - UHS-PMD0611

UKT: The Indians had the custom of washing off "impurities" with milk. It was said that during the time of the Gautama Buddha (a {a-ki.ya.} of the {a.kya.} clan), some {a-ki.ya.} washed the place which had seated Prince Vidatupa {wi.Ta.Tu-pa.} with milk to cleanse it after he had left saying that the place had been soiled because it had seated the son of a slave-girl. When this episode was reported back to the Prince, the prince vowed to wash his feet with the blood from the throats of the offenders once he became king. When the prince actually carried out his vow, the offending {a-ki.ya.} had to take shelter in the present-day Burma founding (second founding?) the city of Tagaung. This story is the basis of the Burmese, especially the kings, who claimed some relationship to the ancient {a-ki.ya.} the relatives of the Buddha. See the Glass Palace Chronicle Vol 1 (in Bur-Myan) , Myanma-a-lin & Guardian Press, Rangoon, 1993, p156-158.

See also the download from http://wwoutlookindia.com/article.aspx?264458 (downloaded on 101005) in my collection, captioned "Who killed Gautama" by Sheela Reddy, a review on the book Confessions of a Buddhist Atheist  by Stephen Batchelor. It was stated:

"Vidudabhas visit went off uneventfully, until his departure. One of his soldiers, returning to the Shakyan guesthouse to retrieve his sword, overheard a woman muttering as she scrubbed with milk the seat which Vidudabha had used: This is where the son of the slave-woman Vasabha sat! Inevitably, there was an uproar when the Kosalan royal party heard of it. The young prince vowed: When I gain my throne, I will wash it with the blood of their throats.

The story of Prince Vidatupa {wi.Ta.Tu-pa.} is linked to the story of the {a.kya. a-ki.ya.} fugitives seeking shelter at Tagaung in present-day Mandalay Division, in Myanmar. See in my notes on Tagaung .

Notice the difference in spelling Vidudabha -> {wi.du-da.Ba.} and {wi.Ta.Tu-pa.} . Is it a case of the difference between Pal-Latin and Pal-Myan (assuming the two to be dialects of the same language), or, Pal-Myan being a different language? If it were the latter it could be due to Pal-Latin being an IE (Indo-European) and Pal-Myan a Tib-Bur (Tibeto-Burman) language. If Pal-Myan was a legitimate Tib-Bur language, it deserves a name different from Pali. I suggest the name Magadhi and Pal-Myan be written as Mag-Myan : Myanmar script be designated as the modern script to write the ancient language Magadhi the very language used by the Buddha himself to preach to the common people of Magadha not to the literati who were more prone to use Sanskrit. I am waiting for comments from my peers. - UKT101005

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{pa.yau:} पयो

पयोद (payoda)
Skt: पयोद (payoda) - cloud (one who gives water) - OnlineSktDict
Pal: payoda  m. a cloud - UPMT-PED139
Pal: {pa.yau:da.} - UHS-PMD0613

पयोधर (payodhara)
Skt: पयोधर (payodhara) - cloud - OnlineSktDict
Pal: payodhara  m. a cloud, woman's breast - UPMT-PED139
Pal: {pa.yau:Da.ra.} - UHS-PMD0613

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पयोधि (payodhi)
Skt: पयोधि (payodhi) - m.  sea, ocean - OnlineSktDict
Pal: payodhi  m.  the ocean - UPMT-PED139
Pal: {pa.yau:Di.} - not listed in UHS-PMD

पयोधी (payodhii)
Skt: पयोधी (payodhii) - sea (one that stores water) - OnlineSktDict

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UKT notes

Tagaung, Mandalay

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tagaung,_Mandalay 101005
UKT: Place names edited by me.

Tagaung is a town in Mandalay Division of Burma (Myanmar). It is situated on the east bank of the Irrawaddy (Ayeyarwady) River, 127 miles north of Mandalay.[1]

The Ayeyarwady remains the principal means to reach Tagaung. It is linked to Mandalay and to Kachin State in the north also by the Mandalay-Tagaung-Shwegu-Bhamo-Myitkyina Union Highway.[2]

Pre-Christian era and first millennium

Tagaung is believed to be the very first capital of Burma according to the adage Myanmar asa Tagaung ga (Myanmar starts from Tagaung) {mran-ma a.sa. ta.kaung: ka.},  and it was the ancient capital of the Pyu, who were the forerunners of the Burmese people. [3] Its history is steeped in myth and legend. The city is said to have been founded in 850 BC by King Abhiraja of the Sakya clan from Kapilavastu in India, before the time of the Buddha.[4]

It has a very important place in Burmese culture also for the Tagaung yazawin (Tagaung Chronicle) legends of Maung Pauk Kyaing the dragon slayer, the powerful blacksmith and his sister who became the household guardian spirits known as the Mahagiri Nats, and the blind twin princes who were sent adrift on a raft down the Ayeyarwady. [3] [4] [5] [6]

Although the British historians G E Harvey and D G E Hall had dismissed the Abhiraja origin of the Burmese people, the antiquity of Tagaung itself is not in dispute.[4][7] Ptolemy, the Greek geographer, writing in 140 AD, mentions Tugma Metropolis believed to be Tagaung at a spot in Upper Burma.[4][8]

The name Tagaung means "drum ferry" in the Shan language.[3][4][9] In 225 AD, the Wei general Chu Ko-liang is said to have used bronze drums to frighten 'savages' by placing them in torrents to produce the sound of military watchdrums at regular intervals.[3]

According to Chinese annals, Nanchao invaded and plundered the capital of a Pyu kingdom in 832 AD carrying off 3,000 captives. The chronicles of the Tang Dynasty (AD 606-910) describe the land of the Pyu consisting of 18 states and 9 walled towns. In Upper Burma at least seven walled settlements over 200 hectares have been excavated so far.[6]

Second millennium

Tagaung has been termed Anya Pagan (Upper Bagan) with its artifacts dating back to the Neolithic Age.[10] It was one of the 43 outposts established by King Anawrahta (10441077) of Bagan along the eastern foothills of the Shan plateau in defense of his realm, before he embarked on military expeditions west to Bengal and east to Nanchao.[4] The fortification to the east may reflect the city's location by the Ayeyarwady like Bagan but unlike Bagan its proximity to the frontier with Yunnan along the Shweli and Taping rivers. Tagaung was also within easy reach of mineral resources such as silver from Namtu, rubies from Mogok [areas around {mo:koak mro.}], jade, copper and iron by the Meza [ {m:za hkyaung:}] and Uru rivers.[11]

UKT: Note that in Bur-Myan, place names should be suffixed by words such as {mro.} 'town, city', {hkyaung:} 'creek, rivulet', and {mric} 'river'. The English usage of dropping the suffixes without rhyme or reason usually adds to confusion. Of course, we also find suffix dropping in Burmese, but it has to be done with care.

Marco Polo (12541324) was believed to have reached as far as Tagaung in his travels on one of his fact-finding missions sent by Kublai Khan.[12]

South-west Silk Road

A network of three overland routes from Yunnan westward to Bengal existed for transporting bullion between 1200 and 1500 AD. One of them followed the Shweli River, crossing the Irrawaddy at Tagaung, followed the Chindwin River north and crossed via the Imphal pass to Manipur. In the 1950s tens of thousands of cowries in Yunnan were found in tombs from the ancient past between the Warring States Period (475 BCE221 BCE) and the Western Han Dynasty (206 BCE9 CE). These cowries came from the Pacific and Indian oceans, especially from the Maldives, most likely along the same route.[13]

Old city

Old Tagaung may have conformed to the tradition of first millennium Pyu cities which were divided into 9 quadrants. There are 3 walls: Wall 1 (19 hectares) around a low hillock on the north, Wall 2 (62 hectares) known as Anya Bagan, and Wall 3 (204 hectares) encompassing the other two. The western wall is missing in all three of them, and believed to have been washed away by the river as it changed its course over time. Archaeological excavations carried out at Tagaung had yielded bronze age drums, and also votive tablets connected to Anawrahta. More recent finds included urns, decorated roof-tile finials and finger-marked 'Pyu' bricks dated before 800 AD.[3][6][11]

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

Go back Tagaung-note-b

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