Update: 2011-09-22 03:37 PM +0800


Sanskrit English Dictionary


from: Online Sanskrit Dictionary, February 12, 2003 . http://sanskritdocuments.org/dict/dictall.pdf  090907

Downloaded, set in HTML, and edited by U Kyaw Tun, M.S. (I.P.S.T., U.S.A.), and staff of TIL Computing and Language Centre, Yangon, Myanmar. Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone.

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Contents of this page
{ta.hta.} तथ
{ta.da.} तद
{ta.da} तदा
{ta.na.} तन
{ta.nu.} तनु
{tan~tu.} तन्तु 
{tan~tra.}/ {tan-tra.} तन्त्र
{tan~nau:} तन्नो
{tan~ma.} तन्म
{tan~wi.} तन्वि
{ta.pa.} तप
{ta.pau:} तपो


UKT notes
Asoka Maurya Gautama Buddha Gupta period Tantra

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{ta.hta.} तथ

तथा (tathaa)
Skt: तथा (tathaa) - and, also, like that - OnlineSktDict

तथापि (tathaapi)
Skt: तथापि (tathaapi) - yet, even then - OnlineSktDict

तथैव (tathaiva)
Skt: तथैव (tathaiva) - similarly - OnlineSktDict

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{ta.da.} तद

तदनु (tadanu)
Skt: तदनु (tadanu) - after that - OnlineSktDict

तद् (tad.h)
Skt: तद् (tad.h) - he/ she/ it - OnlineSktDict

तद्धाम (tad.hdhaama)
Skt: तद्धाम (tad.hdhaama) - that abode - OnlineSktDict

तदनंतरं (tadana.ntaraM)
Skt: तदनंतरं (tadana.ntaraM) - later to that - OnlineSktDict

तदनन्तरं (tadanantaraM)
Skt: तदनन्तरं (tadanantaraM) - thereafter - OnlineSktDict

तदपि (tadapi)
Skt: तदपि (tadapi) - tat.h + api, then evern - OnlineSktDict

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{ta.da} तदा

तदा (tadaa)
Skt: तदा (tadaa) - then - OnlineSktDict
Pal: tadā adv. then, at that time - UPMT-PED102
Pal: {ta.da} - UHS-PMD0431

तदात्मानः (tadaatmaanaH)
Skt: तदात्मानः (tadaatmaanaH) - those whose minds are always in the Supreme - OnlineSktDict

तदिह (tadiha)
Skt: तदिह (tadiha) - tat.h + iha, that + here - OnlineSktDict

तद्वत् (tadvat.h)
Skt: तद्वत् (tadvat.h) - like that - OnlineSktDict

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तद्विद्धि (tadviddhi)
Skt: तद्विद्धि (tadviddhi) - you must know it - OnlineSktDict

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{ta.na.} तन

तन (tana)
Skt: तन (tana) - Body - OnlineSktDict

तनय (tanaya)
Skt: तनय (tanaya) - m. son - OnlineSktDict
Pal: tanaya  m. (√tan} a son - UPMT-PED102
Pal: {ta.na.ya.} - UHS-PMD0432

तनया (tanayaa)
Skt: तनया (tanayaa) - daughter - OnlineSktDict

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{ta.nu.} तनु

तनु (tanu)
Skt: तनु (tanu) - body - OnlineSktDict
Pal: tanu  adj. thin, slender, delicate, small; f. the body, skin - UPMT-PED102
Pal: {ta.nu.} - UHS-PMD0432

तनुभाव (tanubhaava)
Skt: तनुभाव (tanubhaava) - First house or house of body - OnlineSktDict

Among the Hindu Astrological Nativity charts in use in Myanmar today, we include not only the Rasi chart but also the Bhava chart: the first house is {ta.nu.} aka तनुभाव (tanubhaava). Please note that I was a part-time astrologer at one time in Myanmar and I specialized in Astakavarga. -- UKT110826

तनुं (tanuM)
Skt: तनुं (tanuM) - form of a demigod - OnlineSktDict

तनूं (tanuuM)
Skt: तनूं (tanuuM) - body - OnlineSktDict

तनूज (tanuuja)
Skt: तनूज (tanuuja) - son - OnlineSktDict
Pal: tanuja  m. a son - UPMT-PED102
Pal: {ta.nu.za.} - UHS-PMD0432

तनूभिः (tanuubhiH)
Skt: तनूभिः (tanuubhiH) - through the bodies (sharIra) - OnlineSktDict

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{tan~tu.} तन्तु 

तन्तु (tantu)
Skt: तन्तु (tantu) - thread, stalk - OnlineSktDict
Pal: tantu  m. a thread - UPMT-PED102
Pal: {tan~tu.} - UHS-PMD0432

तन्तुवायः (tantuvaayaH)
Skt: तन्तुवायः (tantuvaayaH) - (m) spinner (one who spins cloth, not the bowler) - OnlineSktDict

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{tan~tra.}/ {tan-tra.} तन्त्र

तन्त्र (tantra) 
= त न ् त ् र
Skt: तन्त्र (tantra) - treatises on ritual, meditation, discipline, etc. - OnlineSktDict
Skt: तन्त्र  tantra  m. technique;
 n. system, fabric, fiber, textile, authority [significance], chord [of a musical instrument], scientific work, doctrine, theory, rule - SpkSkt
*Pal: tanta  n. a thread, treatise, literary work - UPMT-PED102
*Pal: {tn~ta.} - UHS-PMD0432

See my notes on Tantra and Gupta period - the Golden Age of India


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तन्निष्ठाः (tannishhThaaH)
= त न ् न ि ष ् ठ ा ः
Skt: तन्निष्ठाः (tannishhThaaH) - those whose faith is only meant for the Supreme - OnlineSktDict

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{tan~nau:} तन्नो

तन्नो (tanno)
Skt: तन्नो (tanno) - he to us - OnlineSktDict

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{tan~ma.} तन्म

तन्मात्रा (tanmaatraa)
Skt: तन्मात्रा (tanmaatraa) - the five potential or senses - OnlineSktDict

तन्मुख्यं (tanmukhyaM)
Skt: तन्मुख्यं (tanmukhyaM) - tat.h + mukhyaM: that + important - OnlineSktDict

तन्मेमनः (tanmemanaH)
Skt: तन्मेमनः (tanmemanaH) - tat.h + me + manaH: that + my + mind - OnlineSktDict

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{tan~wi.} तन्वि

तन्वि (tanvi)
Skt: तन्वि (tanvi) - woman - OnlineSktDict

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{ta.pa.} तप

तप (tapa)
Skt: तप (tapa) - to burn, shine, suffer - OnlineSktDict
Pal: tapa  mn. (√tap) religious austerity, glow, self-mortification, piety - UPMT-PED102
Pal: {ta.pa.} - UHS-PMD0433

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तपः (tapaH)
Skt: तपः (tapaH) - penance - OnlineSktDict

तपःसु (tapaHsu)
Skt: तपःसु (tapaHsu) - in undergoing different types of austerities - OnlineSktDict

तपति (tapati)
Skt: तपति (tapati) - 1pp.  to heat up - OnlineSktDict
Pal: tapati  v. (√tap) to burn, blaze, shine, torment - UPMT-PED102
Pal: {ta.pa.ti.} - UHS-PMD0433

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तपन्तं (tapantaM)
Skt: तपन्तं (tapantaM) - heating - OnlineSktDict

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तपस् (tapas.h)
Skt: तपस् (tapas.h) - sustained effort - OnlineSktDict
Skt: तपस्   tapas   n.   fire - SpkSkt

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तपसा (tapasaa)
Skt: तपसा (tapasaa) - by the penance - OnlineSktDict

तपसां (tapasaaM)
Skt: तपसां (tapasaaM) - and penances and austerities - OnlineSktDict

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तपसि (tapasi)
Skt: तपसि (tapasi) - in penance - OnlineSktDict

तपस्यसि (tapasyasi)
Skt: तपस्यसि (tapasyasi) - austerities you perform - OnlineSktDict

तपस्या (tapasyaa)
Skt: तपस्या (tapasyaa) - (f) penance, meditation - OnlineSktDict

तपस्विभ्यः (tapasvibhyaH)
Skt: तपस्विभ्यः (tapasvibhyaH) - than the ascetics - OnlineSktDict

तपस्विषु (tapasvishhu)
Skt: तपस्विषु (tapasvishhu) - in those who practice penance - OnlineSktDict

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तपामि (tapaami)
Skt: तपामि (tapaami) - give heat - OnlineSktDict

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{ta.pau:} तपो

तपोभिः (tapobhiH)
Skt: तपोभिः (tapobhiH) - by serious penances - OnlineSktDict

तपोयज्ञाः (tapoyaGYaaH)
Skt: तपोयज्ञाः (tapoyaGYaaH) - sacrifice in austerities - OnlineSktDict

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तप्त (tapta)
Skt: तप्त (tapta) - troubled, frustrated - OnlineSktDict

तप्तं (taptaM)
Skt: तप्तं (taptaM) - executed - OnlineSktDict

तप्यन्ते (tapyante)
Skt: तप्यन्ते (tapyante) - undergo - OnlineSktDict

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तम् (tam.h)
Skt: तम् (tam.h) - him - OnlineSktDict

तम (tama)
Skt: तम (tama) - Anger - OnlineSktDict

तमः (tamaH)
Skt: तमः (tamaH) - (m) darkness, ignorance - OnlineSktDict

तमनेन (tamanena)
Skt: तमनेन (tamanena) - that + thro' this - OnlineSktDict

तमस् (tamas.h)
Skt: तमस् (tamas.h) - darkness - OnlineSktDict

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तमस (tamasa)
Skt: तमस (tamasa) - darkness, inertia, ignorance - OnlineSktDict

तमसः (tamasaH)
Skt: तमसः (tamasaH) - to darkness - OnlineSktDict

तमसि (tamasi)
Skt: तमसि (tamasi) - the mode of ignorance - OnlineSktDict

तमोद्वारैः (tamodvaaraiH)
Skt: तमोद्वारैः (tamodvaaraiH) - from the gates of ignorance - OnlineSktDict

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UKT notes

UKT: As a Bur-Myan Theravada Buddhist, two periods in Indian history, separated by about 600 years, are important to me:

1. the period spanning the emergence of Gautama Buddha (Siddhārtha Gautama, Skt: सिद्धार्थ गौतम; Pali: Siddhattha Gotama) through the Mauryan Asoka's conversion to Buddhism , to the fall of the Asoka dynasty (ca. 304232 BC).

2. the Gupta period of the enlightened Hindu monarchs (ca. 320 to 550 CE).


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Gautama Buddha

From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gautama_Buddha 110825

Siddhārtha Gautama (Skt: सिद्धार्थ गौतम; Pal: Siddhattha Gotama) was a spiritual teacher from ancient India who founded Buddhism.[1] [UKT ]

UKT: From the way he discovered the Four Noble Truths, Gautama Buddha can be looked as as one of the ancient scientists. The period of his Truth-seeking struggle under various authorities, lasted six years, during which he studied their practices to their satisfaction. Still deep down inside he was not satisfied. He then discarded all authorities and their very idea of the Creator (whom none had actually seen nor talked to in the physical sense) and their notion of the indestructible soul - the Atta. The ideas of the existence of the Creator and Atta are nothing but ideas - not reality. They are Axioms which by definition cannot be checked. And it was from these axioms that all other religions are formulated.
   What the Buddha-to-be sought was then an unchanging principle or law of nature that would withstand Time itself. He finally came up with one: "That all transient beings - the intelligent ones such as the humans - is not free from mental suffering: they all do suffer at one time or other". This is the Principle of Dokkha as I have come to understand. This first Principle, followed by three other Principles are all natural laws beyond the restriction of Time and Space. Because of the method of his enquiry I would equate the Buddha as a scientist and not just a "spiritual teacher".
   I have been a Theravada Buddhist all my life: I was first introduced to U Ba Khin - the founder of International Meditation Centres - while he was still the Accountant General (AG) in the Union of Burma government service. I had worked as an auditor (lower division clerk in AG-Burma, Pension Department) working for some six months altogether. At that time I was only 16 and it was my cousin U Boon Shein, then a Superintendent in AG and one of U Ba Khin's religious followers, who had introduced me to U Ba Khin's practices. My understanding of Buddhism is based on my life-time practice and study. -- UKT 110826

In most Buddhist traditions, he is regarded as the Supreme Buddha (P. sammāsambuddha, S. samyaksaṃbuddha) of our age, "Buddha" meaning "awakened one" or "the enlightened one." [note 1] The time of his birth and death are uncertain: most early 20th-century historians dated his lifetime as c. 563 BCE to 483 BCE,[2] but more recent opinion dates his death to between 486 and 483 BCE or, according to some, between 411 and 400 BCE.[3][4] By tradition, Gautama is said to have been born in the small state of Kapilavastu, in what is now Nepal, and later to have taught primarily throughout regions of eastern India such as Magadha and Kośala.[5][6]

UKT: Because of his birth place and the places where he had lived and died, I contend that the sound of Buddha's speech - pronunciation of consonants and vowels - would be similar to the modern Tibeto-Burman languages chief among which is Bur-Myan. Because of this he would have been a thibilant non-fricative speaker not a sibilant fricative speaker. His speech would include the thibilant /θ/ as in <th> of English word <thin>. In other words, his speech would have been free of the sibilants, such as /ʃ/, of Sanskrit of the Indo-European language group. - UKT 110826

Gautama, also known as Śākyamuni ("Sage of the Śākyas"), is the primary figure in Buddhism, and accounts of his life, discourses, and monastic rules are believed by Buddhists to have been summarized after his death and memorized by his followers. Various collections of teachings attributed to him were passed down by oral tradition, and first committed to writing about 400 years later.

He is also regarded as a god or prophet in other world religions or denominations, including Hinduism, Ahmadiyya Islam[7] and the Bah' faith.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

Go back Gautama-Buddha-note-b

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Asoka Maurya

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ashoka 110825

Ashok Maurya or Ashoka (Skt: अशोक, Bangala: অশোক  ], ca. 304232 BC), popularly known as Ashoka the Great, was an Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from ca. 269 BC to 232 BC.[1] One of India's greatest emperors, Ashoka reigned over most of present-day India after a number of military conquests. His empire stretched from present-day Pakistan and Afghanistan in the west, to the present-day Bangladesh and the Indian state of Assam [bordering Myanmar] in the east , and as far south as northern Kerala and Andhra Pradesh. He conquered the kingdom named Kalinga, which no one in his dynasty had conquered starting from Chandragupta Maurya. His reign was headquartered in Magadha (present-day Bihar, India). [UKT ]

He [Asoka] embraced Buddhism from the prevalent Hindu tradition after witnessing the mass deaths of the war of Kalinga, which he himself had waged out of a desire for conquest. He was later dedicated to the propagation of Buddhism across Asia and established monuments marking several significant sites in the life of Gautama Buddha. Ashoka was a devotee of ahimsa (nonviolence), love, truth, tolerance and vegetarianism . Ashoka is remembered in history as a philanthropic administrator. In the history of India, Ashoka is referred to as Samraat Chakravartin Ashoka - the Emperor of Emperors Ashoka.

His name "aśoka" means "painless, without sorrow" in Skt (the a privativum and śoka "pain, distress"). In his edicts, he is referred to as Devānāmpriya (Pali Devānaṃpiya or "The Beloved Of The Gods"), and Priyadarśin (Pali Piyadasī or "He who regards everyone with affection").

Along with the Edicts of Ashoka, his legend is related in the later 2nd century Aśokāvadāna ("Narrative of Asoka") and Divyāvadāna ("Divine narrative"), and in the Sri Lankan text Mahavamsa ("Great Chronicle").

Ashoka played a critical role in helping make Buddhism a world religion. [2] As the peace-loving ruler of one of the world's largest, richest and most powerful multi-ethnic states, he is considered an exemplary ruler, who tried to put into practice a secular state ethic of non-violence. The emblem of the modern Republic of India is an adaptation of the Lion Capital of Ashoka.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

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Gupta period

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gupta_period 110825

The Gupta Empire (Skt: गुप ्त राजवंश, Gupta Rājavaṃśa) was an Ancient Indian empire which existed approximately from 320 to 550 CE and covered much of the Indian Subcontinent.[1] Founded by Maharaja Sri-Gupta, the dynasty was the model of a classical civilization.[2] The peace and prosperity created under leadership of Guptas enabled the pursuit of scientific and artistic endeavors.[3] This period is called the Golden Age of India[4] and was marked by extensive inventions and discoveries in science, technology, engineering, art, dialectic, literature, logic, mathematics, astronomy, religion and philosophy that crystallized the elements of what is generally known as Hindu culture.[5] Chandragupta I, Samudragupta, and Chandragupta II were the most notable rulers of the Gupta dynasty.[6]

The high points of this cultural creativity are magnificent architecture, sculptures and paintings.[7] The Gupta period produced scholars such as Kalidasa, Aryabhata, Varahamihira, Vishnu Sharma and Vatsyayana who made great advancements in many academic fields.[8][9] Science and political administration reached new heights during the Gupta era.[10] Strong trade ties also made the region an important cultural center and set the region up as a base that would influence nearby kingdoms and regions in Burma [northen Myanmar], Sri Lanka, Malay Archipelago and Indochina.[11]

The earliest available Puranas are also thought to have been written around this period. The empire gradually declined because of many factors like the substantial loss of territory and imperial authority caused by their own erstwhile feudatories and the invasion by the Hunas from Central Asia.[12] After the collapse of the Gupta Empire in the 6th century, India was again ruled by numerous regional kingdoms. A minor line of the Gupta clan continued to rule Magadha after the disintegration of the empire. These Guptas were ultimately ousted by the Vardhana ruler Harsha, who established an empire in the first half of the 7th century.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

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I've looked into this file in 100804. Since a lot has been been changed, I am presenting the newer version while keeping the older one intact
From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tantra 110919

Tantra (Skt: तन्त्र , "loom, warp"; hence "principle, system, doctrine", from the two root words tanoti "stretch, extend, expand", and trayati "liberation"), anglicised tantricism or tantrism or tantram, is the name scholars give to an inter-religious spiritual movement that arose in medieval India, expressed in scriptures (called " Tantras").

UKT: The word Yantra (यन्त्र = य न ् त ् र ) is the Sanskrit word for "instrument" or "machine". Much like the word "instrument" itself, it can stand for symbols, processes, automata, machinery or anything that has structure and organization, depending on context.

One usage popular in the west is as symbols or geometric figures. Traditionally such symbols are used in Eastern mysticism to balance the mind or focus it on spiritual concepts. The act of wearing, depicting, enacting and/or concentrating on a yantra is held to have spiritual or astrological or magical benefits in the Tantric traditions of the Indian religions.

The Bur-Buddhist meditation process is or two parts: firstly to concentrate the mind, {tha.ma.hta.} (sp?), and secondly, using the concentration to observe the material nature of things {wi.p~a.na} (sp?). During the first part we need an object to concentrate on. The most popular way is to concentrate on the feeling of touch of incoming-outgoing breath on the tip of the nostril. However, in {ka.eing:}-observation, you need an object, such as a yantra, a candle flame, the Sun, the Moon, a colored disc, a decaying corpse in the cemetary. There are 40 ways of {ka.eing:}-observation, and some, such as {pa.hta.wi ka.eing:} can make you go mad. My father, U Tun Pe, a protg of U Kyaw Dun, told me how his master had warned him about this {ka.eing:} - in fact U Kyaw Dun became insane during this practice. An {ing:}, on the other hand, is not exactly the same as a yantra. - UKT110919

An important characteristic of this movement was that it is a radically positive, world-embracing vision of the whole of reality as an expression of a joyous Divine Consciousness (for example, as the divine play of Shakti and Shiva.[1]). Tantric spiritual practices and rituals aim to bring about an inner realization of this truth, bringing freedom from ignorance and rebirth in the process. [1] Though not the case with most Tantric practices, in some schools of "left-handed" Tantra (Vamachara), ritual sexual intercourse is employed as a way of entering into the underlying processes and structure of the universe.[2]

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tantra 100804

Tantra (Skt: तन्त्र "loom, warp"; hence "principle, system, doctrine", from the root tan "stretch, extend"), anglicised tantricism or tantrism or tantram, is an esoteric current of Hinduism.

The word Tantra also applies to any of the scriptures (called "Tantras") commonly identified with the worship of Shakti.[1] Tantra deals primarily with spiritual practices and ritual forms of worship, which aim at liberation from ignorance and rebirth,[1] the universe being regarded as the divine play of Shakti and Shiva.[1]

Was Shakti  / or Mother Goddess worship originally of the Tibeto-Burman speakers just south of the Himalayas extending from Afganistan through Nepal to northern Myanmar during Vedic period? - UKT110826

Tantrism originates in the early centuries CE, and develops into a fully articulated tradition by the end of the Gupta period. It has influenced the Hindu, Sikh, Bn, Buddhist, and Jain religious traditions.

UKT: I have come to believe that
the Tantrism or its predecessor, the worship of Mother Goddess, was the religion of the Tib-Bur speakers a couple of thousand years before the Gautama Buddha. It was part of the Vedas.
I also have come to believe that elements of Tantrism had come into northern Myanmar with King Abhiraza who founded the ancient kingdom of Tagaung, and that
the Arigyis {a.ri:kri: ra.hn:} were the Bur-Myan monks persecuted by King Anawrahta. We must not forget that Anawrahta's own father spent the last of his days as a monk - ostensibly an Arigyi - and became #9 {hti-hpru-hsaugn: nt} in the list of the 37 Bur-Myan Nats {nt} after his death
The Arigyis were believed to be involved in Tantric practices -especially in the precise recitation of the prayers: do not forget that there were two main groups the - right hand group and the left hand group both of which places great importance on the pronunciation. The recitation of {paraik} and mantras has to be done with utmost precision of pronunciation to be effective. Vajrayāna वज्रयान = व ज ् र य ा न --> {wiz-ra. ya-na.} 'the vehicle of liberation of the {waiz~za}' is probably now what is called the Tantric Buddhism. My conjecture is based on the spelling. Refer to my version of Folk Elements in Buddhism by Dr. Htin Aung one of a packet of 4 CDs. folk-indx.htm, especially to the worship of the Nine Gods, where five great gods and goddesses of non-Buddhistic origin have been invited to worship the Buddha:
  1. Thurathati {u-ra~a.ti},
  2. Sandi {saN~i} चण्डी = च ण ् ड ी ,
      (not to be confused with  {san~da} the 'Moon')
  3. Paramay-thwa {pa.ra.m-wa},
  4. Maha-Peinne {ma.ha-pain~n},
  5. Peikthano {bai~a.No:} (Dr. Than Tun)
      or {bai~a.no:} (UHS) - MED2010-316.
      Gawra-manta  {Gau-ra.man~ta.} .

It should be noted that none of the Five Great Gods (Goddesses) are bearing arms - they are just there to worship the Buddha.

The following is from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vajrayana 100803 - UKT 110825

Along with Buddhism, Tantra in its various forms has spread to East Asia and Southeast Asia. [2] Despite reluctance to support a rigorous definition of tantra, David Gordon White offers the following definition:

Tantra is that Asian body of beliefs and practices which, working from the principle that the universe we experience is nothing other than the concrete manifestation of the divine energy of the Godhead that creates and maintains that universe, seeks to ritually appropriate and channel that energy, within the human microcosm, in creative and emancipatory ways. [3]

Vajrayāna Buddhism ( वज्रयान; Mongolian: Очирт хөлгөн, Ochirt Hlgn) is also known as Tantric Buddhism, Tantrayāna, Mantrayāna, Secret Mantra, Esoteric Buddhism and the Diamond Vehicle. Vajrayana is a complex and multifaceted system of Buddhist thought and practice which evolved over several centuries and encompasses much inconsistency and a variety of opinions. [1] Its main scriptures are called Tantras. [1] A distinctive feature of Vajrayana Buddhism is ritual, which is used as a substitute or alternative for the earlier abstract meditations. [2] [3]

The period of Indian Vajrayana Buddhism has been classified as the fifth [4] or final [1] period of Indian Buddhism. Although the first tantric Buddhist texts appeared in India in the 3rd century CE and continued to appear until the 12th century CE [5], scholars such as Hirakawa Akira believe that the Vajrayana probably came into existence in the 6th or 7th century CE, [4] while the term Vajrayana first came into evidence in the 8th century CE. [1]

According to Vajrayana scriptures Vajrayana refers to one of three routes to enlightenment, the other two being Hinayana and Mahayana.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

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