Update: 2011-09-22 03:33 PM +0800


Sanskrit English Dictionary


from: Online Sanskrit Dictionary, February 12, 2003 . http://sanskritdocuments.org/dict/dictall.pdf  090907

Downloaded, set in HTML, and edited by U Kyaw Tun, M.S. (I.P.S.T., U.S.A.), and staff of TIL Computing and Language Centre, Yangon, Myanmar. Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone.

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{ta.} त
{ta.ka.} तक
{ta.hka.} तख / तक्ष
{ta.za.} तज
{ta.ða.} तड
{ta.ta.} तत

UKT notes
• POA (Point of Articulation) of {ta.} • Violent dance of Shiva

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{ta.} त

• तं (taM) {tän}
Skt: तं (taM) - him - OnlineSktDict

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{ta.ka.} तक 

• तक्रं (takraM)
Skt: तक्रं (takraM) - Nr.nom.+acc.S  curd or buttermilk - OnlineSktDict

¤ तक्र  takra  n.  buttermilk - SpkSkt

¤ तक्रं न इच्छति वा?  takraṃ na icchati vā?  sent.  Don't you want buttermilk ? - SpkSkt

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{ta.hka.} तख / तक्ष
not entd in OnlineSktDict

¤ तक्षक takṣaka  m. carpenter - SpkSkt

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{ta.za.} तज

• तजक (tajaka)
Skt: तजक (tajaka) - A system of Solar Return Charts also known as Varshaphal - OnlineSktDict

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{ta.ða.} तड

• तड् (taD.h)
Skt: तड् (taD.h) - to hit - OnlineSktDict

• तडागः (taDaagaH)
Skt: तडागः (taDaagaH) - lake, pond - OnlineSktDict

• तण्डव (taNDava)
Skt: तण्डव (taNDava) - violent dance of Shiva - OnlineSktDict

See my note on the Violent dance of Shiva


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{ta.ta.} तत

• तत् (tat.h)
Skt: तत् (tat.h) - that - OnlineSktDict

• ततं (tataM)
Skt: ततं (tataM) - pervaded - OnlineSktDict

• ततः (tataH)
Skt: ततः (tataH) - then - OnlineSktDict

¤ तत् मम नगरम्  tat mama nagaram - This is my town. - SpkSkt

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• ततस्ततः (tatastataH)
Skt: ततस्ततः (tatastataH) - from there - OnlineSktDict

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• ततो (tato)
Skt: ततो (tato) - then, afterwards - OnlineSktDict

• ततोहंसः (tatoha.nsaH)
Skt: ततोहंसः (tatoha.nsaH) - tataH: then or from there + haMsaH: swan or BHrahman - OnlineSktDict

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• तत्त्व (tattva)
Skt: तत्त्व (tattva) - an element, the twenty-four categories of thatness - OnlineSktDict

• तत्त्वं (tattvaM)
Skt: तत्त्वं (tattvaM) - truth/ nature - OnlineSktDict

• तत्त्वतः (tattvataH)
Skt: तत्त्वतः (tattvataH) - in reality - OnlineSktDict

• तत्त्ववित् (tattvavit.h)
Skt: तत्त्ववित् (tattvavit.h) - the knower of the Absolute Truth - OnlineSktDict

• तत्त्वज्ञान (tattvaGYaana)
Skt: तत्त्वज्ञान (tattvaGYaana) - of knowledge of the truth - OnlineSktDict

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• तत्त्वे (tattve)
Skt: तत्त्वे (tattve) - truth - OnlineSktDict

• तत्त्वेन (tattvena)
Skt: तत्त्वेन (tattvena) - in reality - OnlineSktDict

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• तत्परं (tatparaM)
Skt: तत्परं (tatparaM) - afterwards - OnlineSktDict

• तत्परः (tatparaH)
Skt: तत्परः (tatparaH) - very much attached to it - OnlineSktDict

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• तत्परायणः (tatparaayaNaH)
Skt: तत्परायणः (tatparaayaNaH) - who have completely taken shelter of Him  - OnlineSktDict

• तत्प्रसादात् (tatprasaadaat.h)
Skt: तत्प्रसादात् (tatprasaadaat.h) - by His grace - OnlineSktDict

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• तत्षुद्धयः (tatbuddhayaH)
Skt: तत्षुद्धयः (tatbuddhayaH) - those whose intelligence is always in the Supreme - OnlineSktDict

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• तत्र (tatra)
Skt: तत्र (tatra) - there - OnlineSktDict

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• तत्विदः (tatvidaH)
Skt: तत्विदः (tatvidaH) - by those who know this - OnlineSktDict

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• तत्समक्षं (tatsamakShaM)
Skt: तत्समक्षं (tatsamakShaM) - among companions - OnlineSktDict

• तत्सिद्धिः (tatsiddhiH)
Skt: तत्सिद्धिः (tatsiddhiH) - that materialisation - OnlineSktDict

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UKT notes

POA (Point of Articulation) of {ta.}

by UKT: 100714, 110824

IPA representations are approximations. I am waiting for input from my peers. - note of 100714

The phones of {ta.} (allophones) are complex because the articulations can be done with highly flexible tip of the tongue . Observing on myself, I find I can touch with my tongue-tip
• the hard palate and try to sing Bur-Myan {ta.} : this is supposed to produce row#3 /ʈa/
• the root of the upper front teeth and alveolar ridge to sing {ta.}: this is supposed to produce row#4 /ta/
• the root of the lower front tip, and bunch the tongue and say /ta/ and then /s/: this is supposed to produce the affricate /ts/ .

Added to the above are the possible lip-rounding {twa.} /tʷ/ and spreading {tya.} /tʲ/, rhoticity {tra.} /tʴa./ and {tRa.} /tʳa./, and hissing {s~ta.} /sta./ and the so-called "aspirate" of the Europeans {hta.} /tʰa./. Please note that unless trained Burmese-Myanmar speakers cannot pronounce {s~ta.} and also the Europeans cannot pronounce {hta.} /tʰa./.

Above all I can put in all the three pitch-registers of Burmese-Myanmar: {ta.} /tă/, {ta.} /ta/, {ta:} /taː/.

These all sounded differently to the ear but I am still unable to get the acoustic patterns due to the unavailability of required instruments and training.

Go back POA-ta-note-b

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Violent dance of Shiva

From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nataraja 100803

Nataraja (literally. The Lord (or King) of Dance, Tamil: கூத்தன் (Kooththan), Kanada: ನಟರಾಜ, Skt: नटराज; /nɐ.tɐ.rɑ.dʒɐ/ is a depiction of the Hindu god Shiva as the cosmic dancer who performs his divine dance to destroy a weary universe and make preparations for god Brahma to start the process of creation. Nataraja is most often depicted through a statue. The dance of Shiva in Tillai, the traditional name for Chidambaram, forms the motif for all the depictions of Shiva as Nataraja. He is also known as "Sabesan" which splits as "Sabayil aadum eesan" in Tamil which means "The Lord who dances on the dais".The form is present in most Shiva temples in South India, and is the main deity in the famous temple at Chidambaram.[1]

The sculpture is usually made in bronze, with Shiva dancing in an aureole of flames, lifting his left leg (and in rare cases, the right leg) and balancing over a demon or dwarf (Apasmara) who symbolizes ignorance. It is a well known sculptural symbol in India and popularly used as a symbol of Indian culture.[2]

The two most common forms of Shiva's dance are the Lasya (the gentle form of dance), associated with the creation of the world, and the Tandava (the violent and dangerous dance), associated with the destruction of weary worldviews - weary perspectives & lifestyles. In essence, the Lasya and the Tandava are just two aspects of Shiva's nature; for he destroys in order to create, tearing down to build again[3].


Nataraja is derived from tamil word Nadanam (dance) and Raja (Lord or King).

Or, more correctly, /Nāṭa-rāja/ is a corrupt form of /Narta-rājan/ 'dance-king', from the classical Samskṛta verb /nar-/ 'to dance'. (Changing of /rt/ to /ṭ/ is a characteristic of late mediaeval corruption of the Samskṛta phonology).

UKT: The dancing figure on the right is from '108 Names of Shiva',
http://www.rudraksha-ratna.com/articledt.php?art_id=170 080826, 110826. The website lists 108 names among which is: Parameshwara - First Among All Gods.

UKT: We should look into the etymology of Bur-Myan {nût} and the folk festival in the month of {nût-tau la.} 'the moon of royal Nat'. In a way the month of the Bur-Myanmar lunar month is the equivalent of Halloween because the pujas held (with wild dancing and loud music) are the worships of heroes (some are villains) who had met violent or unnatural deaths. As an introduction to the Nat worship see (in CD 1 of 4 in the series Myanmar for Myanmar ): Folk Element in Burmese Buddhism by Dr. Htin Aung folk-indx.htm .


• A cobra uncoils from his lower right forearm, and the crescent moon and a skull are on his crest. He dances within an arch of flames. This dance is called the Dance of Bliss, ananda tandava.

• The upper right hand holds a small drum shaped like an hourglass that is called a ḍamaru in Sanskrit.[4][5][6]. A specific hand gesture (mudra) called ḍamaru-hasta (Sanskrit for "ḍamaru-hand") is used to hold the drum.[7] It symbolizes sound originating creation.

• The upper left hand contains Agni or fire, which signifies destruction. The opposing concepts in the upper hands show the counterpoise of creation and destruction.

• The second right hand shows the Abhaya mudra (meaning fearlessness in Sanskrit), bestowing protection from both evil and ignorance to those who follow the righteousness of dharma.

• The second left hand points towards the raised foot which signifies upliftment and liberation.

• The dwarf on which Nataraja dances is the demon Apasmara, which symbolises Shiva's victory over ignorance(ego).

• As the Lord of Dance, Nataraja, Shiva performs the tandava, the dance in which the universe is created, maintained, and dissolved. Shiva's long, matted tresses, usually piled up in a knot, loosen during the dance and crash into the heavenly bodies, knocking them off course or destroying them utterly.

• The surrounding flames represent the manifest Universe. Also, the circle of fire/flames symbolizes the cycle of transmigration/suffering the ego goes through (endless births and rebirths, before attaining salvation).

• The snake swirling around his waist is kundalini, the Shakti or divine force thought to reside within everything.

• The stoic face of Shiva represents his neutrality, thus being in balance.

UKT: more in the original article.

Go back violent-dance-shiv-note-b

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End of TIL file