Update: 2011-09-22 07:59 PM +0800


Sanskrit English Dictionary


from: Online Sanskrit Dictionary , February 12, 2003 . http://sanskritdocuments.org/dict/dictall.pdf  090907

Downloaded, set in HTML, and edited by U Kyaw Tun, M.S. (I.P.S.T., U.S.A.), Daw Khin Wutyi, B.Sc., and staff of TIL Computing and Language Centre, Yangon, Myanmar. Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone.

indx-BEPS |Top

Contents of this page  

The Consonants
{wag}-consonants - the classifiables
  row2 {sa.}-group

The fricatives such as kS-219top2.htm , hk-med-058b3.htm are best studied together.

UKT notes :

The TOC (Table of Contents) are according to Bur-Myan way of pronunciation of Skt-Dev with the full-understanding that it is a very rough pronunciation which ought to be dropped once the reader becomes familiar with the Devanagari script. Please remember, my aim here is to familiarize the Myanmar reader with the Devanagari script using Pali and Sanskrit languages.

Some of the information given in "Introduction" given below on this file has been moved into a separate file: SED-intro.htm.

Contents of this page

- the classifiables : row 2

Row 2 {sa.}-group

CAVEAT: The members of this group are articulated in the palatal area, and are known as the palatals. Their POA in Bur-Myan and in Pal-Myan is described as the {ta-lu.za.Htn}. They are: च ca , छ cha, ज ja, झ jha, ञ a in Sanskrit and in Hindi. The second member in Hin-Dev (Hindi-Devanagari) and in Skt-Dev, छ cha, has the sound of English affricate /ʧ/ as <ch> in <church>. The corresponding members in Bur-Myan and in Pal-Myan are: {sa.}, {hsa.}, {za.}, {Za.}, {a.}. [ {a.} is the horizontal conjunct of two {a.}.].
   You must remember that in both Hin-Skt-Dev and Bur-Pal-Myan akshara matrixes, the modes of articulation of the classifiables aka {wag}-consonants are: tenuis, voiceless (vl), voiced (vd), vd-pharyngeal, and nasal. However, the IPA has only: voiceless, voiced and nasal. The missing two are supposed to be aspirates of the preceding.
   As a concrete example, in Eng-Lat, the first members, the tenuis, are pronounced as the second members -- the ordinary voiceless (vl). Thus, r2c1 {sa.} is pronounced as r2c2 {hsa.}. The English word <sin> 'grave mistake' is pronounced as {hsin:} /sʰɪn/ 'to descend' and not as {sin:} /sɪn/ 'to chop'. My American friends always tell me that the two sounds {sin:} /sɪn/ and {hsin:} /sʰɪn/ are the same except that the first is without aspiration, and that the second is aspirated. To the Bur-Myan {sa.} and {hsa.} are clearly distinguishable and are not allophones. - UKT 110823

The palatal consonants in the onset of the syllable are usually pronounced by Burmese and English speakers as fricatives. It is even said that there is no palatal /c/ in English. However, it is possible that palatal /c/ can occur in the coda position in words such as <success> /sək'ses/, where /k/ is actually /c/. See my discussion on Antimoon forum - www.antimoon.com/forum/t9999.htm (posted on 080309)

{sa.} (palatal) च /sa/ - sa1-064b1-2.htm
  {sa.Ta.} चट - sa1Ta1-064b3-2.htm
  {sa.ya.} चय - sa1ya1-065b2.htm : includes {sar-}
  {si.} चि /si/ - si-066b2-2.htm
  {su.} चु /su/ - su-067b3-2.htm

{hsa.} छ /sʰa/ - hsa-068b1-4.htm

{za.} ज /za/ - za1-069top.htm
  {za} जा - za2-070b4-2.htm
  {zi.} जि /zi/ - zi1-071b3-2.htm
  {zi} जी /ziː/ - zi2-072b1-2.htm
  {zya.} - zya-072b4-2.htm
  z-conjuncts - zny-conj-220b2-2.htm [In the downloaded pdf files this portion comes only after {ha.}. ]

Contents of this page

UKT notes

Contents of this page

End of TIL file