Update: 2011-09-22 05:49 PM +0800


Sanskrit English Dictionary


from: Online Sanskrit Dictionary, February 12, 2003 . http://sanskritdocuments.org/dict/dictall.pdf  090907

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{DRi.} धृ : a sound absent in Burmese because of which I need to go over this again! - UKT100904
{DRi.ta.} धृत
{} धे
{Dè:} धै
{Dau} धौ
{Dya} ध्या : I can only pronounce this as a disyllabic word with a schwa for the first syllable - UKT100904


UKT notes
• Dhrishtadyumna • Rhotic consonants

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{DRi.} धृ

{tRi.} {dRi.} दृ  {DRi.}

UKT: We have already come across {tRi.} [the voiceless form] which is more rhotic than {tri.} in tu1-077b2-2.htm.
{dRi.} is the voiced form, and of course it is more rhotic than {dri.}. Now we are with the glottals {DRi.} and {Dri.}.
We now have a 3x3 matrix of 9 phones which can be carefully articulated in isolated speech, but which are bound to be
mixed up in continuous speech. - UKT100903

Myanmar / Devanagari
{ti.}; {tri.}; {tRi.}   - ति  त्रि  तृ
{di.}; {dri.}; {dRi.}   - दि  द्रि  दृ
{Di.}; {Dri.}; {DRi.} - धि  ध्रि  धृ

The reason why rhoticity is of interest to Burmese-Myanmar is because of its almost complete absence in the spoken language. Unlike, Pali and even English, Burmese is totally non-rhotic. See Rhotic consonant in my notes.


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• धृ (dhRi)
Skt: धृ (dhRi) - to bear - OnlineSktDict

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{DRi.ta.} धृत

UKT: {DRi.ta.} usually got confused with {tRi.Da.}, which clearly is spoonerism.
Also {DRi.ta.} can be confused with {dRi.ta.} दृत . At least that's what I found with myself. - UKT100904


• धृत (dhRita)
Skt: धृत (dhRita) - ghee - OnlineSktDict

• धृतराष्द्रस्य (dhRitaraashhTrasya)
Skt: धृतराष्द्रस्य (dhRitaraashhTrasya) - of Dhritarashtra - OnlineSktDict

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• धृति (dhRiti)
Skt: धृति (dhRiti) - with determination - OnlineSktDict

• धृतिं (dhRitiM)
Skt: धृतिं (dhRitiM) - steadiness - OnlineSktDict

• धृतिः (dhRitiH)
Skt: धृतिः (dhRitiH) - firmness - OnlineSktDict

• धृतिगृहीतया (dhRitigRihiitayaa)
Skt: धृतिगृहीतया (dhRitigRihiitayaa) - carried by conviction - OnlineSktDict

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• धृतेः (dhRiteH)
Skt: धृतेः (dhRiteH) - of steadiness - OnlineSktDict

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• धृत्य (dhRitya)
Skt: धृत्य (dhRitya) - by determination - OnlineSktDict

• धृत्या (dhRityaa)
Skt: धृत्या (dhRityaa) - determination - OnlineSktDict

• धृष्टकेतुः (dhRishhTaketuH)
Skt: धृष्टकेतुः (dhRishhTaketuH) - Dhrishtaketu - OnlineSktDict

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• धृष्टद्युम्नः (dhRishhTadyumnaH)
Skt: धृष्टद्युम्नः (dhRishhTadyumnaH) - Dhrishtadyumna (the son of King Drupada) - OnlineSktDict

See in my note on Dhrishtadyumna धृष्टद्युम्न


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{} धे

• धेनु (dhenu)
Skt: धेनु (dhenu) - a cow - OnlineSktDict
Pal: dhenu  f.  a milch cow - UPMT-PED116
Pal: {Dé-nu.} UHS-PMD0504

• धेनूनां (dhenuunaaM)
Skt: धेनूनां (dhenuunaaM) - of cows - OnlineSktDict

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{Dè:} धै

• धैर्य (dhairya)
Skt: धैर्य (dhairya) - courage - OnlineSktDict

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{Dau} धौ : not the short {Dau:} धो

• धौत (dhauta)
Skt: धौत (dhauta) - white - OnlineSktDict

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• ध्माति (dhmaati)
Skt: ध्माति (dhmaati) - to blow air into, to inflate - OnlineSktDict

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{Dya} ध्या

Note: As with {tya} and {dya}, {Dya} is difficult to pronounce for the Bur-Myan.

• ध्यात्वा (dhyaatvaa)
Skt: ध्यात्वा (dhyaatvaa) - having meditated - OnlineSktDict

• ध्यान (dhyaana)
Skt: ध्यान (dhyaana) - contemplation - OnlineSktDict

• ध्यानं (dhyaanaM)
Skt: ध्यानं (dhyaanaM) - meditation - OnlineSktDict

• ध्यानम् (dhyaanam.h)
Skt: ध्यानम् (dhyaanam.h) - meditation - OnlineSktDict

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• ध्यानयोगपरः (dhyaanayogaparaH)
Skt: ध्यानयोगपरः (dhyaanayogaparaH) - absorbed in trance - OnlineSktDict

• ध्यानात् (dhyaanaat.h)
Skt: ध्यानात् (dhyaanaat.h) - than meditation - OnlineSktDict

UKT: Perhaps the words 'trance' and 'meditation' are not appropriate in phenomena unknown to those who have not practiced the Eastern methods of deep concentration of mind. When I translate these phenomena to my Western friends, I usually put in the prefix "yogic", e.g. "yogic-trance" and "yogic-meditation". I wait for comments from my peers. - UKT100904


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• ध्यानेन (dhyaanena)
Skt: ध्यानेन (dhyaanena) - by meditation - OnlineSktDict

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• ध्यायंति (dhyaaya.nti)
Skt: ध्यायंति (dhyaaya.nti) - meditate or think - OnlineSktDict

• ध्यायतः (dhyaayataH)
Skt: ध्यायतः (dhyaayataH) - while contemplating - OnlineSktDict

• ध्यायति (dhyaayati)
Skt: ध्यायति (dhyaayati) - meditates - OnlineSktDict

• ध्यायन्तः (dhyaayantaH)
Skt: ध्यायन्तः (dhyaayantaH) - meditating - OnlineSktDict

• ध्यायेद् (dhyaayed.h)
Skt: ध्यायेद् (dhyaayed.h) - may we meditate - OnlineSktDict

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• ध्येयं (dhyeyaM)
Skt: ध्येयं (dhyeyaM) - is to be meditated - OnlineSktDict

• धुवं (dhruvaM)
Skt: धुवं (dhruvaM) - certainly - OnlineSktDict

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• धुवः (dhruvaH)
Skt: धुवः (dhruvaH) - a fact - OnlineSktDict

• धुवा (dhruvaa)
Skt: धुवा (dhruvaa) - certain - OnlineSktDict

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• धुवीकरण (dhruviikaraNa)
Skt: धुवीकरण (dhruviikaraNa) - polarization - OnlineSktDict

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• ध्वजः (dhvajaH)
Skt: ध्वजः (dhvajaH) - (m) flag - OnlineSktDict

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• ध्वनि (dhvani)
Skt: ध्वनि (dhvani) - sound - OnlineSktDict

• ध्वनिग्राहकम् (dhvanigraahakam.h)
Skt: ध्वनिग्राहकम् (dhvanigraahakam.h) - (n) microphone - OnlineSktDict

• ध्वनिवर्धकम् (dhvanivardhakam.h)
Skt: ध्वनिवर्धकम् (dhvanivardhakam.h) - (n) amplifier, loud-speaker - OnlineSktDict

• ध्वनी (dhvanii)
Skt: ध्वनी (dhvanii) - sound - OnlineSktDict

• ध्वनीफित (dhvaniifita)
Skt: ध्वनीफित (dhvaniifita) - audio cassette - OnlineSktDict

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UKT notes


From Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dhrishtadyumna 100903

Dhrishtadyumna (धृष्टद्युम्न, dhṛṣṭadyumna, meaning "daring [and having] splendor" or similar), also known as Draupada, was the son of Drupada and brother of Draupadi and Shikhandi in the epic Mahābhārata. He was the commander of the Pandava army during the great battle, and he killed Drona.


The king of Panchala, Drupada undertook a putrakami yagna, a sacrifice to please the gods and obtain offspring by their blessing. Drupada desired a son who could kill Drona who had humiliated him in battle and taken half his kingdom.

With the help of two brahmins, Drupada undertook the sacrifice. After his wife made the sacrificial offerings, Dhrishtadyumna emerged from the fire, a fully grown powerful young and armed man, together with his sister Draupadi. He already had martial and religious knowledge.

Even though he was the prophesied killer of Drona, he was accepted as a student by Drona, and he learns the advanced military arts.

In the war

When his sister Draupadi was won in an archery competition by a young brahmin at her swayamvara, a ritual by which a Royal Hindu Princess could choose her own husband in court, in front of all the princes and nobility, Dhristadyumna, Draupadi's brother secretly followed the brahmin and his sister, only to discover that the brahmin was in fact Arjuna [in disguise], one of the five Pandava brothers.

At the great battle of Kurukshetra, on the advice of Krishna and Arjuna, Dhristadyumna was appointed the commander of the Pandava army.

At a point when Drona, as the Kuru commander was killing numbers of Pandava troops, Krishna advised Yudhisthira to adopt a plan to kill him. As it is known that as long as Drona has raised his weapons he is invincible to all other warriors, Krishna advised that it be proclaimed that Drona's son, Ashwathama had just died in the battle. It is known that out of the grief of such an eventuality, Drona will at least temporarily drop his arms.

Krishna justified this lie to Yudhisthira as necessary to the victory of morality in the war. As Yudhisthira hesitated, his brother Bhima killed an elephant in the Kuru army named Ashwathama and celebrated, shouting "Ashwathama is dead! Ashwathama is dead!".

Shocked with disbelief when the news reaches him, Drona sought out Yudhisthira to ascertain the news, believing that he would never speak a lie. Yudhisthira told him that Ashwathama is dead, but muttered "(I wonder) whether the man or the elephant...." ( Aswathama Hatah... naro waa Kunjarovaa) in an inaudible voice to prevent telling a whole lie or as another version tells us that he said it equally loud but Krishna had planned to blow his conch at that exact moment so that Drona is unable to hear that part.

Now convinced, Drona laid down his arms and sat in meditation. Dhristadyumna took this opportunity, and beheaded him.

After the killing of Drona, Dhristadyumna was abused by Satyaki and Arjuna, who were devoted students of Drona, but was defended by Krishna.

After the war was over, Ashwathama attacked the Pandava camp during the night, killing Dhristadyumna among others in revenge.

Go back Dhrishtadyumna-note-b

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Rhotic consonant

UKT: The following Wikipedia article does not mention Sanskrit - the language of our interest.
From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhotic_consonant 100903

In phonetics, rhotic consonants, or "R-like" sounds, are consonants that are traditionally represented orthographically by symbols derived from the Greek letter rho, including Roman R and Cyrillic Р. They are symbolized in the IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet) by upper- or lower-case variants of Roman R.[1]

This class of sounds is difficult to characterise phonetically; from a phonetic standpoint, there is no single articulatory correlate common to rhotic consonants.  Rhotics are instead generally found to carry out similar phonological functions and have similar phonological features across different languages. Although some have been found to share certain acoustic peculiarities, such as a lowered third formant, further study has revealed that this does not hold true across different languages. For example, the acoustic quality of lowered third formants pertains almost exclusively to American varieties of English. Being "R-like" is an elusive and ambiguous concept phonetically and the very same sounds that function as rhotics in some systems may pattern with fricatives, semivowels or even stops in others.

Rhotic consonant in different languages

The most typical rhotic sounds found in the world's languages are the following:[2]

Many languages, for example Bulgarian, Swedish, Norwegian, Italian, Spanish, Russian and Dutch, use trilled rhotics. In the English-speaking world, the stereotyped Scottish rolled [r] is well-known. The "stage pronunciation" of German specifies the alveolar trill for clarity. Rare kinds of trills include Czech ř [r̭] (fricative trill) and Welsh rh [r̥] (voiceless trill).


In broad transcription rhotics are usually symbolised as /r/ unless there are two or more types of rhotic in the same language. The IPA has a full set of different symbols which can be used whenever more phonetic precision is required: an r rotated 180° [ɹ] for the alveolar approximant, a small capital R [ʀ] for the uvular trill, and a flipped small capital R [ʁ] for the voiced uvular fricative.

The fact that the sounds conventionally classified as "rhotics" vary greatly in both place and manner in terms of articulation, and also in their acoustic characteristics, has led several linguists to investigate what, if anything, they have in common that justifies grouping them together. One suggestion that has been made is that each member of the class of rhotics shares certain properties with other members of the class, but not necessarily the same properties with all; in this case, rhotics have a "family resemblance" with each other rather than a strict set of shared properties.[3] [UKT ¶]

Another suggestion is that rhotics are defined by their behavior on the sonority hierarchy, namely, that a rhotic is any sound that patterns as being more sonorous than a lateral consonant but less sonorous than a vowel.[4] The potential for variation within the class of rhotics makes them a popular area for research in sociolinguistics.[5]

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