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Sanskrit English Dictionary

da2-082b2-2.htm

from: Online Sanskrit Dictionary, February 12, 2003 . http://sanskritdocuments.org/dict/dictall.pdf  090907

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{da} दा
{da-ka.} दाक
{daak~hka.} दाक्ष्य

 

UKT notes
Danava (Hinduism) • Dasa Exotic tribes of ancient India

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{da} दा
p082b2-2

• दा (daa)
Skt: दा (daa) - to give - OnlineSktDict

• दाः (daaH)
Skt: दाः (daaH) - giving - OnlineSktDict

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{da-ka.} दाक
p082b2-3

• दाकिणी (daakiNii)
Skt: दाकिणी (daakiNii) - the goddess in mulaadhaara chakra - OnlineSktDict

• दाडिमफलम् (daaDimaphalam.h)
Skt: दाडिमफलम् (daaDimaphalam.h) - n. pomegranate, anaar - OnlineSktDict

• दातव्य (daatavya)
Skt: दातव्य (daatavya) - should be given - OnlineSktDict

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p082b3

• दातव्यं (daatavyaM)
Skt: दातव्यं (daatavyaM) - worth giving - OnlineSktDict

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p082b3-2

• दाता (daataa)
Skt: दाता (daataa) - (masc.Nom.S) the giver - OnlineSktDict

• दातारं (daataaraM)
Skt: दातारं (daataaraM) - the giver - OnlineSktDict

• दातारम् (daataaram.h)
Skt: दातारम् (daataaram.h) - one who gives - OnlineSktDict

• दाधार (daadhaara)
Skt: दाधार (daadhaara) - holds - OnlineSktDict

• दान (daana)
Skt: दान (daana) - the act of giving - OnlineSktDict
Pal: dāna  n. (√dā) giving, gift, charity, almsgiving, cutting, purification (√dai) - UPMT-PED110
Pal: {da-na.} - UHS-PMD0465

• दानं (daanaM)
Skt: दानं (daanaM) - charity - OnlineSktDict

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p083top

• दानव (daanava)
Skt: दानव (daanava) - a demon - OnlineSktDict
Pal: dānava  m. an asura - UPMT-PED110
Pal: {da-na.wa.} - UHS-PMD0466

The idea of "good" and "evil" is persistent in religions centered on a supreme being. In such religions, such as Christianity, Islam and Hinduism, those whose are opposed to the supreme being (God, Allah, and Brahma-Vishnu-Shiva) are deemed to be devils and demons. In Theravada Buddhism, both devas and asuras are the same (in fact, the king of the devas has the daughters of the king of asuras as his queens) - subject to greed, anger, and pride - the human failings. In fact both devas and asuras can be considered to be "humans" with supernatural powers. - UKT 100810

See my notes on Danava - one of the Exotic tribes of ancient India .

• दानवः (daanavaH)
Skt: दानवः (daanavaH) - the demons - OnlineSktDict

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p083top-2

• दाने (daane)
Skt: दाने (daane) - in charity - OnlineSktDict

• दानेन (daanena)
Skt: दानेन (daanena) - by charity - OnlineSktDict

• दानेषु (daaneshhu)
Skt: दानेषु (daaneshhu) - in giving charities - OnlineSktDict

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p083top-3

• दानैः (daanaiH)
Skt: दानैः (daanaiH) - by charity - OnlineSktDict

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p083top-4

• दान्तौ (daantau)
Skt: दान्तौ (daantau) - with good teeth? - OnlineSktDict

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p083top-5

• दाम (daama)
Skt: दाम (daama) - garland (like) - OnlineSktDict
Pal: dāma  n. a rope, string, wreath - UPMT-PED110
Pal: {da-ma.} - UHS-PMD0466

• दाम्यति (daamyati)
Skt: दाम्यति (daamyati) - 4pp to tame - OnlineSktDict

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p083top-6

• दाम्यित्वं (daayitvaM)
Skt: दाम्यित्वं (daayitvaM) - (n) obligation - OnlineSktDict

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p083b1

• दायिनी (daayinii)
Skt: दायिनी (daayinii) - giver - OnlineSktDict

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p083b1-2

• दारा (daaraa)
Skt: दारा (daaraa) - woman - OnlineSktDict
*Pal: dāra  mf.  a wife - UPMT-PED110
*Pal: {da-ra.} - UHS-PMD0467

Pal: dāraka  m. an infant,  child, boy - UPMT-PED110
Pal: {da-ra.ka.} - UHS-PMD0467

• दारिद्रय (daaridrya)
Skt: दारिद्रय (daaridrya) - poverty - OnlineSktDict

• दारु (daaru)
Skt: दारु (daaru) - n. tree, wood - OnlineSktDict
Pal: dāru  n. wood - UPMT-PED110
Pal: {da-ru.} - UHS-PMD0467

• दार्वाघाटः (daarvaaghaaTaH)
Skt: दार्वाघाटः (daarvaaghaaTaH) - m.  woodpecker - OnlineSktDict

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p083b1-3

• दाशरथिः (daasharathiH)
Skt: दाशरथिः (daasharathiH) - dasharatha's son - OnlineSktDict

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p083b1-4

• दासः (daasaH)
Skt: दासः (daasaH) - (male, nom.sing) servant - OnlineSktDict
Pal: dāsa  m.  a slave, servant - UPMT-PED110
Pal: {da-ţa.} - UHS-PMD0468

See my note on Dasa - a term used with the primary meaning 'enemy'

• दासोसम्यहम् (daasosmyaham.h)
Skt: दासोसम्यहम् (daasosmyaham.h) - disciple + am + I - OnlineSktDict

• दास्यन्ते (daasyante)
Skt: दास्यन्ते (daasyante) - will award - OnlineSktDict

• दास्यामि (daasyaami)
Skt: दास्यामि (daasyaami) - I shall give charity - OnlineSktDict

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{daak~hka.} दाक्ष्य
p083b2

• दाक्ष्यं (daakShyaM)
= द ा क ् ष ् य ं
Skt: दाक्ष्यं (daakShyaM) - resourcefulness - OnlineSktDict

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UKT notes

Danava (Hinduism)

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Danava_Hinduism 110827 

In Vedic mythology the Danavas were a race of the Asuras.

The Danavas were the sons of Danu, who in turn was a daughter of Daksha. Danu is connected with the waters of heavens and she is probably asocciated with the formless, primordial waters that existed prior to the creation. The name is connected with the Proto-Indo European (PIE) root *danu, "river" or "any flowing liquid". The Danavas revolted against the gods under the leadership of Bali[1] and others, but were defeated.[2] In the Rig Veda, nearly all the demons described as being defeated by the Devas are Danavas.

After their defeat, the Danavas were cast into the deepest oceans and locked there forever by Indra,[1] or sometimes Rudra.[3]

In Buddhism they are known as the "bow-wielding" Dānaveghasa Asuras.

Historical basis

Some argue for an historical basis for the Vedic stories, and that the Danavas, and other defeated beings (Rakshasas, Gandharvas, Nagas, et cetera) were non-Aryan tribes. This is supported by non-Vedic legends and mythologies, for example Naga legends.[4][3][5][6] Rightly or wrongly, some scholars identified the Danavas in the Mahabharata with the Indus Valley Civilization, the builders of Mohenjo Daro and Harappa.[7]

Some famous Danava :

Puloman - Father of Indrani or Sachi

Viprachitti - Husband of Holika or Sinhika

Rahu - Son of Holika and Viprachitti

Vrishparva - Father of Sharmishtha

Go back Danava-note-b

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Dasa - the enemy

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dasa 110919

Dasa (Skt: दास dāsa) is a term used with the primary meaning 'enemy', especially relating to tribes identified as the enemies of the Indo-Aryan tribes in the Rigveda. The word later acquired other connotations, meaning "servant" or "slave", or in a religious sense a "devotee" of a deity.

The Dasa are often identified as the non-Indo-European populations subdued by the people practicing Vedic rituals in the course of the Indo-Aryan migration. Asko Parpola proposed that the original Dasas were fellow Indo-Iranians of the BMAC, who initially rejected Aryan religious practices but were later merged with them.

A similar term for enemy people, Dasyu, is also used in the Rig Veda. It is unclear whether the Dasa and Dasyu are related.

Dasa, Dasyu and Arya

Dasyu is a term that could also be applied to Vedic kings, if their behaviour changed. In the battle of the Ten Kings (Dasarajna) in the Rig Veda the king Sudas calls his enemies "Dasyu" which included Vedic peoples like the Anus, Druhyus, Turvashas, and even Purus. (RV 7.6, 12-14, 18)

There is also a Dasa Balbutha Taruksa in RV 6.45.31 who is a patron of a seer and who is distinguished by his generosity (RV 8.46.32). There are several hymns in the Rigveda that refer to Dasa and Aryan enemies [1] and to related (jami) and unrelated (ajami) enemies (e.g. 1.111.3, 4.4.5); still, in the battle of the ten kings, there are Dasas and Aryas on both sides of the battlefield and in some Rigvedic verses, the Aryas and Dasas stood united against their enemies.[2]

Dasa

The meaning of the word dāsa, which has been long preserved in the Khotanese dialect, is "man". The word "dasa" is contained in the name of a famous Vedic king, Divodāsa (meaning "heaven's slave").[3]

Several other protagonist people in the Rig Veda also have "dasa" in their name. These include King Sudasa and Grtsamadas.

In the Rig Veda, Dasa, Dasyu and similar terms (e.g. Pani) occur sometimes in conjunction with the terms krsna ("black") or asikni ("black"). This was often the basis for a "racial" interpretation of the Vedic texts. But Sanskrit is a language that uses many metaphors. The word cow for example can mean Mother Earth, sunshine, wealth, language, Aum etc. Words like "black" have similarly many different meanings in Sanskrit, as it is in fact the case in most languages. Thus "black" has many symbolical, mythological, psychological and other uses that are simply unrelated to human appearance. Bhagavan Shri Shanmukha Anantha Natha is the first scholar to define that the 'blackness' of Krishna is not a racial interpretation but refers to the Absolute in its phase of manifestation as denoted by Samkhya philosophy. The Rg Veda does not refer to ethnic terms but philosophical realities. Krishna too is described as an Asura and this does not mean that he is a 'black Indigene' waiting on the banks of the Amshumati river to fight with Indra (RVIII. 85. 13-15) but that the Absolute is in a stage of manifestation allegorically depicted by the 'black drop' in the Rg Veda.

Also Iyengar (1914) commented on such interpretations: "The only other trace of racial reference in the Vedic hymns is the occurrence of two words, one krishna in seven passages and the other asikini in two passages. In all the passages, the words have been interpreted as referring to black clouds, a demon whose name was Krishna, or the powers of darkness." (6-7, Iyengar, Srinivas. 1914.)

The term krsnavonih in RV 2.20.7 has been interpreted by Asko Parpola as meaning "which in their wombs hid the black people". Sethna (1992) writes, referring to a comment by Richard Hartz, that "there is no need to follow Parpola in assuming a further unexpressed word meaning "people" in the middle of the compound krsnayonih", and the better known translation by Griffith, i.e. "who dwelt in darkness" can be considered as essentially correct.[4] Another scholar, Hans Hock (1999), finds Karl Friedrich Geldner's translation of krsnayonih (RV 2.20.7) as "Blacks in their wombs" and of krsnagarbha (RV 1.101.1) as "pregnant with the Blacks" "quite recherché" and thinks that it could refer to the "dark world" of the Dasas.

In RV 4.16.13, Geldner has assumed that "krsna" refers to "sahasra" (thousands). But this would be grammatically incorrect. If krsna would refer to "sahasra", it should be written as krsnan (acc. pl. masc.). Hans Hock (1999) suggests that "krsna" refers to "puro" (forts) in this verse.

For sure the Vedic writers wrote of the Dasa-Dasyus as peopple who lived in evil or darkness. The RV 2.2.7[1] says, "Indra the Vrtra-slayer, Fort-destroyer, scattered the Dasa hosts who dwelt in darkness."

Hymm XXIV reads of Brahmanaspati defeating the Dasyu demon Vala, "He drave the kine forth and cleft Vala through by prayer, dispelled the darkness and displayed the light of heaven."

The Vedic seers pray evil or darkess stay away from them: "May I obtain the broad light free from peril: O Indra, let not during darkness seize us."

Hymn XL, speaking of Devas Soma and Pusan reads, "At birth of these two Gods all Gods are joyful: they have caused darkness, which we hate, to vanish."

Hymn 3.1.3 reads of Agni, "Bull, who beholdest men, through many mornings, among the dark ones shine forth red, O Agni."[2]

Hymn 3.2.17 reads that dark (metaphor for evil) people ae purified through Deva Surya: "To thee proceed the dark, the treasure-holders, both of them sanctified by Surya's bounty."

Hymn 3.3.3 writes of Indra and his twin brother Agni killing darkness with light: "Killing the darkness at the light's foundation, the Couple newly born attain their beauty."[3]

Tvac

There are three instances in the Rig Veda where the phrase krsna (or ashikni) tvac occurs, literally translating to "black (or swarthy) skin":

1.130.8de mánave śâsad avratân tvácaṃ kṛṣṇâm arandhayat
— "Plaguing the lawless he [Indra] gave up to Manu's seed the dusky skin" (trans. Griffith)
9.41.1 prá yé gâvo ná bhűrṇayas / tveṣâ ayâso ákramuḥ / ghnántaḥ kṛṣṇâm ápa tvácam[5]
— "(Praising the Soma-juices) which descend like streams of water, swift, brilliant, rapid driving off the black covered (Rakshasa who are darkness)"[6]
9.73.5cd índradviṣṭām ápa dhamanti māyáyā tvácam ásiknīm bhűmano divás pári[7]
— "Blowing away with supernatural might from earth and from the heavens the swarthy skin which Indra hates." (trans. Griffith)

Tvac "skin" does, however, also take a secondary, more general meaning of "surface, cover" in the Rigveda, in particular referring to the Earth's surface. For this reason, there can be debate on whether instances of krsna tvac should be taken to refer literally to a "black skinned people". Maria Schetelich (1990) considers it a symbolic expression for darkness. Similarly, Michael Witzel (1995b) writes about terms like krsna tvac that "while it would be easy to assume reference to skin colour, this would go against the spirit of the hymns: for Vedic poets, black always signifies evil, and any other meaning would be secondary in these contexts". Hans Hock argues along similar lines [8]

The Rigvedic commentator Sayana explains the word tvacam krsna (RV 1.130.8) as referring to an asura (demon) called Krsna whose skin was torn apart by Indra.

Anasa

In RV 5.29.10, the word anasa is in connection with the Dasyus. Some scholars have translated anasa as "noseless". But the classical commentator Sayana translated anasa as "without mouth or face" (anas = an "negative" + as "mouth"). Sayana's translation is supported by the occurrence of the word mrdhravacah in the same verse. Sayana explains the word mrdhravacah as "having defective organs of speech" (Rg Veda 1854-57:3.276 n.). The description of Dasas as "nose-less" and "mouth-less" is method of associating the demonic Dasa as disfigured beings, who are covered by ignorance (black).

The religion of the Dasas/Dasyus

A Dasyu is a member of an aboriginal people in India encountered and embattled by the invading Aryans (c. 1500 bc). They were described by the Aryans as a dark-skinned, harsh-spoken people who worshiped the phallus. This allusion has persuaded many scholars that worship of the linga, the Hindu religious symbol, originated with them; it may, however, have referred to their sexual practices. They lived in fortified places from which they sent out armies. They may be considered the original Sudras, or labourers, who served the three higher classes of Brahman, Kshatriya (warrior), and Vaishya (mercantile), from whose ritual communion they were excluded.[9]

The main difference between the Aryas and the Dasas in the Rig Veda is a difference of religion.[10] Already A. A. Macdonell and A. B. Keith (1912) remarked that: "The great difference between the Dasyus and the Aryans was their religion... It is significant that constant reference is made to difference in religion between Aryans and Dasa and Dasyu." The Dasas and Dasyus are also described as brahma-dvisah in the Rig Veda,[11] which Ralph T.H. Griffith translates as "those who hate devotion" or "prayer haters". Thus Dasa has also been interpreted as meaning the people that don't follow the same religion as the Aryans. Rig Veda 10.22.8 describes the Dasa-Dasyus as a-karman (non-performers of Aryan sacrifices), anya-vrata (observers of other rites) and in Rig Veda 10.105.8 they are described as anrc (non-singer of laudatory hymns). In RV 8.70.11 they are described as a-deva-yu (not regarding Deva ).[12]

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

Go back Dasa-note-b

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Exotic tribes of ancient India

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exotic_tribes_of_ancient_India 110827

The classic Indian epics such as the Mahabharata, the Ramayana and the Puranas refer to many exotic tribes, describing them as superhuman or subhuman. Narrations about these tribes are often mixed with mythology and fiction. These tribes include Gandharvas, Yakshas, Kinnaras, Kimpurushas, Rakshasas, Nagas, Suparnas, Vanaras, Vidyadharas, Valikilyas, Pisachas, Devas (within them Vasus, Rudras, Maruts, Adityas) and Asuras (within them Danavas, Daityas and Kalakeyas.)

From an historical point of view, these exotic tribes simply may have been tribes that did not interact frequently with mainstream culture so that knowledge of them was very limited, which spurred the invention of fables about them.

The exotic capabilities included

1. the ability to appear and disappear at will
2. the ability to fly in air, with or without the use of an airborne vehicle
3. the knowledge of aircraft (vimana)
4. the ability to change shape at will (read Shapeshift)
5. the ability to read people's minds
6. the knowledge of other inhabited planets like the Earth
7. the ability to influence natural forces

UKT: According to Glass Palace Chronicle (See GlassPalace, vol 1, p176), the Pyu king Duttabaung, who had lived centuries before Anawrahta, had in his service Naga youths in human forms. He even had an ocean-going ship that had been propelled by the scales of the Naga, and manned by Naga sailors in human form.
  
A sea-going vessel can be propelled by a magnetohydrodynamic drive or MHD propulsor using only electric and magnetic fields with no moving parts. See Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetohydrodynamic_drive 110511. If the naga-scales could have their polarities changing in turn, sea-water may be forced through them propelling the boat. If the ancients (the nagas - those who were intelligent enough to listen to the Mahayana Lotus Sutra) had known enough of electricity and magnetism, King Duttabaung's boat may not be fiction after all. -- UKT110511

In any case, Hindu religious texts describe these tribes as having a profound influence on Hindu culture, but remaining separate from said culture, perhaps due to their geographic isolation from the rest of the world. The texts describe the tribes' bases as ranging from high mountains (such as the Yaksas and Rakshasas) to deep forests (such as the Vanaras), or they were civilizations beyond the mainstream Indian civilization (as with the Devas and Asuras) which prevailed in the plains of Saraswati, Sindhu and Ganges.

Gandharva

Gandharvas are described as fierce warriors who could challenge even the great Kshatriya warriors. They were also skilled in art, music and dance. Some Gandharva tribes were allied with the Devas and sometimes with Yakshas. They inhabited the land to the north of Kailasa, close to the Deva territories. Later they might have spread to the Saraswati river (seen by Balarama during his pilgrimage over Saraswati). The Ramayana mentions a Gandharva kingdom named Sailusha near the mouth of the river Ganges.

Yaksa

The Yaksas were a tribe living in the area surrounding the Kailasa range of the Himalayas. Their king, Vaisravana or Kuvera, was a worshipper of Siva whose abode is thought to be Kailasa.

According to Ramayan Kubera established or rebuilt the kingdom of Lanka (now known as Srilanka) and inhabited with Yaksa people. Later on Kuber's step brother Ravana (they had same father Vaishravas) took over Sri Lanka, upon their father's request Kuber moved to the region near Kailasa mountain in Himalayas.

Kinnara

The Kinnaras are a tribe often spoken of along with the Gandharvas and Yakshas. The epic Mahabharata and the Puranas describe, regions north to Himalayas as the abode of Kinnaras. Puranas mention about an Asura with a horse head, who was known as Hayagrīva (which in Sanskrit means the horse headed one; Haya = horse and grīva = Neck) This Asura was killed by an incarnation of Lord Vishnu, who took the similar form of a horse headed human figure. In Egyptian sculptures also we see horse headed figures or warriors employing an elongated face mask, which resemble the head of a horse.

This region was also the abode of a tribe of people called Kambojas. They were fierce warriors skilled in horse ride and horse warfare. Some of them were robber tribes who invaded village settlements, by raiding them using their skilled cavalry forces. The myth of Kinnaras probably came from these ferocious warrior tribes, who terrorized the Vedic settlements.

There is now a district named Kinnaur in Himachal Pradesh which is thought to be the domain of the Kinnara tribes. People of this district call themselves as Kinnaurs.

Kimpurusha

Kimpurushas were described to be lion faced beings. They were often mentioned along with the Kinnaras and the other exotic tribes. Some Puranas consider Kinnaras and Kimpurushas as same while Mahabharata contains passages where Kinnaras and Kimpurushas were considered as two separate groups.

Rakshasa

Rakshasas were described to have large bodies, probably due to their continuous life in cold climates over snow-covered mountains.

There is a highly speculative hypothesis based on the genographic project that many species of humans coexisted, all of them in a culturally evolved state.[1] Rakshasas could be one of these species of humans (like the Neanderthals of Europe and other places in Asia where temperature was very low, like the Himalayan region) reduced to small pockets like the high Himalayas and cool mountains of Srilanka, with their social networks steadily shrinking.

Another view is that Rakshasas were normal humans who followed a certain religious way (Vyam Raksham, Aggression and Protection of spiritual life) as opposed to Yakshas (Vyam Yaksham, enjoyment and pleasure ignore spiritual pursuits) and normal or middle path vedic people or even nagas (snake worshippers). There were several other such religious groups aka Dasas ("service and submission", Divodasa and Sudas are called Aryan emperors and even heroes of Rigveda) whose religious beliefs were different. Many times entire tribes or localities were painted with names.

Ravana was the most famous Rakshasa in Ancient India, who ruled from the Trikuta mountains (Adam's Peak) of Lanka where the climatic conditions were similar to Himalayas. He rose to the status of an emperor who exerted his direct control from Srilanka up to the south of Vindhya ranges in India, and indirectly the kingdoms beyond. Ghatotkacha was a Rakshasa born of the [second] Pandava [brother] Bhima and the Rakshasa woman Hidimba. Rakshasa Ghatotkacha's kingdom was in Himalaya between Gangotri and Kailasa. The forefathers of Ravana also lived here along with the Yakshas. The Yaksha king Vaisravana was the elder brother of Rakshasa king Ravana. Ravana had many sons among Gandharva wives. The two epics Mahabharata and Ramayana and many Puranas attest that Rakshasas, Yakshas and Gandharvas were related and had inter-marriages.

The famous Rakshasa kingdoms in India were

1. Lanka Kingdom, ruled by Rakshasa emperor Ravana

2. Danda Kingdom ruled by Khara, Ravana's general

3. Rakhasa Ghatotkacha's kingdom in the Himalayas

4. Other kingdoms in the Himalayas

Naga

Nagas were a group of people spread throughout India during the period of the epic Mahabharata. The demi-god tribe called Suparnas (in which Garuda belonged) were arch-rivals of the Nagas. The Naga clans in Kerala and Kashmir seems to be the original and indigenous abode of all of them. Places like Thiru-Ananatha-Puram in Kerala and Anantnag in Kashmir attests these to be true.

1. The Great Serpent Ananta was the first among all the Naga kings. Thiru-Anantha-Puram is knows as the adobe of Great Serpent Ananta. References are found as Kerala was mentioned as Patala the Nether world in far ancient history.[2] The Nair clan is known as the descendants of Great Serpent Ananta.

2. The second Naga chief Vasuki had the kingdom near Kailasa (hence the connection of Vasuki with lord Siva).

3. The third chief Takshaka, in Takshasila both not far from Anantnag. Takshashila is named after Taksh, son of Bharat and nephew to Ram. His brother Pushkar founded Pushkalvati modern Peshawar, they were not nagas. Bharat defeated Gandharvas who had killed his uncle and his sons established their rule over Gandharva kingdoms, Gandhara. Takshaka lost his kingdom of Khandava and may have taken Gandhara for Nagas post Mahabharata but finally lost it to Janamjeya.

4. The kingdoms of other Nagas like Karkotaka and Airavata (near Iravati River (Ravi, one among the five rivers of Punjab) were also not far away.

5. The Kingdom of Aryaka was on Ganges. His great-grandchildren included Krishna and Pandavas.

Nagas had kingdoms in Nagaland and Andhra Pradesh. Arjuna's wife Ulupi was from one of such Naga kingdom (in Gangetic Plain) Arjuna's another wife Chitrangada who also was known to Ulupi was from Manipur [shares common border with] located in Northeastern India. There are now many Naga worshiping places in South India, especially in Andhra Pradesh, coastal Karnataka and Kerala.

Naga race was almost exterminated by Janamejaya, the Kuru king in Arjuna's line, who conducted the massacre of Nagas at Takshasila. This massacre was stopped by Astika, a Brahmin whose mother was a Naga (Vasuki's sister Jaratkaru).

Suparna

The Suparnas (also known as Garudas) were probably the Falcon worshipping or falcon rearing tribes who conquered the Naga territories of north west India. They were arch-rivals of the Nagas. Garuda was a famous Suparna. They had the ability to fly in air without using an aircraft. Some literature tells that they had wings like that of Angels. Some believe that they were birds like the hawk or eagle. Some think that they were a race of intelligent Dragons in the family of Dinosaurs, that became extinct during the dawn of human civilizations. Yet another view is that Nagas and Garudas were the two rival factions of the same tribe. Mahabharata also support this view since it describes the two races originating from two mothers who were sisters.

Vanara

Vanaras were a tribe who dwelled within dense forests. During the time of Ramayana, the central part of Indian peninsula was covered by a dense forest by the name Dandaka Forest. Most of the Vanaras lived in this dense forest. Kishkindha was their stronghold, that had sway among the whole of the Vanara tribes spread all over the Indian Subcontinent. It was situated in this forest, located now near the Tungabhadra river in Karnataka state of India. Some literature describes them as monkeys, some as apes.

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