Update: 2011-09-22 03:32 PM +0800


Sanskrit English Dictionary


from: Online Sanskrit Dictionary , February 12, 2003 . http://sanskritdocuments.org/dict/dictall.pdf  090907

Downloaded, set in HTML, and edited by U Kyaw Tun, M.S. (I.P.S.T., U.S.A.), Daw Khin Wutyi, B.Sc., and staff of TIL Computing and Language Centre, Yangon, Myanmar. Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone.

indx-BEPS |Top

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{wag}-consonants - the classifiables : contd

The TOC (Table of Contents) are according to Burmese-Myanmar way of pronunciation of Sanskrit-Devanagari with the full-understanding that it is a very rough pronunciation which ought to be dropped once the reader becomes familiar with the Devanagari script. Please remember, my aim here is to familiarize the Myanmar reader with the Devanagari script using Pali and Sanskrit languages.

{ta.} त ta - ta-073b2-2.htm
  {ta.hta.} - ta1hta1-p074top-6.htm
  {ta.ya.} - ta1ya1-075b2-2.htm
{ta} - ta2-076b1-4.htm
{ti.} ति ti - ti1-077top-5.htm
{tu.} तु - tu1-077b2-2.htm includes {tRi.}
{té}-{tč:} / ते तै - te-078top-3.htm
{tau:}-{tau} / तो तौ - tau-078b3-2.htm
t-medials - t-med-078b3-4.htm :
  Bur-Myan medials (formed with {ya.}, {ra.}, {la.}, {wa.}) are supposed to be easily pronounceable conjuncts, however, in the case of r4 consonants, they are not. They are pronounced as disyllables: with schwa /ə/ in the first.

{da.} द da - da1-080b2-2.htm
  {da.ya.} - da1ya1-081b1-4.htm
  {dar~} - dar-081b2-2.htm
  {da.la.} - da1la1-081b3-3.htm
{da} - da2-082b2-2.htm

{di.} दि - di1-083b2-2.htm
{di} दी - di2-084top-3.htm

{du.} दु du - du1-0842-3.htm
  {dur~} - dur-p085top-2.htm : Theory of BEPS
{du} - du2-p086top.htm includes {dRi}

{dé}-{dč:} / दे दै - de-086b3-3.htm
{dau:}-{dau} / दो दौ - dau-088b1.htm
d-medials - d-med-088b2-5.htm

{Da.} ध - dda1-089b4.htm : to transliterate ध as dh is not appropriate
    because the phoneme is not derived from द d /d/.
  {Dar~} धर् - ddar-090b2-2.htm
{Da} धा - dda2-091top-6.htm
{Di.} धि - ddi1-091b3.htm
  {DRi.} धृ - ddRRi1-092top-6.htm

{na.} न - na1-093top-3.htm
  {na.ya.} नय - na1ya1-094top-2.htm
  {na.la.} नल - na1la1-094b2-5.htm
  {na.sha.} नश - na1sha1-094b3-5.htm
     Includes my notes on my accepting conjunct {ţhya.} as a regular consonant {sha.}
{na} ना - na2-095top-4.htm
  {na-ya.} नाय - na2ya1-096top-2.htm
(ni.} ति - ni1-096b3-2.htm
  {ni.ya.} निय - ni1ya1-098b2-2.htm
  {nir~} निर्  - nir-099b2.htm
  {ni.yya.} निर्य (nirya.) - ni1yya1-100top.htm 
{ni} नी - ni2-101b2-2.htm


UKT notes :
Razakuma inscriptionvocalic R

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- the classifiables : continued

Note: The IPA symbols I have given are the nearest phonemic pronunciation
that I speak and hear and would be different for another person.
   Be careful of the environmental Romabama vowel change due to the killed coda consonant
inserted into a syllable shown in
black in the following examples:
• {ka.ka.} --> {ka
k~ka.} (/a/ -> /ć/ )
• {ka.ma.} --> {kű
m~ma.} (/a/ -> /ʌ/ ) -- UKT 100616

The consonants are divided into two main groups, the {wag}-consonants from {ka.} through {ma.}, and {a.wag}-conjuncts from {ya.} through {ha.}. The {wag}-consonants are the regular consonants that can be cross-grouped as voiceless (vl.), voiced (vd.), and nasals, whereas the {a.wag}-consonants are not easily group-able and are known as the approximants. In the abugida system of writing, the consonants can form innumerable consonants in the form of conjuncts by use of virama (viram). These conjuncts are all pronounceable in Hindi (and Sanskrit), but only some are pronounceable in Burmese (and possibly Pali-Myanmar). Thus, for the Burmese speakers, the medials are those conjuncts that can be pronounced: the rest are simply conjuncts.

The top-right insert shows the most well known early stone inscription found in Myanmar - The Razakuma inscription, 1113 CE. Though the overall appearance is squarish, the basic shape seems to be the circle.

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UKT notes

Razakuma inscription

From Ancient Pagan.com , Stone Inscriptions : http://www.ancientbagan.com/stone-inscriptions.htm 091001

Prince Rajakumara, son of King Kyansittha inscribed this stone inscription in AD 1113. Although he missed the chance of succeeding to the throne because King Kyansittha had chosen the grandson Alaungsithu as his immediate successor, Rajakumara was still loyal to his father. Rajakumara harbored no ill will or grudge against his father. He even showed his filial love and gratitude. This stone inscription was discovered at the foot of Myazedi Pagoda near Myinkaba Village to the south of old Bagan. A similar stone inscription was found in an old building near Myazedi Pagoda. It is now set up at the southeast corner of the precinct of Myazedi Pagoda. Both stone pillars have each four faces on which are inscribed in Pali, Pyu, Mon and Myanmar languages recording the same subject. The Myazedi stone inscription was one of the earliest writings discovered so far in the history of Myanmar literature. The stone pillar measures 55 inches high, 14 inches long and 14 inches broad.

UKT: The following are the texts on four sides of the pillar. Note that language can mean either the speech or the  script. Here by "language", I mean "speech". Thus, Burmese-Myanmar means spoken Burmese written in the Myanmar script, and by Mon-Myanmar I mean spoken Mon written in Myanmar script. What we do not know is the spoken Pyu (unless you take it be similar to Burmese spoken in modern Mindon township). The script in which Pyu was written is supposed to be that shown on one face of the stone, and is shown below. The caption I have given for it is simply "Pyu" without identifying the script to be Myanmar. Please remember, I am not an epigraphist, and I hesitate to commit myself. Now, some of my observations.

• I am a native Burmese-Myanmar, meaning my first language (L1) is Burmese and I write Burmese in Myanmar script. I can read many words on the Burmese panel and thus I am able to identify it as Burmese-Myanmar.
• I do not speak Mon, but still I could identify many Mon words from the script on the third panel. And therefore I am justified in identifying the script as Mon-Myanmar.
• In both Burmese-Myanmar and Mon-Myanmar panels, there are aksharas which could be taken to be {ra.ric}. However, this sign is noticeably absent in the Pali panel. Though the shape of the aksharas are squarish, there are those which can be identified as {ka.}, {ma.}, {ya.}, and {loän:kri:ting}. And therefore, this panel can also be identified as Pali-Myanmar.
• As for Pyu, I and my staff could not identify a single grapheme with Myanmar, and therefore I hesitate to identify the script as Myanmar.

PIX on right: The Myazedi {mra.sé-ti} stone inscription, written 1113 CE, a story about Prince Yazakuma {ra-za.ku.mar} . Source: unknown. The charcoal rubbings white on black has been color-inversed for better reading.

The insert on the right is from an unidentified source (meaning my record has been lost). If you are a Burmese-Myanmar, try to identify some words in the inscription on the right with the help of U Tun Aung Chain's text given below.
   Since the text contains the word {ra.za.ku.mar} in many places, try to identify it in the inscription. Have fun!

The following is an excerpt from U Tun Aung Chain, Rajakumar Inscription http://www.myanmar.gov.mm/Perspective/persp2001/9-2001/raj.htm 091005

Myanmar Text (A 39 lines, B 34, lines)
Prosperity! Honour to the Buddha! One thousand six hundred and twenty-eight years of the Buddha's religion having elapsed, Sri Tribhuvanadityádhammaráj become king in this city of Arimaddanapur . A beloved wife of that king was named Trilokavatamsakádevě, and that beloved wife's son was named Rájakumár. That king gave the beloved wife three villages of slaves. That beloved wife having died, the king gave her ornaments and the three villages of slaves to her son named Rájakumár. At the time that that king having reigned twenty-eight years, became sick even unto death that son of the beloved wife, who was named Rájakumár, calling to mind the favours of the great king who had nurtured him, made an image of the Buddha all in gold. At the time he offered (it) he spoke thus: "I, your slave, made this golden Buddha for my lord; the three villages of slaves which my lord gave me, I gave to this golden Buddha." At that time the king, being  delighted, said: "Good, Good!" and, in the presence of the great monk Mahather, the great monk Muggaliputtatissatther, the great monk Sumedha the learned, the great monk Brahmapal, the great monk Brahmadiv, the great monk Son and the great monk Sanghasena the very learned, the king poured water. That being done, that son of the beloved wife who was named Rájakumár enshrined that golden Buddha, and made this cave-pagoda with a golden spire. Having finished (it), at the time he dedicated this cave-pagoda and Buddha, he brought up (the folk of) Sakmunalon, one village, Rapáy, one village, Henbuiw, one village, these three villages of slaves. That son of the beloved wife, who was named Rájakumár, poured water for this cave-pagoda and Buddha, and thus said: "Let this deed of mine be the cause of my obtaining Omniscience! After me, (whosoever) whether (he be) my son, or grandson, or relative, or any other person, if he oppresses the slaves I have offered to this Buddha, may he not behold the Buddha Arimittiyá!"

Go back Razakuma-note-b

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vocalic R (German) : pronounced as vowel

From: Paul Joyce, German Course, Univ. of Portsmouth. http://userweb.port.ac.uk/~joyce1/abinitio/pronounce/consonr3.html 100102

The German vocalic 'r' is so-called because it is pronounced as a vowel, not a consonant. Sometimes referred to as a 'dark schwa', vocalic 'r' is articulated with the tongue slightly lower and further back in the vowel area than the 'schwa' sound heard at the end of such German words as 'Liebe', 'Katze' and 'Ratte'.

Vocalic 'r' can only be used in certain specific situations which are outlined below. Its most common usage is in unstressed "-er" syllables at the end of German words.

Sounds 1: Vocalic 'r' in final position: 83.mp3 <))
Bruder <brother> ; Schwester <sister>; Mutter <mother>; Vater <father>

The vocalic 'r' is also used in the final position in a word when the 'r'  follows a long vowel. Listen to the following six words, all of which end with a vocalic 'r' after a long vowel.

Sounds 2: Vocalic 'r' after a long vowel: 82.mp3 <))
¤ Tor <gate; goal> ; Uhr <clock> ;
¤ mehr <more> ; vier <four> ;
¤ Bier <beer> ; Chor <chorus>

Vocalic 'r' is also heard when the letter 'r' follows a long vowel but precedes another consonant. Listen to the following four words in which vocalic 'r' occurs before a following consonant.

Sounds 3: Vocalic 'r' after long vowel + before another consonant: 81.mp3 <))
¤ Pferd <horse> ; Herd <cooker> ;
¤ spürte <felt> ; führte <led>

You will also hear vocalic 'r' in the unstressed German prefixes er-, ver-, zer- and her-. Listen to the vocalic 'r' in four words containing these prefixes.

Sounds 4: Vocalic 'r' in unstressed prefixes: 84.mp3 <))
¤ erlauben <to allow> ; vergessen <to forget> ;
¤ zertören <to destroy) ; hereinkommen <to come in>

Distinguishing between vocalic 'r' and consonantal 'r' 

In the following pairs of words, the first word contains a vocalic 'r' in final position. The second word in each pair however contains a consonantal 'r'. Listen and note the distinction between the sounds that are made in each pair of words.

Sounds 5: Vocalic 'r' or consonantal 'r' ? : jünger.wav <))
¤ jünger <younger> ; die jüngere <the younger one>
¤ Meer <sea> ; Meere <seas>
¤ clever <clever> ; der clevere <the clever one>

Finally, listen to these words in which vocalic 'r' and consonantal 'r' occur within the same word. Note in particular how adding an '-in' suffix can change the articulation of what was previously a vocalic 'r' sound.

Sounds 6: Vocalic and consonantal 'r' within the same word: bruder.wav<))
¤ Frankfurter (Frankfurter sausage) ; Bruder <brother>
¤ Lehrer (male teacher) ; Lehrerin (female teacher)
¤ Reporter (male reporter) ; Reporterin (female reporter)

Go back vocalic-R-note-b

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