Update: 2011-09-22 06:05 PM +0800

TIL

Sanskrit English Dictionary

SED-con-r5-indx.htm

from: Online Sanskrit Dictionary , February 12, 2003 . http://sanskritdocuments.org/dict/dictall.pdf  090907

Downloaded, set in HTML, and edited by U Kyaw Tun, M.S. (I.P.S.T., U.S.A.), Daw Khin Wutyi, B.Sc., and staff of TIL Computing and Language Centre, Yangon, Myanmar. Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone.

indx-BEPS |Top
SED-con-r5-indx.htm

Contents of this page

{wag}-consonants - the classifiables : continued
row5 {pa.}-group

 

UKT notes :
Buddh Gya Inscription (inscribed date 1296 AD)
vocalic R

UKT: Listing order in TOC: Myanmar - Romabama - Devanagari - IAST (ITRANS)
Devanagari orthography of Sanskritdocuments.org seems to be different from modern usage. And therefore I have to go online to check:
SpokenSkt: www.spokensanskrit.de 091111,

Entries from www.spokensanskrit.de are marked with "SpkSkt" or "" ,
whereas entries from http://sanskritdocuments.org/dict/dictall.pdf  are simply marked "OnlineSkt" or "OnlineSktDict".
Note: Transliteration: You will meet 3 types of transliterations: IAST without brackets, ITRANS within (...) from OnlineSktDict, and ASCII within ... or <...> from SpkSkt.

The TOC (Table of Contents) below is according to Burmese-Myanmar way of pronunciation of Sanskrit-Devanagari with the full-understanding that it is a very rough pronunciation which ought to be dropped once the reader becomes familiar with the Devanagari script. Please remember, my aim here is to familiarize the Myanmar reader with the Devanagari script using Pali and Sanskrit languages.

Contents of this page

{wag}-consonants
- the classifiables : continued

Note: The IPA symbols I have given are the nearest phonemic pronunciation
that I speak and hear and would be different for another person.
   Be careful of the environmental Romabama vowel change due to the killed coda consonant inserted into a syllable shown in
black in the following examples:
{ka.ka.} --> {ka
k~ka.} (/a/ -> // )
{ka.ma.} --> {k
m~ma.} (/a/ -> /ʌ/ ) -- UKT 100616

 

Consonants : row 5

The top-right insert shows a stone inscription in Bur-Myan discovered in 1833 about which was published in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal May, 1834 by Lt-Colonel H. Burney, British Resident at Ava.

UKT: The relevant Journal is given by Google as a book preview:
http://books.google.com/books?id=3ygoAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA161&lpg=PA161&dq=stone+inscription+in+Burmese+discovered+in+India&source=bl&ots=e6JcGH3SH7&sig=uIsz3FUefyBaZJSEHbgfcDoYnVo&hl=en&ei=lHWiTLz9BsmKswbE2ZiKBQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&sqi=2&ved=0CBwQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=stone%20inscription%20in%20Burmese%20discovered%20in%20India&f=false
The article is on p161.

 

Contents of this page

Row 5 {pa.}-group

The bilabial group is very clearly pronounced by the Myanmar-born Burmese population. However, due to the absence of labio-dental articulation in Burmese, Burmese-Myanmar speakers have to substitute labio-dental /f/ and /v/ with /p/ and /b/. The labio-dental articulation is probably absent in Vedic Sanskrit and possibly absent in Pali, and consequently, /v/ of Sanskrit and Pali are substituted with /w/ of Burmese. Many of the words with /vy/ in Sanskrit and Pali are substituted with /by/ of Burmese.

The rimes involving the killed coda-consonants of group #5 are pronounced the same as those involving #4 especially by the mainland Burmese-Myanmar who tend to substitute the coda with the glottal stop /ʔ/. This may not be true with Burmese speakers in outlying areas such as Danu of the Shan State. My observation on a single Danu speaker, an ex-Buddhist monk, one of my co-workers in Taunggyi whose dialect is strewn with "obsolete" Burmese words need to be checked. -- UKT 100424

{pa.} प - pa1-102b3-2.htm : {pn} पं included
  {pa.ya.} पय - pa1ya1-104b3-4.htm
  {pa.ra.} पर - pa1ra1-105top-2.htm
  {pa.ri.} परि  - pa1ri1-106b1-3.htm
  {pa.la.} - pa1la1-108b1-2.htm 
{pa} पा - pa2-109top-2.htm
  {pa-ra.} पार - pa2ra1-110b2-2.htm
{pi.} पि - pi1-111top-5.htm
{pu.} पु - pu1-112top-2.htm
{pu} - pu2-114b1-2.htm
{pRi.} (not {pri.}) पृ - pRRi-115b1-2.htm : unknown in Bur-Myan;
    from {iR.} (see R-coloured-vowel or repha in my notes)
{p}-{p:} पे pe - पै pai - pe-115b3-2.htm  
{pau.}-{pau} पो po पौ pau - pau-115b3-3.htm
  {pra.} प्र - pra1-r1r2-116top-2.htm : though a medial, is listed separately because of its large size
                 - pra1-r3r4-117top-5.htm
                 - pra1-r5-118b3-7.htm 
                 - pra1-r6r7-119b3-3.htm
  {pra} प्रा - pra2-122b3-2.htm
  {pri.} प्रि - pri1-124top-5.htm : Compare to the highly rhotic {pRi.} पृ
  p-medials - p-med-125top.htm

{hpa.} - hpa1-125top-2.htm

{ba.} ब - ba1-125b2.htm
{ba} बा - ba2-127top-2.htm
{bi.} बि - bi1-127b3.htm
{bu.} बु - bu1-128top-3.htm
  b-medials - b-med-129b1-2.htm

{Ba.} भ - bba1-130b2-2.htm
{Ba} भा - bba2-132b3-2.htm
{Bi.} भि - bbi1-133b4.htm
{Bu.} भु - bbu1-134b1-2.htm 
{B}-{B:} भे भै - bbe2-136top.htm : includes {Bau.}-{Bau}

{ma.} म - ma1-137top-6.htm: {mn} मं included
  {ma.Na.} मण - ma1nna1-137b3.htm
  {ma.da.} मद - ma1da1-138b3.htm
  {ma.na.} मन - ma1na1-139b3-2.htm
  {ma.ya.} मय - ma1ya1-141b1-2.htm 
{ma} मा - ma2-143b2-2.htm
{mi.} मि - mi1-145b2-2.htm : includes {mu.}
{m}-{m:} मे मै - me-148b1-2.htm : includes m-medials

Contents of this page

UKT notes

Buddh Gya Inscription

From:
Translation of an Inscription in the Pali Character and Burmese Language, on a stone at Buddh Gya, in Behar , Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal May, 1834 . SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 1, No. 2, Autumn 2003, ISSN 1479-8484 . Revised: 27 March 2004
http://web.soas.ac.uk/burma/1.2%20PDF%20FILES/1.2%2003%20inscription-revised.pdf
  (UKT: last online access: 081111)

SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research
Editorial note:

After the initial posting of this reprint, Dr. Tilman Frasch (Manchester Metropolitan University) sent the following useful and cautionary note on the 19th century translation below: "This is the first of several attempts to read and translate the text of an inscription Burmese monks left at Bodhgaya when visiting the site in 1296-98 AD. Burney had reached Bodhgaya in the company of a Burmese delegation to the Governor-General of India, and presumably he was helped by the Burmese in his translation. However, neither his nor any (but one) of the later translations is fully reliable, as usually the name Putasin is misread as Pyutasin (l. 11 of the Burmese version reprinted here). Putasin (or Buddhasena) is the name of the local ruler of Bodhgaya; it was mixed with with the epithet Pyu-ta-sin (or "Lord of 100.000 Pyu") which the Rakhaing Minthami Egyin attributed to king Alaungsithu. The only reliable translation comes from G. H.Luce, Sources of Early Burma History, in Southeast Asian History and Historiography (Festschrift GEH Hall), eds. C.D. Cowan and O. W. Wolters, Ithaca 1976, p. 41-42."

Translation of an Inscription in the Pali Character and Burmese Language, on a stone at Buddh Gya, in Behar
From Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal May, 1834

When the Burmese ambassador MENGY MAHA CHESU and his suite were on their way to the Upper Provinces, to visit the Governor General; they took the opportunity of paying their devotions at the celebrated Buddhist temple near Gya. There, as usual making notes of every occurrence, they took copies of an ancient inscription in the Pali character, discovered by them, in a half-buried situation near the Maha Bodhi gach or sacred papal tree, on the terrace of the temple. A copy of their manuscript having come into RATNA PAULAs hands, he had obliged me by lithographing the text; as a sequel to the more lengthy inscription from Ramree in the present number.

It will be remembered that there is a near coincidence in the names of the kings of Ava, alluded to in the two inscriptions; although an interval of more than 500 years separates the two in date; this can only be cleared up by a better knowledge of the history of the country, than we now possess. In the Burmese chronological table, published in Crawfurds Embassy, SATO-MANG-BYA (probably the same as Sado-meng) only founded Angwa or Ava in the Sakkaraj year 726. In 667-8, TA-CHI-SHANG-SI-HASU reigned in Panya ; his grand-son founded and reigned in Chit-gaing.

UKT: Some Myanmar words from the above paragraph:
SATO-MANG-BYA -- {tha.do: ming: bya:}
Sakkaraj year 726 -- {thak~ka.riz 726} 
   Burmese era 726. Myanmars are very well-versed in astronomy-cum-astrology, and the king on
   the advise of his council would start a new era. BE 726 belongs to the present era, which was started
   by a king during the pre-Pagan period. It is to be noted that though every-day life is counted by
   the lunar calendar, the years are counted by the solar calendar, and it is the duty of the royal
   council, to calculate the exact number of days, hours and minutes to be added to every year
   at the time of the transit of the Sun from Constellation Pisces to Constellation Aries.
TA-CHI-SHANG-SI-HASU -- {ta.si:shin thi-ha-thu}
   (probably the king who on finding a dead white elephant floating down the Irrawaddy river,
   had it propped up and mounted it. He then claimed himself as the "Lord of One" which in
   Myanmar is {tic.si:rhing}
Panya -- {ping: ya.}
Chit-gaing -- {sic keing:}
The fall of Pagan to the Mongols (Chinese) is cited to be 1287, and 1296-98 AD corresponds to the end of Pagan period and the beginning of the Pinya period.
   A remark about Myanmar official names: it is the usual practice to refer to the kings and people in high places by their titles and so the Burmese ambassador, and MENGY MAHA CHESU {ming:kri: ma.ha si-thu} is the title conferred on the person by royal decree. MENGY or {ming:kri:} means "High Official" referring to the power bestowed on him; MAHA {ma.ha} means "Great"; and SITHU is the title bestowed on him by royal decree.

Reproduced by UKT from: Translation of an inscription in the Pali Character and Burmese Language, on a stone at Buddh Gya in Behar, Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, May 1834. SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, vol.1, no.2, Autumn 2003, ISSN 1479-8484. Revised 27 March 2004. http://web.soas.ac.uk/burma/1.2%20PDF%20FILES/1.2%2003%20inscription-revised.pdf  (UKT last online access 081111)

At page 111, Lieut. BURT refers to an unintelligible inscription at Gya, mentioned by Mr. Harington; but that contained only one line, and was in a different locality. The present inscription seems therefore to have escaped attention up to the present moment; it is now recorded as furnishing an authentic note on the construction of the Buddha Gya monument in the year 1305 A.D.; for it may be presumed that the previous Chaityas and Buddhist structures had been long before levelled with the ground, and the inscription states, that previous missions to reconstruct the edifice had been unsuccessful. As proving that this spot is held in peculiar veneration by the Burmese, it may be remembered that in 1823, a deputation of Buddha priests was sent from Amarapura, by the Burman emperor, to perform the obsequities of his predecessor, recently deceased, at the shrine of Buddha Gya.

This is one of the 84,000 shrines erected by SRI DHARM ASOKA, ruler of the world (Jambodwip), at the end of the 218th year of Buddha annihilation, (B.C. 326) upon the holy spot in which BHAGAVN (Buddha) tasted milk and honey (madhupayasa). In lapse of time, having fallen into disrepair, it was rebuilt by a priest named NAIKMAHANTA. Again, being ruined, it was restored by Raja SADO-MANO. After a long interval it was once more [10] demolished, when Raja SEMPYU-SAKHEN-TARA-MENGI appointed his gr SRI-DHAMMARAJA-GUNA to superintend the building. He proceeded to the spot with his disciple, SRI KSYAPA, but they were unable to complete it, although aided in every way by the Raja. Afterwards VARADASI-NAIK-THERA petitioned the Raja to undertake it, to which he readily assented, commissioning prince PYUTASING to the work, who again deputed the younger PYUSAKHENG and his minister RATHA, to cross over and repair the sacred building. It was thus constructed a fourth time, and finished on Friday the 10th day of Pyadola, in the Sakkaraj year 667 (A.D. 1305). On Sunday, the 8th of Tachaon-mungla, 668 (A.D. 1306), it was consecrated with splendid ceremonies and offerings of food, perfumes, banners, and lamps, and pja of the famous ornamented tree called calpa-vriksha; and the poor (two?) were treated with charity, as the Rajas own children? Thus was completed this meritorious act, which will produce eternal reward and virtuous fruits. May the founders endure in fame, enjoy the tranquillity of Nirbhan, and become Arahanta on the advent of Arya Maitri (the future Buddha).

Go back Buddh-Gya-Inscrip-note-b

Contents of this page

vocalic R (German) : pronounced as vowel

From: Paul Joyce, German Course, Univ. of Portsmouth. http://userweb.port.ac.uk/~joyce1/abinitio/pronounce/consonr3.html 100102

The German vocalic 'r' is so-called because it is pronounced as a vowel, not a consonant. Sometimes referred to as a 'dark schwa', vocalic 'r' is articulated with the tongue slightly lower and further back in the vowel area than the 'schwa' sound heard at the end of such German words as 'Liebe', 'Katze' and 'Ratte'.

Vocalic 'r' can only be used in certain specific situations which are outlined below. Its most common usage is in unstressed "-er" syllables at the end of German words.

Sounds 1: Vocalic 'r' in final position: 83.mp3 <))
Bruder <brother> ; Schwester <sister>; Mutter <mother>; Vater <father>

The vocalic 'r' is also used in the final position in a word when the 'r'  follows a long vowel. Listen to the following six words, all of which end with a vocalic 'r' after a long vowel.

Sounds 2: Vocalic 'r' after a long vowel: 82.mp3 <))
Tor <gate; goal> ; Uhr <clock> ;
mehr <more> ; vier <four> ;
Bier <beer> ; Chor <chorus>

Vocalic 'r' is also heard when the letter 'r' follows a long vowel but precedes another consonant. Listen to the following four words in which vocalic 'r' occurs before a following consonant.

Sounds 3: Vocalic 'r' after long vowel + before another consonant: 81.mp3 <))
Pferd <horse> ; Herd <cooker> ;
sprte <felt> ; fhrte <led>

You will also hear vocalic 'r' in the unstressed German prefixes er-, ver-, zer- and her-. Listen to the vocalic 'r' in four words containing these prefixes.

Sounds 4: Vocalic 'r' in unstressed prefixes: 84.mp3 <))
erlauben <to allow> ; vergessen <to forget> ;
zertren <to destroy) ; hereinkommen <to come in>

Distinguishing between vocalic 'r' and consonantal 'r' 

In the following pairs of words, the first word contains a vocalic 'r' in final position. The second word in each pair however contains a consonantal 'r'. Listen and note the distinction between the sounds that are made in each pair of words.

Sounds 5: Vocalic 'r' or consonantal 'r' ? : jnger.wav <))
jnger <younger> ; die jngere <the younger one>
Meer <sea> ; Meere <seas>
clever <clever> ; der clevere <the clever one>

Finally, listen to these words in which vocalic 'r' and consonantal 'r' occur within the same word. Note in particular how adding an '-in' suffix can change the articulation of what was previously a vocalic 'r' sound.

Sounds 6: Vocalic and consonantal 'r' within the same word: bruder.wav<))
Frankfurter (Frankfurter sausage) ; Bruder <brother>
Lehrer (male teacher) ; Lehrerin (female teacher)
Reporter (male reporter) ; Reporterin (female reporter)

Go back vocalic-R-note-b

Contents of this page

End of TIL file